Learninsta presents the core concepts of Microbiology with high-quality research papers and topical review articles.

Routes of Entry

To establish an infection, pathogen must first enter the host. Normal defense mechanisms and barriers (For example Skin, mucus, ciliated epithelium, lysozyme) make it difficult for the pathogen to enter the body.

Sometimes these barriers are break through for example cut in the skin, wound, tumor, ulcer which provides portal of entry for the bacteria. Some bacterial pathogens have the means to overcome the barriers through various virulence factors and invade the body.

Certain bacteria are infective when introduced through optimal route. The various route of entry of pathogens, which are cut or abrasion or wound (skin), Ingestion, Inhalation, arthropod bite, sexual transmission and congenital transmission.

These are already explained in the XI Standard text book. The various bacterial pathogens, its pathogenesis clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, control, prophylaxis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are discussed below.

The way a substance is able to enter the body such as ingestion (mouth), inhalation (lungs) or absorption (cintact).

There are four major routes by which a chemical may enter the body:

  • Inhalation (breathing).
  • Skin (or eye) contact.
  • Swallowing (ingestion or eating).
  • Injection.