Here we are providing 1 Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 3 Kinship, Caste and Class: Early Societies are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

One Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 3 Kinship, Caste and Class: Early Societies

Question 1.
Under whose leadership the process of preparing critical edition of Mahabharata started?
Under the leadership of V.S. Sakhankar.

Question 2.
How many years did it take to complete the critical edition of Mahabharata?
47 years.

Question 3.
What is Kinfolk?
Larger network of families is called Kinjolk.

Question 4.
Which system of lineage was followed by most of the ruling dynasties?
They followed the system of patriliny.

Question 5.
Who did not have any claim to the resources of the household?
Daughters did not have any such claim.

Question 6.
When was Manusmriti compiled?
Manusmriti was complied between C. 200 BCE and 200 C.E.

Question 7.
How many forms of marriage were recognised in Dharmasutras and Dharmashastras?
Eight forms of marriage.

Question 8.
On what basis Brahmanas were classified from 100 BCE onwards ?
They were classified on the basis of their gotras.

Question 9.
Where did Satavahanas rule?
Satavahanas ruled over parts of western India and the Deccan.

Question 10.
What is polygynous?
When a male marries with more than one female, it is called polygynous.

Question 11.
Through which side the Satavahana rullers were identified?
They were identified through metronymics or through mother side.

Question 12.
From where did Shakas Came?
Shakas came from Central Asia.

Question 13.
Who were regarded as Mlechchhas?
Shakas were regarded as Mlechchhas.

Question 14.
Where did the duties of the Chandalas lay down?
The Manusmriti laid down the duties of the Chandalas.

Question 15.
Which Chines monk come to India during fifth century CE?
Fa Xian.

Question 16.
With whom is the central story of Mahabharata associated ?
The central story of Mahabharata is about two sets of warring cousins. This text also contains sections laying down norms of behaviour for different social groups. The principal characters, occasionally, seem to follow these norms.

Question 17.
Why and among whom, the war of Mahabharata was fought ? What was its result ?
The war of Mahabharata was fought between Kauravas and Pandavas. It was fought to acquire land and authority. Both the parties were related to the Kuru clan. The war was won by the Pandavas.

Question 18.
Distinguish between Patriliny and Matriliny.
Patriliny means to trace descent from father to son, grandson and so on. On the other hand, matriliny means to trace the descent through the mother.

Question 19.
What were Dharmasutras and Dharmashastras ?
Brahmanas layed down codes of social behaviour in great detail. They were supposed to be followed by Brahmanas in particular and by rest of society in general. From 50 BCE, these norms were compiled in Sanskrit texts which were known as Dharmasutras and Dharmashastras.

Question 20.
What were the two most important rules about the gotrak ? Mention two rules about gotra, particularly of women, according to Brahmanical practice after 1000 B.C.E. I I (C.B.S.E. 2009 (O.D.))
Mention the two rules about classification of people in terms of gotra under Brahmanical practice around 1000 BCE onwards. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
(i) After marriage, every woman gave up the gotra of her father and adopted the gotra of her husband.
(ii) Members of the same gotra could not marry.

Question 21.
Who was Gandhari ? What advice had she given to Duryodhna ? What was its impact on Duryodhna ?
Gandhari was the mother of the Kauravas. She had advised her eldest son Duryodhna not to wage a war against the Pandavas. But it had no effect on Duryodhna. He fought against the Pandavas and was defeated.

Question 22.
Who were Gotama and Vashishtha ? Which earlier rulers gotra’s names were taken by their names ? Give examples.
Gotama and Vashishtha were Vedic seers. Gotras of Satvahana kings were taken by their names like :
(i) Raja Gotami-puta Siri-Satakani.
(ii) Raja Vasithi-puta (Sami) Siri Pulumayi.

Question 23.
Where did endogamy prevail in India during 600 B.C.E.—600 C.E. ? What was its importance ?
Endogamy existed in certain South Indiafi communities between 600 BCE—600 CE and it still exists. Such marriages among kinfolk ensured a close knit community.

Question 24.
What does the names of Satavahana rulers indicate towards status of mothers in the society ? Is this thing applicable on succession to the throne ?
How were mothers important under the Satavahana rule ? Give an example to support your answer.(C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
Satavahana rulers were identified through metronymics which means that names were derived from that of the mother. It indicates that mothers had an important place in the society. This thing is not applicable on succession to the throne as it was generally patrilineal.

Question 25.
According to the Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda, how did the four Varnas emerge under the Varna system ?
According to the Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda, the four Varnas emerged from the sacrifice of the Purusha, the primeval man. All the four social categories emanated from his body. His mouth became the Brahmanas and the arms came out to be Kshatriyas. His thighs became the Vaishya and from his feet, the fourth Varna was born.

Question 26.
Who were designated as Chandalas by Brahamanas ? What was their place in society ?
Some people were engaged in occupations like handling corpses and dead animals. These occupations were considered as impure. Those who performed such tasks were designated as Chandalas. They were placed at the very bottom of the hierarchy.

Question 27.
What has been said about the right on paternal property in the Manusmriti ?
How was paternal estate to be I ’ divided after the death of the parents, I according to Manusmriti ? (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
According to the Manusmriti, the paternal property should be equally divided among all the sons after the death of their parents. However the eldest son is entitled to a special share. The women were not allowed to demand any share in this property.

Question 28.
Tell any two evidences to show that the people were linked to matriliny.
(i) Many inscriptions of the powerful Satavahanas have been found. They tell us that many rulers had their lineage from matriliny.
(ii) There is a list of hierarchy of ancestors in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. It contains a list of successive generations of teachers and students. Most of them were designated as metronymics.

Question 29.
What is the Bhagavad Gita ?
The Bhagavad Gita is perhaps the most important didactic section of the Mahabharata. It contains the advice offered by Lord Krishna to Arjuna in the battlefield of Kurukshetra.

Question 30.
Who, according to traditions, is considered as the author of Mahabharata ? From whom did he scribe the epic ?
According to literary traditions, Maharishi Ved Vyasa is considered as the author of Mahabharata. He scribed this epic from the Lord Ganesha.

Question 31.
Mention two ideal occupations of Brahmanas according to Dharmashastras. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
According to Dharmashastras, two ideal occupations of Brahmanas are:
(i) Study and teach the Vedas.
(ii) Perform sacrifices and get sacrifices performed as well as give and receive gifts.

Question 32.
How were the Shakas, who came from Central Asia, regarded by the Brahmanas ? Name their best known ruler and one of his contributions. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
Shakas, who came from Central Asia were regarded as Mlechchhas or the barbarians or outsiders by the Brahmanas. Rudradaman was their best known ruler and one of the major contributions of Rudradaman was that he rebuilt Sudarshana lake.

Question 33.
Mention any two ideal occupations of Kshatriyas according to Dharma-shastras. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
(i) Kshatriyas were expected to engage in warfare, protect people and administer justice.
(ii) They were expected to study the Vedas, get sacrifices performed and give gifts.

Question 34.
Mention two such population which were beyond the four varnas and I) were viewed with suspicion. Give one characteristic of each. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
(i) Forest dwellers for whom hunting and gathering remained an important means of subsistence.
(ii) Mlechchhas who spoke non-Sanskritic languages.