Here we are providing 1 Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement: Civil Disobedience and Beyond are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

One Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 13 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement: Civil Disobedience and Beyond

Question 1.
When and from where Mahatma Gandhi came back to India?
Mahatma Gandhi came back to India from South Africa in 1915 A.D.

Question 2.
When was Swadeshi movement started in India and who started it?
During 1905-1907 by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal.

Question 3.
Who was the political mentor of Mahatma Gandhi?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Question 4.
Where was Mahatma Gandhi’s first public apperance when he came back from South Africa?
At the opening of the Banaras Hindu University in Feb. 1916.

Question 5.
Which three movements Gandhi started before joining active politics ?
Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad.

Question 6.
Which Satyagraha Gandhi announced after the passing of Rowlatt Act?
Rawlatt Satyagraha.

Question 7.
When was Non-Cooperation started?
In January 1921.

Question 8.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi withdraw Non-Cooperation movement?
Due to violence occurred at Chauri Chaura in U.P.

Question 9.
When and why was Mahatma Gandhi arrested after the withdrawal of NonCooperation movement?
In March 1922 on the charges of Sedition.

Question 10.
Which symbols Mahatma Gandhi used during the freedom struggle?
Dhoti and Charkha.

Question 11.
When and where was the revolution of Poorna Swaraj adopted?
At Lahore session of Congress in 1929 A.D.

Question 12.
When was Dandi March started?
On 12th March 1930.

Question 13.
When was Quit India movement launched?
In August 1942 A.D.

Question 14.
Distinguish between the policies of moderates and Assertive Nationalists.
The moderates were peace-loving who preferred a gradual and persuasive approach towards the British. On the other hand, the assertive nationalists advocated strong opposition to the British Rule in India and wanted to oust the foreign rule by all means.

Question 15.
On what two things did the Satyagraha emphasise ?
(i) Belief in the power of truth.
(ii) Search for truth and non-violent protest.

Question 16.
At which three places Gandhiji initiated his Satyagraha after his return from South Africa ? When were these movements launched ?
(i) In Champaran region of Bihar (1916)
(ii) In Kheda District of Gujarat (1917)
(iii) In Ahmedabad of Gujarat (1918).

Question 17.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to adopt the policy of Non-Cooperation against the British in India ?
Gandhiji believed that the British rule in India depended on the cooperation of the local people. He felt that the foreign rule still existed due to the cooperation of a few natives. Mahatma Gandhi launched the policy of Non-Cooperation so that he may end the foreign rule and introduce self-rule.

Question 18.
When and where was the Policy of Non-Cooperation approved ?
The Indian National Congress approved the programme of Non-Cooperation in 1920 at its Nagpur Session.

Question 19.
Name any two moderate leaders. How were they associated with Gandhiji ?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammad Ali Jinnah were two prominent moderate leaders. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the acknowledged political mentor of Gandhiji and Mohammad Ali Jinnah and was a lawyer, like Gandhiji, in Gujarat.

Question 20.
Which events marked out Gandhiji as a nationalist and a true national leader ?
(i) His initiatives at Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda marked him out as a nationalist who had great sympathy for poor.
(ii) Rowlatt Satyagraha made him a true national leader.

Question 21.
Write the importance of NonCooperation movement from two aspects.
(i) This movement was a training for self-rule.
(ii) For the first time, since 1857, the foundation of British rule was shaken.

Question 22.
When and where was ‘Poorna Swaraj’ formally proclaimed ?
The demand for Poorna Swaraj was formally proclaimed by Indian National Congress at its Lahore Session in December, 1929. This session was presided over by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 23.
What important decision was taken about ‘Poorna Swaraj’ in the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress held in December, 1929?
In the session of the Indian National Congress held in December, 1929 at Lahore, it was decided to celebrate 26 January, 1930 as the Independence Day. On that day, all the people were to take an oath for complete independence of the country.

Question 24.
With which motive had Gandhiji started his Sabarmati Ashram ?
Gandhiji established his Sabarmati Ashram in 1916. He wanted to teach his pupils the path of truth and non-violence. He also taught them to behave in a truthful and non-violent manner and practised his ideology of truth and non-violence in this Ashram.

Question 25.
Why and when did the Simon Commission come to India ?
The Simon Commission visited India in 1928 to enquire about the conditions prevailed in India.

Question 26.
Why was the Simon Commission opposed ?
The Simon Commission was opposed as it had all members from the white community and had no member from India which was quite insulting to the Indians. So, all the people of India opposed the Simon Commission.

Question 27.
What steps were taken by the government to control Civil Disobedience Movement ?
(i) The government put all the important leaders behind the bars. They included Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajinder Prasad and Subhash Chander Bose.
(ii) The Indian National Congress was declared as an illegal organisation.

Question 28.
What do you mean by Movement for Praja Mandals ?
Mahatma Gandhi wanted to broaden the basis of nationalism in India. So Indian National Congress started a series of Praja Mandals. It promoted the nationalist movement in the princely states and led nationalism to the farthest corners of the country.

Question 29.
When did the communal politics start ?
The communal politics started in 1906 C.E. when the Muslim League was established. The British adopted the policy of Divide and Rule to increase the hatred between the Hindus and the Muslims.

Question 30.
Name any four leaders who associated themselves with Gandhiji between 1917 and 1922.
(i) Sarojini Naidu
(ii) Vallabh Bhai Patel
(iii) Jawaharlal Nehru
(iv) Subhash Chandra Bose

Question 31.
What was the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the Second World War ?
The Indian National Congress was critical of both Hitler and the Nazis. So it decided to help the British Government during the Second World War on the condition that India would be granted freedom after the end of this war. When the British government refused this demand, all the Congress ministers resigned.

Question 32.
What did Gandhiji seek to obtain for the security of the peasants of Champaran in 1917 ? (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Gandhiji went on a fast to provide security to peasants of Champaran in 1917. As a result peasants got freedom to grow crops of their choice.

Question 33.
Why was Salt March notable ? Mention two reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
Salt March was notable because of the given below reasons:
(i) It was this event that first brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention. March was widely covered by the European and American press.
(ii) It was the first nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers.

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