Here we are providing 1 Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings: Cultural Developments are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
One Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 4 Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings: Cultural Developments
Name the Begum of Bhopal who provided manely for the preservation of Sachi Stupa?
Shahjehan Begum and her successor Sultan Jahan Begum.
Which thinkers emerged in the world during the mid-first millennium BCE ?
Zarathustra in Iran, Kong Zi in China, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in Greece and Mahavira and Gautam Budha in India.
When was Rigveda compiled?
Between C. 1500 and 1000 BCE.
What is Rigveda consist of ?
Rigveda consists of hymns in praise of many deities such as Indra and Soma.
Who performed rajasuya and ashvamedha sacrifices?
They were performed by Chiefs and Kings with the help of Brahmins.
What is meant by Kutagarashala?
A hut with a pointed roof.
Who questioned the authority of the Vedas ?
Mahavira and the Buddha questioned the authority of the Vedas.
Who started Jainism?
Rishabdev was first Tirthankar and Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankar of Jainism.
Name the religious texts of Jainism.
Angas are the religious texts of Jainism.
Where did Buddhism spread?
India, China, Korea, Japan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thiland and Indonesia.
What was the name given to Buddha at the time of his birth?
Who was called the Enlightened one?
Gautama Buddha was called the Enlightened one.
What is world according to the Buddhist philosophy?
The world is transient and constantly changing.
What was Sangha?
Sangha was an organisation of monks of Buddhism who became teachers of Dhamma.
What names were given to males and females who entered Sanghas?
Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis.
Except Sanchi, where was another stupa of Buddhism?
Which sources are used by the historians to reconstruct the exciting world of ideas and believes from 600 B.C.E. up to 600 C.E. ?
(i) Buddhist, Jaina and Brahmanical texts.
(ii) Large and impressive body of material remains including monuments and inscriptions.
Where is the stupa of Sanchi situated ? Explain any one of its feature.
The Sanchi stupa is a wonderful ancient building in the state of Bhopal. It is situated in a village named Sanchi Kanakhera. This village is on the top of a hill. In fact, the stupa is nearly twenty miles north-east of Bhopal and looks like a crown.
What was the daily routine of the Buddhist monks ?
(i) The Buddhist monks led a simple life.
(ii) They depended on offerings and alms. They kept only a bowl with them to accept food.
Why did Siddhartha adopt the path of Sanyas or renunciation ?
Having seen an old man, a sick man and a dead man, Siddhartha (Buddha) realised that this world was a home of sorrows and sufferings. He realised that decay and destruction of the human body was inevitable. However, he felt relieved when he saw a homeless mendicant. He decided that he would also adopt the same path. So, he left his palace and set out in search of truth and enlightenment.
How was the internal functioning of the Buddhist sangha ?
Mention the internal functioning of the Buddhist sanghas. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
The internal functioning of the Buddhist sangha was based on the traditions of ganas and sanghas. According to this, consensus was arrived at through mutual discussions. If they were unable to reach consensus then decisions were taken by a vote on the subject.
In the primitive times, what places were considered sacred by the people ? Give three points.
From the earliest times, people regarded those places as sacred that had the following features:
(i) The sites with special trees.
(ii) The sites with unique rocks.
(iii) The sites having awe-inspiring beauty.
What are stupas ?
The stupas are the sacred mounds associated with Buddha. It is a Sanskrit word, which means a heap. It is a simple semi-circular mound of Earth. Later on, it was called anda.
Name any two features of the stupa at Amaravati.
(i) The stupa at Amaravati was the largest and the most magnificent stupa of the Buddhists.
(ii) It had high gateways and beautiful statues.
What is meant by Hagiography ?
Hagiography is a biography of a saint or religious leader. It generally praises the saint’s achievement and may not always be literally accurate. They are important because they tell us about the beliefs of the follwers of that particular tradition.
What type of thinking did archaeologist H.H. Cole had about shifting of ancient monuments ?
Cole was totally against taking away of ancient monuments. He considered this loot as suicidal. He was of the view that museums should have plaster- caste facsimiles of the sculpture whereas the originals should remain at their actual place.
When was the stupa of Sanchi discovered ? What was the condtion of its gateways at that time ?
Stupa of Sanchi was discovered in 1818 C.E. It had four gateways. Three of these gateways were in good condition but the fourth gateway was lying scattered at its actual place.
What differences of opinions were there among the historians regarding the sculpture of a woman surrounded by the lotuses and the elephants found at Sanchi ?
Some historians believed that this is the figure of Maya, the mother of Buddha, while some identify her with a popular goddess, Gaja Lakshmi. Gaja Lakshmi was the goddess of good fortune who is associated with elephants.
Define garbhagriha and Shikhar.
Garbhagriha : It was an early temple (small square room) where the image of deity was kept. Worshippers entered from its single doorway to offer worship to the image.
Shikhar: A tall structure built over the central shrine was known as Shikhar.
What were Upanishads ? Which ideas were found in them to show that people were curious ?
Upanishads were texts of deep ideas associated with life, death and almighty. They tell us that people were curious about the meaning of life, the possibility of life after death and rebirth. They also wanted to know what is the relation between rebirth and past actions.
How Buddha’s and Mahavira’s ideas about trials and tribulations of worldly existence were in contrast from that of Brahmanical ideas ?
According to Brahmanism, an individual’s existence was determined by his or her birth in a specific caste or gender. His trials and tribulations were associated with it. On contrary to it, Buddha and Mahavira suggested that men and women themselves should try to attain liberation from trials and tribulations of worldly existence.
Who were Tirthankaras ?
According to Jaina traditions, there were twenty three other teachers, before Mahavira, which were known as Tirthankaras. It literally means those who guide individuals across the river of existence.
How did Buddha attain true enlightenment ?
Buddha left pleasures of life at a young age in search of true enlightenment. He wandered about for years and kept discussing with different thinkers. In the end he himself decided to find his way. He meditated for several days under a Banyan tree at Bodh Gaya. In the end, he attained enlightenment and came to be known as the Buddha.
Who was Vardhman Mahavira ? How was he enlightened ?
Vardhman Mahavira was the most important teacher of Jainism. He was a Kshatriya prince. He was related to Licchavi clan of Vajji sangha. He left his home at the age of 30, started to live in forests and meditated for 12 years. Then, he got enlightened.
What do you mean by the concept of Trideva’s or three deities in Hinduism ?
The meaning of Trideva in Hinduism is by three dieties out of which the first one is the creator, the second one is sustainer and the third one is the destroyer. These three are the natural rules of the whole universe. Brahma is the creator of the universe, Vishnu takes care of it and Mahesha is the destoyer of evil.
Why European scholars considered the images of the Buddha and Bodhisattas as the best examples of Indian art of sculptures ?
Buddha and Bodhisatta images were very much similar to Greek images. European scholars were very much familiar with Greek traditions which is why they considered these images as the best example of the Indian art of sculpture.
Why Buddhism became popular ?
(i) Buddhism was a simple religion which had no place for superstitions and other rituals.
(ii) Buddhism was propagated in Prakrit language used by common masses.
(iii) Many kings became patrons of Buddhism.
(iv) Buddhist Bhikkhus were individuals with great character.
Who were Ajivikas ?
Ajivikas were the supporters of materialism. They started fatalism in Buddhism and were given financial help by Ashoka the Great.
Mention how, according to Jainism, one can free himself from the cycle of Karma. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
According to Jainism, the cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through Karma. If one is to escape this cycle of Karma, one must practise asceticism and penance. It is only possible if one renounces the world. So, one has to live in a monastry to attain salvation.
Mention any four social groups from which the followers of Buddha came. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
(ii) Wealthy men
(iv) Humbler folk: workers, slaves, crafts people.
Mention the contents of Jatakas. What do they depict? (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
Jatakas contain several animal stories. These were used as symbols of human attributes. Actually, Jatakas are the stories of earlier birth (Boddhitsava) of Mahatma Buddha.
Mention any two ways through which the Gandatindu Jatakas describe the political relations between the King and his subjects. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (D))
(i) The story indicates that the relations between the King and his subjects could often be strained due to demand of high taxes from them.
(ii) Escaping into the forest by the subjects remained an option as reflected in the Tataka story.