Here we are providing 1 Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

One Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives

Question 1.
When and who started permanent settlement of land?
It was started by Lojrji Cornwallis in 1793 A.D.

Question 2.
How much of the Zamindaries changed lands after the introduction of permanent settlement of land?
Around 75% of the total Zamindaries.

Question 3.
Why did Zamindars default on payments?
Because of high revenue demand and accumulation of unpaid balance.

Question 4.
What was sunset law?
If payment was not paid before the sunset of the fixed date, land will be confiscated.

Question 5.
Who were the most powerful in North Bengal?
The Jotedars were the most powerful in North Bengal.

Question 6.
When was the fifth report submitted to the British Parliament? .
In 1813 A.D.

Question 7.
Where did Francis Buchanan travel?
Buchanan travelled through the Rajmahal hills.

Question 8.
What work did Paharias do?
They were hunters, shifting cultivaters, food gatherors, charcoal producers, silkworm rearers etc.

Question 9.
Why did the British encouraged clearing of forests?
Because they wanted to bring more land under cultivation to get more taxes.

Question 10.
What was Damin-i-Koh?
This was a land demarcated for Santhals in 1832.

Question 11.
Who were called Dikus?
Moneylenders were called Dikus.

Question 12.
Who was David Ricardo?
He was an Economist who gave certain ideas to the British government about land rent.

Question 13.
When was Cotton Supply Association founded?
In 1857 A.D.

Question 14.
What was the objefetive of Cotton Supply Association?
To encourage cotton production in every part of the world.

Question 15.
Why were the estates of the Zamindars auctioned in the colonial Bengal ?
Why were many Zamindars .auctioned after the permanent sattlement in Bengal ? Give two reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
(i) Sometimes the big Zamindars were unable to pay the revenue. The amount of unpaid revenue went on accumulating year after year.
(ii) So the government often auctioned the estates of those Zamindars who failed to pay the due revenue.

Question 16.
When was the Fifth Report submitted to the British Parliament ? What was its objective ?
The Fifth Report was submitted to the British Parliament in 1813. It was about the administration and activities of the East India Company in India and proved helpful in regulating and controlling their rule.

Question 17.
What was Sunset Law of revenue ?
According to Permanent Settlement of Land, it was necessary for the Zamindars to pay the revenue punctually. But according to Sunset Law, if any Zamindar was unable to pay the revenue by sunset of the specified date, then the Zamindari was bound to be auctioned by the government to recover the dues.

Question 18.
Why the Jotedars were more powerful in villages than that of the Zamindars ? Give two reasons.
(i) The Zamindars lived in urban areas and Jotedars were located in villages with poor villagers. They had direct control over large section of villagers.
(ii) Jotedars were often amongst the purchasers in case of auction of the Zamindaris.

Question 19.
Why ryots (peasants) remained loyal to the former zamindar instead of the new Zamindars ? Give two reasons.
(i) The ryots considered themselves bound to the former Zamindar through a sense of loyalty and saw the former Zamindar as a figure of authority.
(ii) The sale of Zamindari disturbed their pride and their sense of identity.

Question 20.
Which two factors helped the Zamindars to consolidate their power in the beginning of 19th century ?
(i) In the beginning of the 19th century, the depression in prices remained no more and prices of agriculture produce became high.
(ii) Government made rules of revenue payments flexible which helped the Zamindars to consolidate their power.

Question 21.
When Cotton Supply Association and the Manchester Cotton Company were founded in Britain? What was their objective ?
Cotton Supply Association in Britain, was founded in 1857 and Manchester Cotton Company was formed in 1859. Their objective was to encourage production of cotton in every part of the world so that their Company could grow.

Question 22.
Tell any two drawbacks of the RyotWari system of revenue introduced in the Bombay Deccan in 1920.
(i) At many places, the amount of revenue was very high. Therefore, many peasants deserted their villages and migrated to new regions.
(ii) Many areas had poor soil and fluctuating rainfall. When the rains failed, the peasants had bad crop due to which they found it impossible to pay the revenue.

Question 23.
India was seen as a country that could supply cotton to Lancashire if the American supply dried up. Why was it so ?
The land of India was suitable for the cultivation of cotton.

Question 24.
Examine the impact of limitation law passed by the British in 1859 ? (CBSE 2018)
This law was meant to chack the accumulation of interest one time and three years validity of the bonds sighed between money lenders and reyots. Consequently the money lenders manipulated and forced the people to sign the deeds after 3 years.