An Overview of Natural Resource Management

Sustainable management of natural resources is a difficult task. We need to accept that people will act with their own best interests as the priority. But the realization that such selfish goals will lead to misery for a large number of people and a total destruction of our environment is slowly growing. We need to tai¬lor our requirements, individually and collectively, so that the benefits of development reach everyone now and for all generations to come.

Example 1.
How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of
(A) forests and wildlife,
Contribution towards management of forests and wildlife

  • The forest products should be used judiciously.
  • Poaching and hunting of wild animals for their skin, horn etc should be banned.
  • Afforestation should be practiced more and more
  • Management of forests should be handed over to the local people.

(B) water resources
Contribution towards management of water resources.

  • Water pollution should be reduced by stopping dumping of industrial wastes in water bodies.
  • Use of fertilizers and pesticides should be minimized as they contaminate water bodies and soil.
  • Traditional methods of water harvesting should be revived and rainwater harvesting should be made compulsory in housing societies, schools, offices etc.

(C) coal and petroleum?
Contribution towards management of coal and petroleum

  • Alternate renewable sources of energy should be developed that minimize environmental pollution.
  • Use of fuels that produce less pollution such as CNG and LPG should be promoted.
  • Use of energy-efficient devices and habits should be encouraged.

An Overview of Natural Resource Management Definitions, Equations and Examples

Example 2.
Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment friendly? [NCERT]
Following changes are suggested to make school environment friendly:

  1. Waste materials such as foils, used papers, empty packets should be first segregated and then disposed in separate bins.
  2. Use of non-biodegradable materials should be refused.
  3. Solar panels should be installed on rooftops to save electricity.
  4. Rainwater harvesting should be done so that groundwater is recharged.
  5. The 5R’s namely, Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Re¬purpose and Recycle should be practised.

Example 3.
Case Based:
Find out about the international norms to regulate the emission of carbon dioxide. Have a discussion in class about how we can contribute towards meeting those norms.
There are a number of organisations that seek to spread awareness about our environment and promote activities and attitudes that lead to the conservation of our environment and natural resources. Find out about the organisation(s) active in your neighbourhood/village/town/city.
(A) Which of the following greenhouses gas is present in very large quantities?
(a) Ozone
(b) Methane
(c) Carbon dioxide
(d) Propane
(c) Carbon dioxide

Explanation: The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the highest among the greenhouse gases due to rampant burning of fossil fuels for heating and generation of electricity.

(B) Select the incorrect statement from the statements given below:
(a) Increased emission of greenhouse gases is a natural process.
(b) Life on earth is possible due to presence of greenhouse gases.
(c) Greenhouse effect is a natural process that maintains earth’s temperature.
(d) More is the emission of greenhouse gases, more is the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere.
(a) Increased emission of greenhouse gases is a natural process.

Explanation: The greenhouse effect is a natural process that warms the Earth’s surface.

When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, some of it is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) The absorbed energy warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth. This process maintains the Earth’s temperature at around 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would otherwise be, allowing life on Earth to exist.

The problem we now face is that human activities – particularly burning fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas), agriculture and land clearing – are increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This is the enhanced greenhouse effect, which is contributing to warming of the Earth.

(C) Which of the following are the causes of increased emission of carbon dioxide in India?
(I) burning of coal for power generation
(II) Increased vegetation cover during mon-soon.
(III) Burning of agricultural wastes
(IV) Burning of fossil fuels for transportation
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) (I), (II) and (IV)
(d) (I), (III) and (IV)
(d) (I), (III) and (IV)

Explanation: The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is very high in India due to the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas for meeting our energy requirements. Also, burning of agricultural wastes or stubble is another factor contributing to increased level of CO2 gas. However, during monsoon, the vegetation cover increases which increases the rate of photosynthesis and hence level of CO2 is low during this period.

(D) Which one of the following cannot be a goal or an international norm to regulate the emission of carbon dioxide:
(a) To limit and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in accordance with agreed individual targets.
(b) To monitor actual emission of greenhouse gases.
(c) To invest in technological development in the developing countries.
(d) To assist countries in adapting to the ad-verse effects of climate change.
(c) To invest in technological development in the developing countries.

Explanation: The Kyoto Protocol is an inter-national treaty which extends the 1992 Unit¬ed Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-made C02 emissions are driving it. Although it has scope of assisting countries in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change, it does not have scope for investing in technological development in the developing countries.

(E) One of the ways individuals can contribute towards conservation of environment and natural resources is:
(a) Recycling, reusing, and composting
(b) Making better transport choices
(c) Reducing your electricity usage
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above

An Overview of Natural Resource Management Definitions, Equations and Examples

Example 4.
Make a list of forest produce that you use. What do you think a person living near a forest would use? What do you think a person living in a forest would use? Discuss with your classmates how these needs differ or do not differ and the reasons for the same. Find out about any two forest produces that are the basis for an industry. Discuss whether this industry is sustainable in the long run. Or do we need to control our consumption of these products?
(A) Which of the following are not products derived directly or indirectly from forest produce used by most urban people?
(a) Paper
(b) Natural gas
(c) Timber
(d) Dyes
(b) Natural gas

Explanation: Forests give us a lot of useful products such as paper, timber, dyes, medicines, fruits, spices, dyes and oils. Natural gas on the other hand is a fossil fuel formed from the plants, animals, and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago.

(B) The table below lists the various stakeholders in forests. Select the row containing incorrect information:

Stakeholders Justification
(a) People who live in or around forests Dependent on forest produce for various aspects of their life
(b) Forest Department of the Government Owns land and controls the resources from forests
(c) Industrialists Dependent on forests in any one area as they use various forest produce
(d) wild life and nature enthusiasts Want to conserve nature in its pristine form

(c) Stakeholders: Industrialist; Justification;
Dependent on forests in any one area as they use various forest products.

Explanation: Industrialists use various forest produce as raw materials or for business, but are not dependent on the forests in any one area.

(C) Which of the following forest produce are used by the persons living in a forest?
(I) Firewood and small timber
(II) Bamboo
(III) Various agricultural implements made of iron and steel
(IV) Fruits, nuts and medicines
(a) Both (I) and (II)
(b) Both (II) and (IV)
(c) (II), (III) and (IV)
(d) (I), (II) and (IV)
(d) (I). (II) and (IV)

Explanation: The local people are dependent directly on forests as they need large quantities of firewood, small timber and thatch. Bamboo is used to make slats for huts, and baskets for collecting and storing food materials. Implements for agriculture, fishing and hunting are largely made of wood. Forests are sites for fishing and hunting. In addition to people gathering fruits, nuts and medicines from the forests, their cattle also graze in forest areas or feed on other fodder which is collected from forests.

(D) For which of the following needs are people living near forests dependent on forests?
(a) Fodder, fruit and agricultural implements
(b) Fuel, fodder and monoculture
(c) Fuel, fodder and cultivation
(d) Minerals, fodder and fuel
(a) Fodder, fruit and agricultural implements

Explanation: People living near forests are dependent on forests for fodder for their cattle, fruits and nuts, agricultural implements as they are made largely of wood and bamboo to make slats for their huts.

(E) We should conserve forests because:
(a) Forest provide us with oxygen and they cause rainfall.
(b) Forest prevents soil erosion.
(c) Various forest products are used as raw materials in industries.
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above

Explanation: Conservation of forests is the need of the four as forests provide us with oxygen, they prevent soil erosion, various industries are dependent upon forests for their raw materials and medicines.

Class 10 Science Notes