NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Online Education for NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Online Education for Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 6


Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. Paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore and aluminum from bauxite. Some types of clothes are manufactured from yarn which is an industrial product.

People employed in the secondary activities manufacture and process the primary materials into finished goods. This sector includes workers employed in steel factories, cars, breweries, textile industries, bakeries etc.

The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries. The manufacturing sector is the backbone of country’s development because:

  • Manufacturing industries modernise agriculture and reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income since it provides jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from India. This became the underlying philosophy of public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It also helps in reducing the regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  • Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and helps bring in foreign exchange.
  • Manufacturing products from raw materials brings prosperity to a country. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries quickly.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Frequently Asked:
Agriculture and industry move hand in hand and are inclusive of each other. Agro-industries in India raise the productivity of agriculture. Agro-Industries depend upon agriculture for raw materials and also sell their finished products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.

The development and competitiveness of the manufacturing industry has helped agriculturists in increasing their production, also making the production processes very efficient.

Our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive apart from being self sufficient. To compete with international markets, goods manufactured by our industries must be of equal standards to those produced in international markets.

Contribution Of Industry To National Economy

In the recent past, the manufacturing factor has stagnated at 17 percent of GDP – out of a total of 27 per cent for the industry which includes 10 percent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.

In some East Asian economies, this figure is 25-35 percent. Growth rate in manufacturing over the Last decade has been around 7 percent per annum as opposed to the desired growth rate for the next decade is 12 percent.

Since 2003, the manufacturing sector has been growing at the rate of 9-10 percent per annum. With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve this growth by next decade.

The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up to improve the productivity of the manufacturing sector.

Industrial Location

Industrial locations are complex in nature and influenced by the availability of raw material labour, capital, power and market. etc. Alt factors are hardly found at every Location. Manufacturing activity is generally located cit places where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost. Urbanisation foLLows industrial activity. Industries are located either close to or in cities.

Industrialization and urbanisation go hand in hand. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, Labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Example 1.
Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
Raw Material, power and proximity to the markets

Frequently Asked:

  • Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centers known as agglomeration economies. This is how a large industrial agglomeration takes place.
  • Before Independence, most manufacturing units were located in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc. for their closeness to the sea. There emerged certain pockets of industrially developed urban centres surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.
  • The key to the decision of the factory location is the least cost. Government policies and specialized labour also influence the location of industry.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Pdf Download Classification Of Industries

Industries may be classified as follows:
1. On the basis of source of raw materials used:

  • Agro Based Industries: Cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
  • Mineral Based Industries: Iron and steel, cement, aluminum, machine tools, petrochemicals.

2. On the basis of their main role:

  • Basic or Key Industries: Supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. Iron and Steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
  • Consumer Industries: Produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.

3. On the basis of capital investment:

  • Small Scale Industry: Maximum investment allowed on the assets of a small scaLe industry unit is 1 crore. This limit keeps changing over a period of time.
  • Medium Scale Industry: When the overall investment is more than Rs. 5 crores, and also less than Rs. 10 crores.
  • Large Scale Industry: When the overall investment is more than Rs. 10 crores.

4. On the basis of ownership:

  • Public Sector: Owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL, etc.
  • Private Sector: Owned and operated by an individual or a group -TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
  • Joint Sector: These industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sector.
  • Cooperative Sector: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The pool in the resources and share the profits or Losses proportionately. For example, sugar industry in Maharashtra, coir industry in Kerala.

5. Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:

  • Heavy Industries: Heavy raw materials used are Iron and Steel.
  • Light Industries: Light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Example 2.
Classify the following into two groups on the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
(i) Oil
(ii) Knitting needles
(iii) Brassware
(iv) Fuse wires
(v) Watches
(vi) Sewing Machines
(vii) Shipbuilding
(viii) Electric Bulbs
(ix) Paintbrushes
(x) Automobiles

  1. Light Industries: Knitting needles, fuse wire, watches, electric bulbs, paintbrushes.
  2. Heavy Industries: Oil, brassware, sewing. machine, shipbuilding, automobiles.

Agro-Based Industries
Cotton, jute, silk, woolen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials.

Textile Industry:
The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy. It contributes significantly to industrial production (14 percent), employment generation (about 35% people are employed- second largest employer after agriculture) and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6 percent). It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP.

Frequently Asked:
The textile industry is the only industry in the country that is self-reliant and complete in the value chain. The process is a complete chain from raw material to the highest value-added products.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Pdf Notes Example 3.
Why is it important for us to keep the mill sector looming lower than the power loom and handloom.
It is important to keep the mill/sector loomage lower than power Loom and handloom because:

  • Many artisans and weavers work independently along with their families on handloom and powerlooms. This supports their families.
  • This is the only source of income for many poor families. If mill production was increased, the sales of these artisans and weavers will be affected.
  • Increase in miLl production will lead largely to rural unemployment and decline in standard of living.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Pdf Cotton Textiles:

  1. In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
    Power-Looms came into use after the 18th century.
  2. Competition with the mill-made cloth from England led to destruction of native industries.
    Spinning is still centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu but weaving is highly decentralised to help incorporate traditional skills and designs of weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, etc.
  3. India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of faoric. Indian weavers do not use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
  4. Weaving is done by handloom, power loom and in mills.
  5. Handspun khadi provides employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Important:
The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

When the two world wars were fought in Europe, India was a British colony. There was a demand for cloth in UX. hence, they gave a boost to the development of the cotton textile industry.

British introduced cotton textile industries in India for their selfish purposes in the 19th century. By 2011, 1946 cotton and human-made fibre textile mills have been established in the country.

80 per cent of the mills have been established in the private sector and the remaining 20% in public and cooperative sectors. There are several thousand small factories with four to ten looms.

Earlier, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton-growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The factors that contributed towards their localisation are availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. This industry provides employment to farmers, cotton boll pLuckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. The industry supports industries like chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works and creates great demands.

It is important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than power loom and handLoom.

Class 10 Manufacturing Industries Notes Frequently Asked:

  • India exports yarn to Japan, the U.S.A., the UX, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries are other importers.
  • India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world, with 43.13 million spindles (2011-12) after China. The spinning sector has received attention since the 1980s.
  • Indian produce accounts for one fourth of the total world trade of cotton yarn. We only contribute 4% in the world trade of textiles. Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fibres we produce.
  • Weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country. Most production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.
  • This is a drawback for the industry. Consequently, many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufacturers have to import fabric.

Notes Of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Challenges: Major challenges are:

  • Despite an increase in the production of good quality long-staple cotton (356 lakh bales of 170 kgs annually 2011-12), the need of importing materials is felt frequently.
  • The power supply is erratic.
  • Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors.
  • Low output of Labour.
  • Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber industry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Geography Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes Jute Textiles:
India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. It is the second-largest exporter of jute goods after Bangladesh. By 2010-11, there were 80 jute mills in India. The majority mills are located in West Bengal.


  • The first jute milt was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra.
  • After partition of 1947, three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan) while Jute mills remained in India.

The following factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin are:

  • The proximity of the jute-producing areas.
  • Inexpensive water transport.
  • Good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills.
  • Abundant water for processing raw jute, cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.

Class 10 Geography Manufacturing Industries Notes Frequently Asked:
Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.
The Jute industry supported 3.7 lakh workers and 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers engaged in cultivation ofjute in 2010-11.

Challenges: Challenges faced by the industry include:

  • Stiff competition from various synthetic substitutes and competitors Like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt, and Thailand.
  • Internal demand has increased owing to the government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
  • Products need to be diversified to stimulate demand.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Cbse Notes Pdf Important:
In 2005, the National Jute Policy was formulated to increase productivity, improve quality, ensure good prices to the jute farmers and enhance the yield per hectare.

U.S.A., Canada, Russia, Saudi Arabia, U.K. and Australia are the main markets ofJute. Jute is an eco-friendly package material and is proposed to replace plastic as a measure to save the environment.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Download Sugar Industry:
India is the second Largest sugar producer in the world. It however occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. Raw material of the sugar industry is bulky and in haulage, its sucrose content reduces. In 2010-11, over 662 sugar mills were spread in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.


  • 60% of the sugar mills are found in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Sugar industry is seasonal in nature and hence ideally suited to the cooperative sector.

Frequently Asked:

  • There is a recent tendency for sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states of India, especially in Maharashtra.
  • This is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content.
  • The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
  • Another plus point is that cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Challenges: Major challenges are:

  • Seasonal nature of the industry.
  • Old and inefficient methods of production.
  • Transport delay in reaching cane to factories.
  • The need to maximise the use of bagasse.

Notes Of Geography Class 10 Chapter 6 Mineral Based Industries:
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

Iron and Steel Industry:
The Iron and Steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries – heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Notes Of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Pdf Frequently Asked:
The production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.

Iron ore, coking coal and limestone are required in the ratio of approximately 4:2:1. Some quantity of manganese is also required to harden the steel.

Finished products need an efficient transport network for their distribution to the markets and consumers. Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).

Chapter 6 Geography Class 10 Notes Example 4.
Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(a) HAIL
(b) SAIL
(c) TATA Steel
(d) MNCC
(b) SAIL

Frequently Asked:

  • In 2010-11, India ranked 4th among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron.
  • In 2010-11, per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 49 kg per annum against the world average of 182 kg.

Class 10 Chapter 6 Geography Notes Important:

  • Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of various specifications.
  • An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
  • In the 1950s, China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel. Today, China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of steel. In 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel accounting for 2.25 per cent of the global steel trade.
  • Chottanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.

This region possesses special advantages for quick development of this industry.

  1. Low cost of iron ore
  2. High grade raw materials in proximity
  3. Cheap labour
  4. Vast growth potential in the home market

Challenges: India is not able to perform to its full potential in the production of Iron and Steel because:

  1. High costs and limited availability of coking coal
  2. Lower productivity of labour
  3. Irregular supply of energy
  4. Poor infrastructure.

India imports good quality steel from other countries. The overall production of steel is sufficient to meet our domestic demand. Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has boosted the industry through the efforts of private entrepreneurs. More allocation of resources for research and development is required to produce steel more competitively.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Geography Chapter 6 Class 10 Notes Example 5.
Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computers, etc.
(a) Steel
(b) Electronics
(c) Aluminium
(d) Information Technology
(a) Steel

Aluminum Smelting:
Aluminum smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. The metal aluminum is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed like an alloy with other metals. Aluminum is useful to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.


  • Aluminum has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
  • Aluminum smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. India has produced over 15.29 lakh million tonnes of aluminum in 2008-2009.
  • Bauxite used as a raw material in the smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock. Regular supply of electricity and fixed and reliable source of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for location of the industry.

Example 6.
Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Jute
(d) Steel
(a) Aluminium

Chemical Industries:
The chemical industry is growing and diversifying quickly in India. It contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP. Indian chemical industry is the third-largest in Asia and the twelfth largest in the world in terms of size. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.

Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. They are found widely spread over in the world.

Organic chemicals include petrochemicals for manufacture of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.

Frequently Asked:
The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
Basic chemicals undergo processing and produce chemicals used for industrial application, agriculture or directly for consumer markets.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Fertiliser Industry:
The fertiliser industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilisers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). Potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.

India is the third-largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers. There are 57 fertiliser units which manufacture nitrogenous and complex nitrogenous fertilisers, 29 of which manufacture urea and 9 for producing ammonium sulphate as a byproduct. 68 small units produce single superphosphate.


  • There are 10 public sector undertakings and one in cooperative sector at Hazira in Gujarat under the Fertiliser Corporation of India.
  • The industry has expanded to other parts of the country post Green Revolution.
  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half the fertiliser production. Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka contribute the other half

Cement Industry:
Cement is useful in activities like building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and other commercial establishments. Raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum are required by this industry. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.


  • The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat with suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
  • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
  • The cement industry expanded after Independence. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 coupled with other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology and production. There are 128 large plants and 332 mini cement plants in the country. India produces a variety of cement.

East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia have welcomed the new improved quality of cement apart from a large demand within the country. This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export. Efforts to boost domestic demand and supply in order to sustain this industry are being pondered upon.

Example 7.
Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Sugar
(d) Jute
(b) Cement

Automobile Industry:
Automobiles like trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres. After the liberalisation, advancement in form of contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which in turn led to growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three wheelers.

Automobile industry has grown exponentially in the last 15 years. Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments. The industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry:
This industry covers transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipment required by the telecommunication industry. Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.

By 2010-11, the Software Technology Parks of India have come up across 46 locations at different centres of India. The industry is majorly concentrated in Bangalore, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune. One of the most positive points about this industry is its employment generation. 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women. The growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector has brought a lot of foreign exchange reserves in the past couple years.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

The continuing growth in the hardware and software sector is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

Industries might be positive for India’s economic growth and development, but they are detrimental for the environment. They increase the pollution of land, water, air, noise. One cannot overlook the degradation industries have caused to the environment. The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.

Frequently Asked:
Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:

  1. Air
  2. Water
  3. Land
  4. Noise

Air Pollution:

  • The presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases like sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide causes air pollution.
  • Airborne particulate materials include solid and liquid particles like dust, spray mists and smoke.
  • Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms.
  • Toxic gas leaks have severe long-term effects. Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as well.

Water Pollution:

  • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and the effluents discharged into rivers.
  • Paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out into water bodies dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc.
  • Fly ash, phospho-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.

Thermal Pollution:

  • Thermal pollution of water is when the hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
  • Soil and water pollution are caused by the same effluents.
  • Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless.
  • Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.

Noise pollution:

  • Noise pollution causes irritation and anger, hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure along with other physiological effects.
  • Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.
  • Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills cause noise.

Control of Environmental Degradation

Every Litre of wastewater discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of fresh water.
To reduce industrial water pollution, the following steps can be taken:

  • minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
  • harvesting rainwater to meet water requirements.
  • treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

Industrial effluents can be treated in three phases:

  • Primary treatment by mechanical means- this involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation,
  • Secondary treatment by biological process.
  • Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
  • This involves recycling of wastewater.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Example 8.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry where there is a threat to groundwater resources also needs to be regulated Legally. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smokestacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories. Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers. Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones. The challenge of sustainable development requires the integration of economic development with environmental concerns.
(A) Which of the following types of pollution is caused by generators?
(a) Water pollution
(b) Air Pollution
(c) Noise Pollution
(d) Land Pollution
(c) Noise Pollution

(B) Which of the following devices can be used in a way to reduce smoke?
(a) Silencers
(b) Rainwater Harvesting
(c) Smoke Stacks
(d) Earplugs and Earphones
(c) Smoke Stacks
Explanation: Smokestacks can be used in a way to reduce smoke.

(C) Define sustainable development.
Sustainable development can be defined as an approach to the economic development of a country without compromising the quality of the environment for future generations.

(D) Assertion (A): Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
Reason (R): Oil and Gas are sources of clean energy. Burning these do not emit smoke.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).


  • NTPC is a major power-providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001.
  • The NTPC works for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants.

This has been possible through:

  • Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
  • Maximum ash utilisation: This can help in less waste generation.
  • Provision of green belts: This nurtures ecological balance and addresses the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
  • Reduction of environmental pollution: Ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management helps reduce pollution and environmental degradation.
  • Ecological monitoring: This reviews and online database management for all its power stations.

Following are the steps for conserving the environment:

  1. Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry should be regulated.
  2. Smoke stacks should be fit in the factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators to reduce particulate matter in the air.
  3. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of conventional forms of energy in factories.
  4. Machinery, equipment and generators should be fitted with silencers.
  5. Machinery should be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
  6. In addition to using earplugs, noise-absorbing materials can be built-in constructing infrastructure.
    The challenge of sustainable development requires the integration of economic development with environmental concerns.

→ Agglomeration: The act of amassing/assembling various parts.

→ Coir: Coarse fiber from the outer husk of coconut.

→ Haulage: Commercial transport of goods.

→ Khandsari: A term in hindi for cooked sugar.

→ Pig iron: Crude iron obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

→ Cryolite: A mineral consisting of a fluoride of sodium and aluminum.

→ NTPC: Major power providing corporation of India.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

→ Green Revolution: A movement with great increase in production of food grains due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, began in the mid 20th century.

→ Quarry: Deep pits from which stone or other materials are extracted.

→ 1854: First Textile Mill was established in Mumbai. 1859: First Jute Mill was established at Rishra.

→ 1904: Cement Plant was established in Chennai.

→ 2004: India became the largest producer of Crude steel. 2005: National Jute policy was implemented.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Check the below NCERT MCQ Questions for NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties Pdf free download.

Political Parties Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 6

The Need For Political Parties

Political parties can be considered as one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. Common citizens look at them as synonyms of democracy. They are even more popular than the concept of democracy and the Indian Constitution in areas with less literacy. They are also considered as the representatives of democracy in the remotest parts of the nations.

However, they also invite a lot of criticism. Most people tend to be very critical of political parties. Political parties are blamed for the inefficient functioning of democracy and political life. Parties are identified with social and political divisions today. This raises a huge question about their relevance, efficiency and significance.

Political Parties Class 10 Notes Frequently Asked:
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They have similar visions, policies and programmes for the development and welfare of the society and the country collectively.

Different parties have different ideas, goals and visions regarding the development of the country and society. To attain power to rule the nation, parties try to persuade people to agree with their ideologies and support them by voting. Popular support makes them victorious in the elections. This however means that parties reflect fundamental political divisions in society. Political parties involve division and partisanship. A party is recognised by the policies it supports, the sections of societies it identifies with and the interests it upholds.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Frequently Asked:
A political party has three components:

  1. the leaders,
  2. the active members and
  3. the followers

Political Parties Class 10 Notes Pdf Download Functions of a Political Party:
Political parties are very necessary because of the following reasons.
Political parties fill political offices and exercise political power by performing these functions:
1. Parties contest elections. They nominate their candidates who then fight for popular support.

2. Parties put forward different policies and programmes. The voters support the party they identify with the most.

3. Despite the fact that democracy gives recognition and attached significance to each opinion, a large number of similar opinions have to be grouped together to provide a general vision and aspiration based on which governments have to run the nation and formulate policies. A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a comprehensive vision and goal. The ruling party decides the course on which the country moves for the duration they are in power.

4. Parties play a decisive role in formulation of laws for a country. Laws might be debated and passed in the legislature. Most of the members belong to a political party, they go by the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions about the laws being formulated.

5. Parties form and run governments. Big policy decisions are taken by political executives which is also a product of political parties.

6. Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

7. Parties which lose in the elections play the role of opposition to ruling parties. They give a contradicting yet important perspective to the government’s ideology by voicing different views and criticising the government (ruling party) for its failures or wrong policies. Opposition parties also mobilise opposition to the government.

8. Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight important events, ideas, approaches and issues which plague the functioning and development of the country. Parties have members and activists spread all over the country.

9. Most pressure groups are the extensions of political parties across different sections of society. Parties launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by various sections of the society. Opinions of the parties essentially affect the opinion of the public.

10. Parties facilitate people, the access to government machinery and welfare schemes.

11. Despite the distrust, it is easier for a citizen to approach a party member than an office or Bureaucrat.

12. Parties have to be responsive to people’s needs and demands.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Political Parties Notes Important:
There are different ways of choosing these candidates.

  • In the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidates.
  • In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.

Class 10 Civics Ch 6 Notes Example 1.
Mention the function of the political party the following cases depict.
(A) Activists of BJP Mahila Morcha demonstrate against hike in prices of onions and LPG in Visakhapatnam.
Opposition parties criticise the government (ruling party) for its failures or wrong policies.

(B) Minister distributes Rs. one lakh cheque to the families of hooch victims at their houses.
Parties facilitate people, access to government machinery and welfare schemes.

(C) Activists of CPI (M), CPI, OGP and JD (S) take out a rally in Bhubaneswar to protest against POSCO, the Korean steel company for being permitted by the State Government to export iron ore from Orissa to feed steel plants in China and Korea.
Opposition parties criticise the government (ruling party) for its failures or wrong policies.

Political Party Class 10 Notes Significance of Political Parties:
The necessity of political parties can be understood by imagining a political system without them. If there were no parties, every candidate in the elections would be independent. There would be no aggregation of interest and consensus on one model of development of the society. The government may be formed, but its stability will be questionable.

Elected representatives will only be accountable to their constituency for what they do for development. No one will be responsible for how the country will be run- just like the non-party based elections to the panchayat in many states. Despite the contestants not contesting formally, the village gets split into more than one faction, each of which puts up a ‘panel’ of its candidates.

To prevent this, political parties are found in every political system.
The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. Large societies require representative democracy because there is a requirement of an agency to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government. A mechanism and ways are needed to integrate and gather views on representative governments to support or restrain the government, make policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties fulfill these requirements that every representative the government has.

We can say that parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.

Ch 6 Civics Class 10 Notes Important:

  • Political parties are one of the least trusted institutions all over the world.
  • Vet the level of participation in the activities of political parties was fairly high. The proportion of those who said they were members of some political party was higher in India than many advanced countries like Canada, Japan, Spain and South Korea.
  • Over the last three decades the proportion of those who report to be members of political parties in India has gone up steadily.
  • The proportion of those who say they feel ‘close to a political party’ has also gone up in India in this period.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Example 2.
Consider the following statements on parties.
(A) Political parties do not enjoy much trust among the people.
(B) Parties are often rocked by scandals involving top party leaders.
(C) Parties are not necessary to run governments. Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) (A), (B), and (C)
(b) (A) and (B)
(c) (B) and (C)
(d) (A)and(C)
(b) (A) and (B)

Explanation: Parties are necessary for running the government.

Ch 6 Political Parties Class 10 Notes Example 3.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
He had argued that people’s movements should embrace politics openly. His argument was simple yet powerful. Movements focused on a single issue are suitable as long as we wish to achieve limited changes in a particular aspect of life. But if we wish to bring about a fundamental social transformation, or basic change even in one aspect of life, we would need a political organisation. People’s movements must establish a new political formation to act as a moral force in politics. This was an urgent task, he said, because all the existing political parties had become irrelevant for social transformation.

“But Kishenji never clarified what that organisation will be. He talked of an alternative political formation or a third force in politics. But did he mean a political party?’’ said Gracy. She felt that an old style political party was not the right instrument for social change. Sudha agreed with her. “I have thought about it several times. I agree that all the struggles that we are involved with – the struggle against displacement, against globalisation, against caste and gender oppression and for an alternative kind of development – all this is political. But the moment we form a party, all the goodwill we have earned all these years will be lost.

People will think of us as no different from other politicians.” “Besides”, added Karuna, “we have seen that a lot can be achieved by putting pressure on the existing political parties. We tried putting up candidates in panchayat elections, but the results were not very encouraging. People respect our work, they even adore us, but when it comes to voting they go for the established political parties.” Shaheen did not agree with them: “Let us be very clear. Kishenji wanted all the people’s movements to forge a new political party. Of course he wanted this party to be a different kind of a party. He was not for political alternatives, but for an alternative kind of politics.”

Civics Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes

(A) Why are single-issue movements not effective?
(a) Single issue movements only help achieve single benefits.
(b) Single issue movements end quickly.
(c) Single issue movements do not attract a lot of supporters.
(d) Single issue movements cannot be used for bigger reformation or change in society.
(d) Single issue movements cannot be used for bigger reformation or change in the society.

Explanation: Single issue based movements do not highlight greater or more fundamental issues in the system and cannot be used to cure these infirmities.

Notes Of Political Parties Class 10

(B) Which of the following issues have been highlighted by Karuna?
(a) People do not trust new political parties despite their hard work.
(b) People are focused on the leaders and not political parties.
(c) People do not trust political parties at alL
(d) Political parties cannot bring change in society.
(a) People do not trust new political parties despite their hard work

Explanation: Karuna says that people do not trust new political parties. They trust the established ones.

Political Parties Class 10 Ncert Notes

(C) Which institution could put pressure upon political parties?
Pressure Groups or Interest Groups

Chapter 6 Civics Class 10 Notes

(D) Assertion (A): To bring about a fundamental social transformation, or basic change even in one aspect of life, we would need a political organisation.
Reason(R): A political organisation is powerful.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: A political organisation is the most visible institution in a democracy and very powerful in terms of popularity among the masses. It can directly control the state and introduce changes and reforms post-winning elections. It can play a direct role in helping society change for the better.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Chapter 6 Political Parties Class 10 Notes Party Systems Across The World

Any citizen can form a party in a democracy. Due to this, there are multiple political parties in each country. More than 750 parties are registered with the Election Commission of India.

Despite the large number, only some parties effectively contest elections.
Not all countries have the same number of political parties. In some, only one party is allowed to control and run the government. These are called one-party systems. For example in China, only the Communist Party is allowed to rule. Even though people are free to form political parties, the electoral system does not permit free competition for power. This is not a democratic approach.

For a functioning democratic system, at least two parties must be allowed to compete in elections. This provides a fair chance for the competing parties to come to power. These are called two-party systems or the Bi-Party systems.
Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the national legislatures. The two main parties have a serious chance of winning a majority of seats to form government. For example, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. Systems where multiple parties exist and where more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others, is called as a Multi-party system. For example, India has a multi-party system.

Notes Of Civics Class 10 Chapter 6 Frequently Asked:
When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or a front When such parties win the elections, they form Coalition governments.

Ncert Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Important:
India had three such major alliances in 2004 parliamentary elections- the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) and the Left Front (LF).

The multiparty system has been criticised to be very messy and politically unstable. This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

Party system evolves over a long period of time and depends on the nature of society, its social and regional divisions, its history of politics and its system of elections. Each country develops a party system moulded by its unique social and economic circumstances. Indian multi-party system evolved to accommodate the Large social and geographical diversity which could not have been absorbed otherwise.

No one system can prove to be ideal for all countries and all situations. It depends on the country’s history, social and cultural structure.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Civics Political Parties Notes Example 4.
Let us apply what we have learnt about party systems to the various states within India. Here are three major types of party systems that exist at the state level. Can you find the names of at least two States for each of these types?
(A) Two-party system
Two-party system: Rajasthan and Gujarat

(B) Multiparty system with two alliances
A multiparty system with two alliances: Kerala and Maharashtra

(C) Multiparty system
Multiparty system: Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

National Parties

Democracies with federal systems have two types of parties—parties that participate in only one of the federal units and parties that are present in few or all units of the federation. India has some pan-India parties, which are called ‘National parties’. These parties have their units in various states. All the units follow almost similar policies, programmes and strategies that are decided at the national level.

Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission.
The Commission offers some special facilities to large and established parties. These parties are given a unique symbol – only the official candidates of that party can use that election symbol. These parties are ‘recognised’ by the Election Commission. They are called recognised political parties.

The Election Commission has laid down detailed criteria of the proportion of votes and seats that a party must get in order to be a recognised party.

  1. A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State party.
  2. A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four States and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognised as a national party.
  3. In 2018, about 7 National Parties were registered with the Election Commission.

All India Trinamool Congress (AITC):

  1. Mamata Banerjee launched the AITC on 1st January 1998 which was recognised as a national party in 2016. The party’s symbol is flowers and grass.
  2. It is committed to secularism and federalism.
  3. It has a strong presence in Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura and has been ruling Bengal since 2011. It received a total of 4.07 per cent votes and won 22 seats, making it the fourth largest party in the Lok Sabha in 2019 General Elections.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP):

  1. Kanshi Ram formulated the party in 1984.
  2. It represents the interests of Bahujan Samaj (the dalits, Adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities) and aims to secure their welfare and development.
  3. It continues to draw inspiration from the teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Periyar Ramaswami Naicker and Babasaheb Ambedkar.
  4. Mainly based in Uttar Pradesh, it has a significant presence in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Delhi and Punjab.
  5. In General Elections 2019, it polled about 3.63 per cent votes and secured 10 seats in the Lok Sabha.

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP):
1. BJP was founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh which in turn was formed by Syama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951.

2. BJP finds its inspiration to resurrect the glory and prominence of India in the world from India’s ancient culture and values; and Deendayal Upadhyaya’s ideas of integral humanism and Antyodaya. Cultural nationalism (or ‘Hindutva’) is one of its most important philosophical thoughts in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics.

3. It advocates for a uniform civil code for all people living in the country irrespective of religion and ban on forced religious conversions. Its support base has multiplied exponentially since the 1990s.

4. The party has expanded its base in the entire country today. It rose to power in 1998 as the leader of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) including several regional parties.

5. It has emerged as the largest party with 303 members in the 2019 Lok Sabha elections. It currently Leads the ruling NDA government at the centre.

Communist Party of India (CPI):

  1. It was formed in 1925. Its approach is heavily inclined towards Marxism-Leninism, secularism and advocates democracy.
  2. It opposes the forces of secessionism and communalism. Despite following Marxism, it has accepted parliamentary democracy as a means of promoting the interests of the working class, farmers and the poor.
  3. It went through a nasty split in the party in 1964 post which CPI(M) was formed.
  4. It shows a significant presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  5. It secured less than 1 per cent votes and 2 seats in the 2019 Lok Sabha elections showcasing its loss of popularity.
  6. It advocates building an alliance involving all left parties as a strong left front.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M):

  1. It was founded in 1964 and has a firm belief in Marxism-Leninism. Like CPI, it supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism.
  2. It has accepted democratic elections as a useful and helpful means for securing the objective of socio-economic justice in India.
  3. It shows a promising presence in West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura, especially among the poor, factory workers, farmers, agricultural labourers and the intelligentsia.
  4. The party is critical of the free market policy and free flow of foreign capital and goods into the country. It ruled West Bengal for 34 years without a break. It won about 1.75 per cent of votes and 3 seats in the 2019 General Elections.

Indian National Congress (INC):
1. It is popularly known as the Congress Party and was founded in 1885. It is one of the oldest parties of the world.

2. It has undergone multiple splits. It has been one of the most dominant players in Indian politics at the national and state level for several decades before and after India’s Independence.

3. The Party aspires to build a modern secular democratic republic in India. The party ruled at the centre till 1977 and then from 1980 to 1989. Post that period, it has lost popularity but continues to maintain a strong presence, cutting across social divisions.

4. Congress in its ideological orientation is centrist. It espouses secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities.

5. The INC supports new economic reforms keeping in mind the welfare of all sections of the society. It led the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government from 2004 to 2019.

Nationalist Congress Party (NCP):

  • It was formed in 1999 following a split in the Congress party.
  • It espouses democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social justice and federalism. It advocates that offices in government be confined to natural-born citizens of the country.
  • It has a major significance in Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Manipur and Assam. It is a coalition partner of Congress in the state of Maharashtra. Since 2004, it has been a member of the United Progressive Alliance.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Example 5.
Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List I

List II

(1) Congress Party Democratic Alliance (A) National
(2) Bharatiya Janata Party (B) State party
(3) Communist Party of India (C) United Progressive (Marxist) Alliance
(4) Telugu Desam Party (D) Left Front

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties 1
(c) CADB
Explanation: Congress Party is the leader of the United Progressive (Marxist) Alliance Bharatiya Janata Party is the leader of the National Democratic Alliance Communist Party of India leads the left front. Telugu Desam Party is a state party.

Example 6.
Who among the following is the founder of the Bahujan Samaj Party?
(a) Kanshi Ram
(b) Sahu Maharaj
(c) B.R. Ambedkar
(d) Jotiba Phule
(a) Kanshi Ram

Example 7.
What is the guiding philosophy of the Bharatiya Janata Party?
(a) Bahujan Samaj
(b) Revolutionary democracy
(c) Integral humanism
(d) Modernity
(c) Integral Humanism

State Parties

State parties are also referred to as regional parties. However, they need not be regional in their ideology or outlook. They can also be all India parties which happen to have succeeded only in some states. Parties like the Samajwadi Party and Rashtriya Janata Dal have national level political organisations with units in several states. Biju Janata Dal, Sikkim Democratic Front, Mizo National Front and Telangana Rashtra Samithi are conscious about their state identity. State Parties have risen in numbers from the past few years
making Indian Parliament representative and more diverse.

No party could achieve an absolute majority between 1990s-2014. To form governments, national parties had to form alliances with state parties. Since 1996, nearly every State party has had an opportunity to be a part of a national level coaLition government.

It strengthens federalism and democracy in our country.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Challenges to Political Parties

Political parties are crucial for the working of democracy. People blame parties for improper functioning of administration and political set up because they are the visible faces of democracy. People express strong dissatisfaction with the failure of political parties to perform their functions well. Popular dissatisfaction in working of political parties has been basically over 4 different problems areas. To maintain their image as an effective instrument of democracy, they have to work upon these infirmities.
1. The first challenge is lack of internal democracy within parties. In most political parties, power tends to concentrate in the hands of the topmost leaders. Proper registers of membership are not maintained and internal elections and organisational meetings are not conducted regularly.

Flow of information within the party is not fluid or regular. Members do not have the means or the
connections needed to influence the decisions. Leaders automatically assume greater power to make decisions on behalf of the party. Due to accumulation of paramount power in the hands of few leaders, dissenters find themselves out of the party, if they try to raise their voices. Personal loyalty to the Leader becomes a significant criterion for continuing the membership of the society.

2. The second challenge of dynastic succession is closely related to the first challenge Ordinary workers find it almost impossible to rise to the top in a party due to the lack of transparency in working or functioning of the party. Leaders favour their families and friends and often appoint them at topmost and important positions in the party. This is unfair to the members without influence- also bad for democracy because inefficient members are appointed without any adequate experience or support at influential positions. Even in the oldest democracy, this challenge can be seen.

3. The growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections is another challenge. Parties tend to use dishonest methods to win elections including nomination of those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. Rich industrialists and companies funding the parties have an undue influence on the policies and decisions of the party. Parties even support criminals who can win elections. This is concerning for advocates of democracy.

4. The fourth challenge is that parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters. Parties must be significantly different in terms of ideology and approaches.
Recent years have seen a steep decline in the ideological differences among parties in most
parts of the world. For example, Labour Party and Conservative Party of Britain are not different ideologically. They differ very minutely only in details on how policies are to be framed and implemented.

In India, the differences among all the main parties on the economic policies have declined. Dissenters do not have many options to choose from. At times, even leaders keep shifting from one party to another, thereby reducing choice among candidates too. Shifting from one party to another is called defection.

The different challenges faced by a political party are different from each other but can prove to be confusing. Students must take extreme care to understand the concept of each challenge welL
The different challenges faced by a political party are not to be confused with challenges faced by a democracy.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Ways to Reform Parties

Political parties require reformation. The leaders who represent political parties are the final decision makers in a democracy. To reform them, the entire party has to agree and decide to reform.

Some recent developments and suggestion for reformation are:
1. The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from frequently changing parties. Defection had become a common practice for political leaders- either in hunger of political influence or cash rewards. If any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she is suspended and their seat in the legislature is lost. This amendment has helped to bring down the cases of defection. On the negative side, it has made dissent against the Leaders even more difficult. MPs and MLAs have to accept whatever the party leaders decide.

2. The Supreme Court passed several orders and laws to reduce the influence of money and criminals making it mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit declaring his assets- details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. This system has made several details regarding the candidate’s public stature. A mechanism to scrutinise this declaration and verify the details is yet to be developed. The trends and consequences of this law have not yet been released.

3. The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns. The implementation has not been rigid though. Thus it is unclear if this has made the situation good or worse.

Example 8.
Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well?
Some other suggestions to reform political parties are:
1. A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.

2. Registration of each member and proper regulation of membership, stringency to follow its own constitution, to have an independent authority and act as judges in case of party disputes, to hold open elections to the highest posts should all be ensured.

3. Reservation of one-third seats in political parties and decision making bodies for women candidates should be ensured.

4. State funding of elections should be ensured. The government should give parties support in cash or kind for their election expenses. Cash could also be given on the basis of votes gained during the elections.

These suggestions have not yet been accepted by political parties. Legal solutions to political problems should be carefully drafted. Over-regulation of political parties can be counterproductive. This could force parties to use the loopholes in these Laws. Political parties might not agree at all to pass such stringent laws.

Some More Ways to Reform Parties
Political parties can also be reformed through:
1. Pressure from the people: People can put pressure on political parties. This can be done through petitions, publicity and agitations.

2. Ordinary citizens, pressure groups and movements and the media can play an important role in this. The fear of losing support from the public can encourage political parties to reform themselves.

3. Political parties can improve if future participants make it a point to reform these parties.
The quality of democracy depends on the degree of public participation. Political participation alone can lead parties on a path of reformation. The problem of bad politics can be solved by better politics.

→ Omnipresent: Present everywhere, widespread.

→ Collective good: Interest of the society, community or a big group.

→ Partisan: Strong supporter of a party, prejudiced against something.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

→ Political Executive: Executive at the head of the government or ministers.

→ Panchayat: Local self-governing bodies at the village.

→ Factions: Groups.

→ Antyodaya: Rise of the last man, development of the most vulnerable.

→ Humanism: A rationalist outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.

→ Secessionism: The policy of those advocating secession.

→ Socialism: A political or economic theory of social organisation which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community.

→ Leftist: Relating to left wing, left wing generally supports socialist tendencies- upliftment of the worker and labour class.

→ Rightist: Relating to right wing, right wing generally supports liberalism, free trade and free economy.

→ Centrist: Relating to central attitude- balance of two wings.

→ Paramount: Ultimate.

→ Dissenters: One who debates and disagrees.

→ Counterproductive: Harmful.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

→ 1885: Indian National Congress was formed

→ 1925: CPI was founded

→ 1951: Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed

→ 1964: Split in CPI, CPI M was formed

→ 1980: BJP was formed

→ 1984: BSP was formed

→ 1998: AITC was formed

→ 1999: Nationalist Congress Party was formed

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Globalisation and the Indian Economy Class 10 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 4

Changing Market Trends

Today, consumers have a wide choice of goods and services before them. Various digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by the leading manufacturers of the world can be bought and used. Citizens of any country can buy anything, produced in any country of the world. This transformation and integration in markets is a recent phenomenon.

Until the middle of the twentieth century, production was largely organised within countries. Only raw material, food stuff and finished products were transported back and forth across countries. Colonies such as India exported raw materials and food stuff and imported finished goods.

Earlier, trade was the main channel connecting distant countries. Today, multinational companies have integrated them further. MNCs have set up offices and factories for production in regions with cheap labour and other resources. This helps MNCs earn more profits. MNCs help to sell and produce the goods and services globally. Production is organised in different ways.

The production process is divided into small parts and spread out across the globe.

  1. China provides the advantage of being a cheap manufacturing location.
  2. Mexico and Eastern Europe are close to markets in the US and Europe.
  3. India has highly skilled engineers to aid the technical aspects of production. It also has educated English-speaking youth to provide customer care services.
  4. This reduces the cost of production for MNCs.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Frequently Asked:
A multinational corporation or MNC is a company that owns or controls production in more than one nation.
MNCs also set up production jointly with local companies in various countries.

It benefits the local companies in following ways:

  • MNCs can provide monay for additional investments.
  • MNCs might bring with them the latest technology for production.

MNCs set up production in areas which are:

  • Close to the markets,
  • Hubs of skilled and unskilled labor available at low costs;
  • Other factors like transportation are easily available.
  • In addition, MNCs often look for government policies to keep their interests up.
  • MNCs set up factories and offices for production.

The money spent to buy assets such as land, building, machines and other equipment is called investment. The investment made by MNCs is called foreign investment. Any investment is made with the hope that these assets will earn profits.

MNCs invest usually by buying up local companies and then to expand production. This expands its reach to different local markets and increases its production capacity. Richest MNCs around the world have more wealth and greater budgets than the governments of some developing country.

MNCs control production by placing orders for production with small producers. Production is carried out by a large number of small producers around the world. Products are then supplied to the MNCs, which sell them under their own brand names to the customers.

MNCs have tremendous power to determine price, quality, delivery, and labour conditions for these distant producers.

MNCs spread their production through interaction with local producers in various countries across the globe.

MNCs thus exert influence on production at these distant locations by:

  1. setting up partnerships with local companies,
  2. using the local companies for supplies,
  3. closely competing with the local companies
  4. buying Local companies

As a result, production in these widely dispersed locations is getting interlinked.

Foreign trade was the main channel connecting countries. Trading interests attracted various trading companies such as the East India Company to India. Foreign trade thus creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond their local and domestic markets.

Producers can also compete in markets located in other countries of the world.

For consumers, the import of goods produced in another country helps expand the choice of goods beyond items produced domestically.

Prices of similar goods in the two markets tend to become competitive and producers in the two countries compete against each other despite being separated by miles. Foreign trade integrates or connects the markets of different countries.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Foreign Trade And Investment

MNCs have been boosting foreign trade for the past few decades. They control a significant portion of foreign trade. Foreign investment by MNCs has been rising. Most activities in MNCs involve substantial trade in goods and services. The result of greater foreign investment and greater foreign trade has been greater integration of production and markets across countries. This process comprises rapid integration or interconnection between countries and is called Globalisation.

MNCs play instrumental roles in Globalisation. Goods and services, investments and technology are flowing between countries on a larger scale. Countries are building closer relationships.

Countries are also connected through movement of people in search of better income, better jobs or better education between them. There has not been an exponential rise in movement between countries due to various restrictions.

Example 1.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Chinese manufacturers learn of an opportunity to export toys to India, where toys are sold at a high price. They start exporting plastic toys to India. Buyers in India now have the option of choosing between Indian and the Chinese toys. Because of the cheaper prices and new designs, Chinese toys become more popular in the Indian markets. Within a year, 70 to 80 per cent of the toy shops have replaced Indian toys with Chinese toys. Toys are now cheaper in the Indian markets than earlier.

Let us see the effect of foreign trade through the example of Chinese toys in the Indian markets. What is happening here? As a result of trade, Chinese toys come into the Indian markets. In the competition between Indian and Chinese toys, Chinese toys prove better. Indian buyers have a greater choice of toys and at lower prices. For the Chinese toy makers, this provides an opportunity to expand business. The opposite is true for Indian toy makers. They face losses, as their toys are selling much less.

(A) Which of the following is not the benefit of Chinese producers exporting toys to India?
(a) It gives Indian consumers a variety of people to choose from.
(b) It makes the products cheaper.
(c) It increases the demand of Indian toys.
(d) It increases the competition between manufacturers.
(c) It increases the demand of Indian toys.

Explanation: Chinese toys reduce the demand of Indian toys. Indian Manufacturers have to face loss.

(B) Mention one way to ensure that Indian manufacturers face no loss when Chinese toys are imported.
Taxes or Trade barriers can be imposed on Chinese Toys.

Explanation: Taxes imposed on Chinese toys will provide both products- Indian and Chinese- a level playground in the markets. The customers will then prefer the products of better quality. This can help the Indian toys.

(C) Fill in the blank by choosing the most appropriate option:
The practice of buying toys from China is called the Chinese toys.
(a) Importing
(b) Manufacturing
(c) Exporting
(d) Trading
(a) Importing

Explanation: When we buy foreign goods, we are importing goods and when we are seLling goods, we are exporting goods.

(D) Assertion (A): Chinese toys to be cheaper than Indian toys.
Reason (R): Low labour wages and low prices of raw materials in China along with the presence of better technology reduces cost of production of Chinese Toys.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Example 2.
Choose the correct option. Globalisation, by connecting countries, shall result in:
(a) lesser competition among producers.
(b) greater competition among producers.
(c) no change in competition among producers.
(b) greater competition among producers.

Factors That Have Enabled Globalisation

Rapid improvement in technology stimulated the globalisation process. Transportation technology has made delivery of goods across long distances faster and cheaper. The developments in information and communication technology has helped in quicker flow of ideas and culture. The internet, telecommunication facilities (telegraph, telephone including mobile phones, fax) facilitated by satellite communication devices have made it easy to communicate, interact even in the remotest areas of the world.

The internet has made it possible for one to obtain and share information. The Internet helps us to send instant electronic mail (e-mail) and talk (voice-mail) across the world at negligible costs.

Information and Communication technology helped spread production of services across countries.

Liberalisation of Foreign Trade and Foreign Investment Policy Tax on imports is an example of a trade barrier. Indian Government used this to protect Indian industries after gaining Independence from foreign competition and continues to use the same today for boosting native enterprises. Governments can use trade barriers to increase or decrease (regulate) foreign trade.

Industries were beginning to establish themselves and the competition from imports at that stage would not have allowed these industries to prosper initially. India allowed imports of only essential items such as machinery, fertilisers, petroleum etc. All countries give or have given protection to domestic producers through a variety of means.

Starting around 1991, Indian government changed their approach because they felt competition would boost these industries and give them greater markets to trade. It would also contribute in terms of quality. Hence barriers were strategically lifted and the Indian market was opened to the world. This meant that goods could be imported and exported easily and also foreign companies could set up factories and offices in India.

Information and communication technology (or IT in short) has played a major rote in spreading out the production of services across countries

Frequently Asked:
Removing barriers or restrictions set by the government is what is known as liberalisation. With liberalisation of trade, businesses are allowed to make decisions freely about what they wish to import or export.

World Trade Organisation

The decision to liberalise Indian trade was supported by various International Organisations. They support open economy and restriction-free trade. They say that all countries in the world should liberalise their policies.

The World Trade Organisation (WTO) aims to liberalise international trade. WTO establishes rules regarding international trade and regulates their implementation.

About 164 countries of the world are members of the WTO. In practice, WTO is dominated by Western developed countries. They have unfairly retained trade barriers. WTO rules have forced the developing countries to remove trade barriers. For example, the trade on the agricultural products is one example.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Impact of Globalisation On India:
Globalisation and greater competition among advantageous to consumers especially those who indgenous and foreign producers has been belong to the urban areas. Consumers are able to enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products. People enjoy higher standards of living today.

However, among producers and workers, the impact of globalisation has not been uniform.
For the past two decades, MNCs have been increasing their investments in India which shows that investing in India has been beneficial for them. They have been interested in fields and industries like mobile phones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks, fast food or services such as banking in urban areas. These products are popular and have numerous customers. Employment has been created. The local companies supplying raw materials have prospered.

Frequently Asked:
The central and state governments have created special zones to attract foreign investment. Industrial zones called Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have been set up.

SEZs are to have world-class facilities:

  1. Electricity and Water
  2. Roads, transport, storage, recreational and educational facilities.
  3. Companies with production units in the SEZs do not have to pay taxes for an initial period of five years.

Example 3.
Match the following:

Column A

Column B

(i) MNCs buy at cheap rates from small producers (a) Automobiles
(ii) Quotas and taxes on imports are used to regulate trade (b) Garments, footwear, sports items
(iii) Indian companies who have invested abroad (c) Call centres
(iv) IT has helped in spreading of production of services (d) Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy
(v) Several MNCs have invested in setting up factories in India for production (e) Trade barriers


Column A

Column B

(i) MNCs buy at cheap rates from small producers (b) Garments, footwear, sports items
(ii) Quotas and taxes on imports are used to regulate trade (e) Trade barriers
(iii) Indian companies who have invested abroad (d) Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy
(iv) IT has helped in spreading of production of services (c) Call centres
(v) Several MNCs have invested in setting up factories in India for production (a) Automobiles

Most successful Indian companies have been able to benefit from the increased competition. They have invested in newer technology and production methods and raised their production standards. They have also gained through their foreign collaborations.

Tata Motors (automobiles), Infosys (IT), Ranbaxy (medicines), Asian Paints (paints), Sundaram Fasteners (nuts and bolts) have been successful enough to emerge as MNCs themselves.

Globalization has created new opportunities for companies providing certain services like IT. Services like data entry, accounting, administrative tasks, engineering are now being produced in India and exported to other countries.
Globalisation has posed major challenges for both small and new producers. Producers and manufacturers of batteries, capacitors, plastics, toys, tyres, dairy products, and vegetable oil have been hit hard due to competition. Various units had to be shut down due rendering workers homeless.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy


  • Small industries in India employ the largest number of workers (20 million) in the country, next only to agriculture.
  • MNCs in the garment industry in Europe and America order their products from Indian exporters. These MNCs look for the cheapest goods in order to maximise their profits. To attract these companies, Indian producers try to cut labour costs. They employ workers on a temporary basis to avoid partying them for the entire year.
  • Workers put in very long working hours and work night shifts regularly. Wages are low and workers are forced to work overtime. Despite this hard work, the workers are denied their fair share of benefits brought about by globalisation.
  • MNCs achieve profits while the workers suffer.

Example 4.
Choose the most appropriate option. The past two decades of globalisation has seen rapid movements in:
(a) goods, services and people between countries.
(b) goods, services and investments between countries.
(c) goods, investments and people between countries.
(b) goods, services and investments between countries.

Example 5.
Choose the most appropriate option. The most common route for investments by MNCs in countries around the world is to:
(a) set up new factories.
(b) buy existing local companies.
(c) form partnerships with local companies.
(b) buy existing local companies.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Example 6.
Choose the most appropriate option: Globalisation has led to improvement in living conditions:
(a) of all the people
(b) of people in the developed countries
(c) of workers in the developing countries
(d) none of the above
(a) of all the people

The conditions of work and the hardships of the workers are common to almost every industry today. Most workers are employed in the unorganised sector. The organised sector have come to resemble the unorganised sector because of the hard conditions. The benefits of the workers are no longer ensured.

Not everyone has benefited from globalisation. People with education, skill and wealth have been able to make the best use of these opportunities.

Fair Globalisation

Globalisation can be made fair. This would create opportunities for all and help share the benefits of the Globalisation evenly. The government can help achieve that by making policies which protect the interests of the rich and poor alike.

The government can ensure various steps to ensure the effects of Globalisations are shared evenly. For example, it can ensure that:

  • Labour laws are properly implemented and the workers get their rights.
  • It can support small producers and help them improve their performance.
  • It can use trade and investment barriers to support native industries.
  • It can negotiate at the WTO for ‘fairer rules’.
  • It can align with other countries to fight against the domination of developed countries in the WTO.

Massive campaigns and representation by people’s organisations have helped alter trade and investments related decisions at the WTO. This shows that people also play an important role in the struggle for fair globalisation.

→ Globalisation: Integration and spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across nations.

→ Liberalisation: Removal of trade barriers.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Notes Globalisation and the Indian Economy

→ Customer Care Services: It is the act of taking care of the customer’s needs by providing and delivering professional, helpful, high quality service and assistance before.

→ Assets: Something that contains an economic value and/or future benefit.

→ Foreign trade: Buying and selling of goods between countries.

→ Export: Selling goods to foreign countries and markets.

→ Import: Buying goods from foreign countries and markets.

→ Telecommunications: It is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

→ Surplus: An extra amount.

→ Consumer: Someone who consumes goods and services.

→ Capacitors: A device used to store an electric charge.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

Money and Credit Class 10 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 3

Money as A Medium of Exchange

The use of money spans a very large part of our everyday life. Goods are bought and sold by using money. Services are availed with money. A person holding money can easily exchange it for any commodity or service. Payments in money are thus most sought after.

When money had not been invented, people employed barter systems to buy and sell their items.
The major problem was about finding a willing buyer or seller. To buy and sell products in turn, both parties have to agree to sell and buy each other’s commodities. This is known as double coincidence of wants. This happens only when a person desires to sell is exactly what the other wishes to buy.

Frequently Asked w In a barter system where goods are directly exchanged without the use of money, double coincidence of wants is an essential feature. In contrast, in an economy where money is used, there is no need for a double coincidence of wants.

Example 1.
How does the use of money make it easier to exchange things?
Money acts as an intermediate in the exchange process and is called a medium of exchange.
Before the introduction of coins, Indians used grains and cattle as money. Other civilisations all across the world also used different objects as a medium of exchange.

With time, metallic coins such as gold, silver, copper coins began to be used as currency. The modern
currency is without any use of its own. It is accepted as a medium of exchange because the currency is authorized by the government of the country.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

Frequently Asked
Modern forms of money include currency – paper notes and coins. Modern currency is not made of precious metals such as gold, silver and copper. They are not everyday objects like grains either.

The Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes on behalf of the central government in India. Indian law does not authorize any other individual or organisation to issue any currency. Indian Constitution and Indian law legalises the use of rupee as a medium of payment that cannot be refused in settling transactions in India.

Digital transactions are the newest forms of currency that are being encouraged and widely used these days. Bank-to-bank transfer through the internet or mobile phones, cheques, ATM cards, Credit Cards and Point of Sale (POS) swipe machines at shops.

Digital transactions are taking over cash in markets because they are hassle free and quick.

No individual in India can legally refuse a payment made in rupees.
In India, during November 2016, currency notes in the denomination ofRs. 500 and Rs. 1,000 were declared invalid. People were asked to surrender these notes to the banks by a specific period and receive new Rs. 500, Rs. 2,000 or other currency notes. This was called ‘demonetisation’.

Deposits With Banks

The other form in which people hold money is deposits with banks. Most people have a surplus amount of currency after they have used up their wages for their monthly expenditure. This extra cash is deposited by them in banks in an account of their name. Banks accept the deposits and also pay an amount as interest on the deposits to the people.

People can withdraw the money from these accounts as and when they require. These deposits are called demand deposits because they can be withdrawn on demand.

Demand deposits can also serve as a medium of exchange instead of cash. It is this facility which lends it the essential characteristics of money.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

Payment is possible through cheques as well. A cheque is a paper instructing the bank to pay a specific amount from the person’s account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.

Demand deposits share the essential features of money making it possible to directly settle payments without the use of cash. They constitute money in the modern economy. Modern currencies are cLosely linked to the working of the modern banking systems.

Banks keep only a small proportion of deposits from people with themselves. Banks in India hold about 15 per cent of their deposits as cash currently as a reserve to pay the depositors who want to withdraw. Banks mediate between depositors and borrowers. Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans than what they offer on deposits. The difference between the two rates is the source of revenue for banks.

Banks use the major portion of the deposits to extend loans for various economic activities.

Credit and Its Implications

Most transactional activities involve credit. Credit refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the promise of future payment.
Credit might play a vital and positive role or a negative and destructive role in lives depending upon its source and terms.

Credit is mainly required for crop production in rural areas which involves considerable costs on seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, water, electricity, repair of equipment etc. Farmers take crop loans at the beginning of the season and repay the loan after harvest because of the time period of 3-4 months between crop sowing and harvesting seasons. Repayment of the loan is crucially dependent on the income from farming. Failure of the crop might delay loan payments for which then a person has to sell his assets or even take another loan to repay. This is an example of debt-trap. The usefulness of credit depends upon the risks in the situation and whether there is some support, in case of loss.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

Terms of Credit

Every loan agreement specifies an interest rate. This rate calculates the interest to be paid back to the lender along with the repayment of the principal. Most lenders demand collateral against loans.

Frequently Asked:
Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (such as land, building, vehicle, livestocks, deposits with banks) and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid.
The lender can sell the collateral to reimburse his loan in case the borrower fails to repay the loan.

Property such as land titles, deposits with banks, livestock are some common examples of collateral.
Interest rate, collateral and documentation requirement, and the mode of repayment together comprise terms of credit. The terms of credit vary substantially from one credit arrangement to another.
Those vary depending upon the lender and the borrower.

The other major source of cheap credit in rural areas are the cooperative societies (or cooperatives). Members of a cooperative pool their resources for cooperation in
certain areas. Some examples of cooperatives are farmers cooperatives, weavers cooperatives, industrial workers cooperatives, etc.

Example 2.
Megha has taken a loan of Rs 5 lakhs from the bank to purchase a house. The annual interest rate on the loan is 12 per cent and the loan is to be repaid in 10 years in monthly instalments. Megha had to submit to the bank documents showing her employment records and salary before the bank agreed to give her the loan. The bank retained as collateral the papers of the new house, which will be returned to Megha only when she repays the entire loan with interest.

Fill in the following details of Megha’s housing loan.
1. Loan amount (in Rupees)
2. Duration of loan
3. Documents required
4. Interest rate
5. Mode of repayment
6. Collateral

  1. Loan amount (in Rupees) 5 Lakhs
  2. Duration of loan-10 years
  3. Documents required- Bank documents showing her employment records and salary.
  4. Interest rate-12%
  5. Mode of repayment- cash and monthly installments
  6. Collateral- Papers of new houses

People obtain loans from various sources like employers, agricultural traders, relatives, banks and local money lenders. These loans can be categorised as formal sector loans and informal sector loans. Among the former are loans from banks and cooperatives. The informal lenders include moneylenders, traders, employers, relatives and friends, etc.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

The Reserve Bank of India plays multiple roles:

  1. The Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans.
  2. The RBI monitors the banks in actually maintaining cash balance for emergency purposes.
  3. The RBI keeps a check on the banks and ensures they give loans to small cultivators, small scale industries, to small borrowers and not just to traders, merchants etc.
  4. Banks have to submit details about their lending practices to the RBI including the interest rates.
    Banks and cooperative societies need to lend more. This would lead to higher incomes and it would encourage people to borrow cheaply for their needs.
  5. Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s development.

Example 3.
Should there be a supervisor, such as the Reserve Bank of Indio, that looks into the loan activities of informal lenders? Why would its task be quite difficult?
There is no organization to monitor and regulate the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector. They lend at interest rates of their choice. They can use unfair means to get their money back. Compared to the formal Lenders, they charge a higher interest on loans. Thus borrowers of informal loans have greater chances of falling into a debt trap. It renders the poor people even more vulnerable.

Example 4.
Why do we need to expand formal sources of credit in India?
People hesitate to borrow due to the high rates of interests of the informal sector. Because there are not many formal sector source to give credit, they are unable to depend on anyone to ‘ fulfill their needs hence it needs to be expanded in rural areas Higher cost of borrowing entails that a larger part of the earnings of the borrowers will be used to repay the loan. The amount to be repaid is greater than the income of the borrower. This leads to an increasing debt and debt trap. This makes people hesitant to borrow.

Formal And Informal Credit

Eighty-five per cent of the loans taken by poor households in the urban areas are from informal sources. Compared to this the rich households borrow only 10 per cent of their loans from informal sources, while they borrow 90 per cent from formal sources.

The formal sector meets only half of the total credit needs of the rural people. The remaining credit needs have to be met by the informal sectors. Most loans from informal sectors do little to increase the income of the borrowers. Banks and cooperatives should increase their lending particularly in the rural areas to reduce the dependence on the informal sector.

The formal sector needs to diversify its lending activities because it is only the rich households who receive formal credit; whereas the poor have to depend on informal sources. It is important that the formal credit is distributed more equally so that the poor can benefit from the cheaper loans.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

Example 5.
In India, about 80 per cent of farmers are small farmers, who need credit for cultivation.
(a) Why might banks be unwilling to lend to small farmers?
Banks fear that because of the unstable nature of earning of farmers- they might not be able to pay.

(b) What are the other sources from which the small farmers can borrow?
Farmers borrow through informal sectors- money lenders, relatives or through formal sectors- cooperatives.

(c) Explain with an example how the terms of credit can be unfavourable for the small farmer.
Lenders do not have proper documentation before lending and tend to change the interest rates and time periods. This can be unfavourable for farmers.

(d) Suggest some ways by which small farmers can get cheap credit.
Farmers can borrow from Cooperatives.

Self-Help Groups For The Poor

Rural areas are heavily dependent upon informal Sectors for lending. This is because banks are not present everywhere. Lending from formal sectors is a little complicated as well. Bank loans require proper documents and collateral. Absence of collateral prevents the poor from borrowing from the bank. Informal lenders know the borrowers personally and give loans without collateral or paperwork. Moneylenders are ready to give more loans to these people without repaying any prior loans. Moneylenders charge very high rates of interest, manipulate the borrowers and have no documentation for proof.

Another way to Lend more money through the formal sector is to organise rural poor, in particular women, into small Self Help Groups (SHGs) and pool their savings. A typical Self Help Group has 15-20 members, usually belonging to one neighbourhood, who meet and save regularly. Saving per member varies from Rs. 25 to Rs. 100 or more, depending on the ability of the people to save. Members can take small Loans from the group itself to meet their needs. The group charges interest on these loans but less than what the moneylender charges. The group becomes eligible for availing Loan from the bank if they have been regular in paying back and saving.

Loan is sanctioned in the name of the group. It helps in creating some self employment opportunities for the members. Small loans are lent for releasing mortgaged land, for meeting working capital needs, for housing materials and acquiring logistics like sewing machines, handlooms, cattle, etc.

All important decisions are taken by the members. The group judges the purpose, amount, interest to be charged, repayment schedule and grants the loans. The group is also responsible for the repayment of the loan.

Defaulters are taken and dealt with seriously in the group. This makes banks willing to lend to the poor women when organised in SHGs, even without collaterals. SHGs help these borrowers to borrow without any collateral. Timely loans at a reasonable interest rate are facilitated through this.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

Example 6.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Why is it so? Banks are not present everywhere in rural India. Even when they are present, getting a loan from a bank is much more difficult than taking a loan from informal sources. As we saw for Megha, bank loans require proper documents and collateral.

Absence of collateral is one of the major reasons which prevents the poor from getting bank loans. Informal lenders such as moneylenders, on the other hand, know the borrowers personally and hence are often willing to give a loan without collateral.
(A) Fill in the blank by choosing the most appropriate option:
………….. are not present everywhere; hence people depend on moneylenders.
(a) Relatives
(b) Mahajans
(c) Shops and Companies
(d) Banks
(d) Banks

(B) Which of the following institutions necessary require Collateral?
(a) Formal Sectors
(b) Informal Sector
(c) Semi-formal Sector
(d) Organised Sector
(a) Formal Sectors

(C) Why are moneylenders willing to Lend without collateral?
To encourage moneylending, Moneylenders provide loans without collateral.

(D) Assertion (A): Credit is good for people.
Reason (R): It helps in development of the people.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct. Explanation: Easily available credit with low interest rates is good for people.

Frequently Asked:
SHGs are the building blocks of organisation of the rural poor. Not only does it help women to become financially self-reliant, the regular meetings of the group provide a platform to discuss and act on a variety of social issues such as health, nutrition, domestic violence, etc.

Started in the 1970s as a project, Grameen Bank in 2018 had over 9 million members in about 81,600 villages spread across Bangladesh. Majority borrowers are women from the poorest sections of society.

→ Cooperatives: Cooperative society refers to that type of business organization, wherein people work together, for a common goal, i.e. welfare of its members.

→ Currency: System of money

→ Transactions: Act of buying and selling

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes Money and Credit

→ Authorise: Officially approve something

→ Terms of Credit: Terms on which credit is given

→ Debt trap: A trap where debt keeps increasing

→ Mortgage: A legal agreement by which a formal sector financing institution lends money against a collateral

→ Self-reliant: Self dependent.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Sectors of Indian Economy Class 10 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 2

Sectors of Economic Activities

Various economic activities include activities producing goods and services. These activities happen every minute around us. They can be grouped into sectors. There are many activities that are undertaken by directly using natural resources. If we take the example of cotton, which we obtain after processing a plant, we depend mainly, but not entirely, on natural factors like rainfall, sunshine and climate. Producers are dependent on the biological process of the animals and availability of fodder for the natural product that is milk. Minerals and ores are also natural products.

When we produce goods by exploiting natural resources, it is an activity of the primary sector. It forms the base for all other products that we subsequently make.
Most natural products are obtained through agriculture, dairy, fishing, forestry and hence this sector is also called agriculture and related sector.

The secondary sector covers activities in which naturaL products are processed into other forms through manufacturing associated with industrial activity. The product is artificially created or processed and the process of manufacturing becomes essential. This is the next step after the primary sector.

This could be in a factory, a workshop or at home. For example, yarn could be spun by using cotton fibres obtained through the primary sector. Sugarcane is processed to make jaggery or sugar.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy


  • This sector gradually become associated with the different kinds of industries that came up, it is also called the industrial sector.
  • The third category of activities is called tertiary sector. It is different from the production of goods. This kind produces services which help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors.
  • They do not produce goods but they are an aid or a support for the production process. For example, cotton clothes after finishing would need to be transported by trucks or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops.

Transport, storage, communication, banking, trade are some examples of tertiary activities. This sector is also called the service sector because it produces services.

The service sector also includes some essential services that may not directly help in the production of goods. Service people like teachers, doctors, and those who provide personal services such as washermen, barbers, cobblers, lawyers, and people to do administrative and accounting works are also parts of this sector.

Frequently Asked:
In recent times, certain new services based on information technology such as internet cafes, ATM booths, call centers, software companies etc have become important.

Economic activities, though, are grouped into three different categories, are highly interdependent.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Example 1.

Examples of Economic Activities


What does this show?

(A) Imagine what would happen if farmers refuse to sell sugarcane to a particular sugar mill. The mill will have to shut down. This is an example of the secondary or industrial sector being dependent on the primary.
(B) Imagine what would happen to cotton cultivation if companies decide not to buy from the Indian market and import all cotton they need from other countries. Indian cotton cultivation will become less profitable and the farmers may even go bankrupt if they cannot quickly switch to other crops. Cotton prices will fall.
(C) Farmers buy many goods such as tractors, pump sets, electricity, pesticides and fertilizers. Imagine what would happen if the price of fertilizers or pump sets go up. Cost of cultivation of the farmers will rise and their profits will be reduced.
(D) People working in industrial and service sectors need food. Imagine what would happen if there is a strike by transporters and lorries refuse to take vegetables, milk, etc. from rural areas. Food will become scarce in urban areas whereas farmers will be unable to sell their products.

(B) This is an example of the primary sector being dependent upon the Secondary sector
(C) This is an example of the Secondary and primary sectors being dependent upon the tertiary sector.
(D) This is an example of the tertiary sector being dependent on the primary sector.

Comparison of The Three Sectors

The various production activities in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors produce a very large number of goods and services. They employ a huge workforce. To calculate how many people work in each sector individually and their individual production, economists suggest that the values of final goods and services should be added together.

For total production by a country, the value of goods and services in the three sectors are calculated, and then added up.

Frequently Asked:
Not every good (or service) that is produced and sold is counted to calculate the production of each sector. Only the final goods and services are added to avoid double addition and inaccurate sums.

To understand why, consider this example- a farmer sells corn and chickpeas to a mill for Rs. 20 per kg. The mill grinds the grains and sells the flour to a noodle factory for Rs. 30 per kg. The flour is then converted into ten packs of noodles by using oil, water, salt etc and then sold in the market to the consumers for Rs. 10 in the markets. Noodles are the final goods, i.e., goods that reach the consumers.

It is only the cost of these packets of noodles which should be added up. The prices of intermediary products have already been adjusted in those prices.

One or more sectors could dominate an economy in terms of total production and employment, while other sectors are relatively small in size.

The sum of production of all three sectors is called the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. It is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country during a particular year. GDP indicates the size of an economy.

GDP is measured by a Central government ministry in India- it is currently the fifth largest economy in the world in terms of GDP. This Ministry, with the help of various government departments of all the Indian states and union territories, collects information relating to total volume of goods and services and their prices and then estimates the GDP.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Example 2.
Correct and arrange the important aspects for calculating GDP from this jumble.
To count goods and services we add the numbers that are produced. We count all those that were produced in the last five years. Since we shouldn’t leave out anything we add up all these goods and services. [NCERT]
This can be arranged in steps.

  1. To count goods and services, we add the numbers that are produced.
  2. Since we shouldn’t leave out anything we add up all these goods and services.
  3. We count all those that were produced in the last five years.

Historical Change In Sectors

It has been reported that in most countries, the primary sector was the most important sector of economic activity during the initial, stages of their development. With growth and advancement in technology, the agriculture sector began to prosper. People were encouraged to take up new activities. There were an increasing number of craftsmen, traders, transporters, administrators and soldiers. Markets grew larger. Most of the goods produced were natural products from the primary sector and most people were also employed in this sector.

With time, new methods of manufacturing were introduced, factories came up and started expanding.

People were attracted to it. People began to use many more goods that were produced in factories at cheap rates. The secondary sector gradually became the most important in total production and employment.
These trends show that the importance of the sectors has changed over time.

In the past 100 years, there has been a further shift from secondary to tertiary sector in developed countries. The service sector has become the most important in terms of total production. Most of the working people are also employed in the service sector.

Example 3.
Match the following:

Problems faced by the farming sector

Some possible measures

(1) Unirrigated land (a) Setting up agro-based mills
(2) Low prices for crops (b) Cooperative marketing societies
(3) Debt burden (c) Procurement of food grains by government
(4) No job in the off season (d) Construction of canals by the government
(5) Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest (e) Banks to provide credit with low interest


Problems faced by the farming sector

Some possible measures

(1) Unirrigated land (d) Construction of canals by the government
(2) Low prices for crops (c) Procurement of food grains by government
(3) Debt burden (e) Banks to provide credit with low interest
(4) No job in the off season (a) Setting up agro-based mills
(5) Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest (b) Cooperative marketing societies

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Example 4.
Find the odd one out and say why.
(A) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
Tourist guide

Explanation: He is appointed by a Government Department. Rest are self employed.

(B) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
Vegetable vendor

Explanation: He works in the primary sector, while jobs of teacher, lawyer and doctor come under the tertiary sector.

(C) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable

Explanation: He works in the private sector while the postman, soldier and poLice constable work for the public sector or the organised sector.

(D) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, Jet Airways, All India Radio
Jet Airways

Explanation: All the others are public sector- enterprises.

Example 5.
A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganised sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-1998) was Rs. 60,000 million. Out of this Rs. 32,000 million was generated in the organised sector. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?
Despite a lesser number of workers in the organised sector, more revenue was produced. Ways have to be created to offer people jobs in the organised sector. More industries, factories and markets should be opened up. More companies should be set up.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Example 6.
A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.

Place of Work Nature of Employment Percentage of Working People
(A) In offices and factories registered with the government.  Organized 15
(B) Own shops, office, clinics in marketplaces with formal license. 15
(C) People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers. 20
(D) Working in small workshops is usually not registered with the government.

Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganized sector in this city?
(B) Unorganised
(C) Unorganised
(D) Unorganised, 50

Explanation: People who work in firms recognized by the government or are self-employed but still have themselves registered belong to organised sectors.

All other forms of firms, companies, self-employed workers are unorganised sector workers.

Rising Importance Of The Tertiary Sector In Production

Over the forty years between 1973-74 and 2013-14, while production in all the three sectors has increased, it has increased the most in the tertiary sector.

The tertiary sector has emerged as the largest producing sector in India replacing the primary sector in 2013-14.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Frequently Asked:
In all countries, basic services like the hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, police stations, courts, village administrative offices, municipal corporations, defence, transport, banks, insurance companies, etc. are essential. The Governments have to take responsibility for the provision of these services in developing countries.

The second reason is because the development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport, trade, storage.

Greater the development of the primary and secondary sectors, more would be the demand for such services. Third, as income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding many more services like eating out, tourism, shopping, private hospitals, private schools, professional training etc.

Fourth, over the past decade or so, certain new services such as those based on information and communication technology have become important and essential.

The production of these services has been rising rapidly. Service sector in India employs many different kinds of people but the entire service sector is not growing in significance together. There are a limited number of services that employ highly skilled and educated workers.

There are also a very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons, etc. They have to provide these services due to lack of alternative opportunities for work.

While there has been a change in the share of the three sectors in GDP, a similar shift has not taken place in employment. The primary sector continues to be the largest employer despite its decreasing share in performance.

For example, the production of goods or industrial output increased by more than nine times during the period, employment rose only by three times. While production in the service sector rose by 14 times, employment in the service sector rose around five times. 50% workers are employed in the primary sector, mainly in agriculture, producing only about one sixth of the GDP. The secondary and tertiary sectors employ less than 50% of the people and manage to produce about five sixth of the total produce.

We can conclude that there are more people in agriculture than what is required. Even if some of them were removed from jobs, the production would not be affected. This means workers in the agricultural sector are underemployed.

On small pieces of lands, numerous people, sometimes an entire family works. Their labour effort gets divided. No one is fully emploued. This is the situation of underemployment, Wiiere people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential. This kind of underemployment is hidden as opposed to someone who is unemployed. Hence, it is also called disguised unemployment.

If underemployed people from the agricultural sector were provided with proper work elsewhere, agricultural production will not suffer. Their family income would increase. This underemployment is not restricted to the agricultural sector.

There are casual workers in the service sector such as painters, plumbers, repair persons in urban areas who search for daily employment. Street vendors also work very hard but earn very little. This is due to lack of employment opportunities.

Example 7.
Choose the correct answer:
Underemployment occurs when people
(a) do not want to work
(b) are working in a lazy manner
(c) are working less than what they are capable of doing
(d) are not paid for their work
(c) are working Less than what they are capable of doing.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Creation of More Employment Opportunities:
In creating more employment, only the government can help the citizens. The government provides money through schemes and the banks are encouraged to lend more money to the impoverished, to provide these workers with the kind of support they require.

Constructing better dams, provision of subsidized fertilisers and seeds can lead to a lot of employment generation within the agricultural sector itself reducing the problem of underemployment. To help in the transportation of the produce, the government can help construct better infrastructure and help store the crops. This activity can help create employment to those in services like transport or trade.

If the local bank gives these workers easy credit at a reasonable rate of interest, workers can buy any items of input required for their work easily.

Another way to tackle the problem of underemployment is to identify, promote and locate industries and services in semi-rural areas where a large number of people may be employed.

About 60 percent of the population in India belongs to the age group 5-29 years. Out of this, only about 51 percent are attending educational institutions.

Many children are forced to work as child laborers to support their families. If these children are to attend schools, we will require more buildings, more teachers and other staff.

NITI Aayog, earlier known as the Planning Commission estimated that about 20 lakh jobs can be created in the education sector alone. A similar scope could be created in the Health sector. Every state or region has the potential for increasing the income and employment for people in that area in fields like tourism, native craft industry or the IT industry.

It requires government support. If tourism as a sector is improved, it can provide additional employment to 35 lakh people every year. However, these are long-term reforms. For quick reformation, the central government of India implemented the Right to Work in about 625 districts of India through Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (MGNREGA 2005). Under this, all those who want to and can work in rural areas are guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government. If the government fails to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowances to the people. Production-enhancing land activities are the main provider of work under the Act.

Division of Sectors: Organised And Unorganised Organised sector covers those enterprises or places of work where:

  1. Terms of employment are regular
  2. People have assured work
  3. They are registered by the government and are bound to follow its rules and regulations which are given in-laws like the Factories Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Gratuity Act, Shops and Establishments Act etc.
  4. Workers in the organized sector enjoy the security of employment.
  5. They are expected to work only a fixed number of hours. If they work more, they have to be paid overtime by the employer.
  6. They also get several other benefits from the employers like medical leaves, paid leaves, payment during holidays, provident fund, gratuity etc.
  7. Factory manager has to ensure facilities like drinking water and a safe working environment.
  8. These workers get pensions upon retirement as well.

It is called organized because it has some formal processes and procedures. Some of these people may be self-employed but they still have to register themselves with the government and follow the rules and regulations.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

The unorganized sector is characterized by small and scattered units:

  1. Which are largely outside the control of the government.
  2. Rules and regulations are not followed.
  3. Jobs here are low-paid and often not regular.
  4. There is no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness etc.
  5. Employment is not secure. People can be fired anytime, sometimes according to the whims of the employer.
  6. Employment is seasonal.

This sector includes a large number of self-employed in doing small jobs such as repair work. Farmers and farm laborers are both workers of the unorganized sector.

Workers of the Unorganised Sector:
The organized sector offers fascinating jobs but the employment opportunities grow very slowly. It is also common to find many organized sector enterprises in the unorganised sector. These strategies are adopted so as to evade taxes and refuse to follow laws that protect labourers. Workers are forced to enter the low paying unorganized sectorjobs. Earnings are insecure and irregular.

Organized workers upon losing jobs find them in unorganized sectors. Thus, there is also a need for the protection and support of the workers in the unorganized sector.

The unorganized sector comprises landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths). Almost 80 per cent of rural households in India has small and marginal farmers. These farmers need to be supported through adequate facilities for timely delivery of seeds, agricultural inputs, credit, storage facilities and marketing outlets.

The urban unorganized sector comprises mainly workers in small-scale industry, casual workers in construction, trade and transport workers, street vendors, head load workers, garment makers, rag pickers etc. These small scale industries also require Government’s support for procuring raw material and marketing of output.

Majority of workers from scheduled castes, tribes and backward communities find themselves in the unorganised sector. Besides irregular and low paid work, these workers also face social discrimination.

Protection and support to the unorganised sector workers is essential for both economic and social development

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Example 8.
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
These workers are forced to take up jobs in the unorganised sector with low earnings. Hence, besides the need for more work, there is also a need for protection and support of the workers in the unorganised sector.
Who are these vulnerable people who need protection? In the rural areas, the unorganised sector mostly comprises landless agricultural labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans (such as weavers, blacksmiths, carpenters and goldsmiths). Nearly 80 per cent of rural households in India are in the small and marginal farmer category. These farmers need to be supported through adequate facilities for timely delivery of seeds, agricultural inputs, credit, storage facilities and marketing outlets.
(A) Which of the following is a reason for the need of protection for vulnerable people?
(I) They do not have job security
(II) They are paid less
(III) They have less opportunities for work
(a) (I) only
(b) (II) only
(c) (III) only
(d) (I), (II) & (III)
(d) (I), (II) & (III)

(B) Which of the following can be a way to help these vulnerable sections?
(a) They should be offered clothes
(b) They should be sent to another country
(c) They should be given more food
(d) They should be offered greater, safer and varied opportunities to work.
(d) They should be offered greater, safer and varied opportunities to work.

(C) Mention one type of work which can be categorised under the Unorganised sector.

(D) Assertion (A): Most families in India have people working in Unorganised sectors.
Reason(R): Organised sectors have less opportunities to offer.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Sectors In Terms of Ownership: Public And Private Sectors

Economic activities could also be classified into two categories on the basis of who owns assets and is responsible for the delivery of services.

  1. Public Sector: the government owns most of the assets and provides all the services. Example: Railways or post office.
  2. Private Sector: private ownership of assets and delivery of services. Example: Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO) or Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) are privately owned.

Activities in the private sector are guided by the motive to earn profits. The purpose of the public sector is not just to earn profits.

Governments raise money through taxes and reimburse the expenses of the services used through it.
Several basic and essential items are required by all sections of societies- some of them are not able to afford even those items. The private sector will not provide these at a reasonable cost. Some of these need spending large sums of money, which is beyond the capacity of the private sector.

The collection of money is a long process and cannot be carried out by private individuals. Construction of roads, bridges, railways, harbours, generating electricity, providing irrigation through dams, etc are such activities. Governments thus undertake these activities and ensure their availability to everyone.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

Activities which the private sector may not continue their production or business unless the government encourages it, essentially needs the government’s support. Providing electricity, water and other resources at subsidized rates is an example. Grains are provided at a fair price to the underprivileged through government intervention and support. The government has to bear some of the cost. Through this, the government supports both farmers and consumers.

Providing health and education facilities are some of the most important activities which have to be provided by the government. Running proper schools and providing quality education, particularly elementary education, is the duty of the government.


  • India’s size of illiterate population is one of the largest in the world.
  • Nearly half of India’s children are malnourished and a quarter of them are critically ill.
  • The infant mortality rate of Odisha (41) or Madhya Pradesh (47) is higher than some of the most backward nations of the world.
  • the Government also needs to pay attention to indicators of human development like availability of safe drinking water, housing facilities for the poor and food and nutrition. It is the responsibility of the government to pay attention to the remotest and weakest areas of the country.
  • The government should increase its spending upon various facilities to help develop these areas.

→ Food Security: Food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals’ ability to access it.

→ Subsidy: A subsidy is a direct or indirect payment to individuals or firms, usually in the form of a cash payment from the government.

→ Sharecroppers: A sharecropper is a member of a low social class of farm workers who receive a share of the value of the crop. They pay their farm owners for their shelter and food.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes Sectors of Indian Economy

→ Gratuity: An amount given by an employer to his/her employee for the services rendered by him during the period of employment.

→ Provident Fund: A retirement savings scheme introduced by the government.

→ Enterprises: A business or a firm

→ 2005: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was passed.

Class 10 Social Science Notes


NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Development Class 10 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 1

The Story of Development

Development involves thinking about equality, better lifestyle through better administration and principles, more equitable distribution of resources and how these goals to be achieved. The way we live today is influenced by the past. Any change in the conditions has to be implemented keeping that in mind. Only through democratic political processes, these hopes and possibilities can be achieved in real life.

Different people have different aspirations for and notions of development. Each person seeks a different goal. They seek things that are most important for them, i.e., that which can fuLfil their aspirations or desires. Two persons or groups of persons may also seek things which are conflicting.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Examples of conflicting interests: A girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother, and that he also shares in the household work. Her brother may not like this.

Similarly, to get more electricity, industrialists may want more dams. This may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced – such as tribals. w They may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their land.

Two lessons are: different persons can have different developmental goals and what may be development for one may not be developed for the other. It may be destructive for other groups.

Income and Other Goals

People desire regular work, better wages, and decent prices for their crops or other products that they produce. People also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others. They resent discrimination. Some people might also think that these may be more important than more income or more consumption. Material goods are not all that you need to live.

Money or material things are very crucial for our lives.
The quality of our life also depends on non-material things. Various values like freedom, equality and justice do not have material value and cannot be measured but are very important for our lives.

If you get a job in o fiar off place. before accepting it you would try to consider many factors, apart from income, such as facilities for your family, working atmosphere, or opportunity to learn. In another case, a job may give you less pay but may offer regular employment that enhances your sense of security. Another job, however, may offer high pay but no job security and also leave no time for your family. This will reduce your sense of security and freedom.

For development, people look at a mix of goals. For example, women are respected more in their houses if they are engaged in paid work. Women also expect help in household work. Along with that, they expect a safe and secure work environment which might encourage women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business. This proves that developmental goals that people have are not just about better income but also about other important things in life.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Example 1.
Complete the table given below:

Developmental Goals of Different Categories of Persons

Category of Person

Developmental Goals Aspirations

(A) Landless rural Labourers More days of work and better wages; Local school is able to provide quality education for their children; there is no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village.
(B) Prosperous farmers from Punjab Assured a high family income through higher support prices for their crops and through hardworking and cheap Labourers they should be able to settle their children abroad.
(C) Farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops
(D) A rural woman from a landowning family
(E) Urban unemployed youth
(F) A boy from a rich urban family
(G) A girt from a rich urban family She gets as much freedom as her brother and ¡s able to decide what she wants to do in life. She is able to pursue her studies abroad.
(H) An adivasi from Narmada valley

(C) Farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops: Artificial irrigation technologies, better seeds and more water from canals.
(D) A rural woman from a landowning family: opportunities to work, higher education
(E) Urban employed youth: better employment opportunities
(F) A boy from a rich urban family: Opportunities to study in abroad, better jobs
(H) An Adivasi from Narmada valley: rights to the products of the forest, rights to their native lands, opportunities to preserve their culture

Example 2.
Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because the life situations of people are different.
(b) Because the Life situations of people are different.

Explanation: Different people have different life situations which make them aspire for different development goals.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Example 3.
Do the following two statements mean the same? Justify your answer.
Statement (I): People have different developmental goals.
Statement (II): People have conflicting developmental goals.

Explanation: They do not mean the same because different does not necessarily mean conflicting interests.

National Development

The notion of national development is different among different people. People could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
National development means thinking about various questions about conflicting ideas, chalking out a common path for holistic development of all.

Comparison of Development Among Countries

Different criteria are used to compare different things. Between students, the primary basis of comparison
is upon their friendliness and spirit of cooperation, creativity or marks secured.

For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes. Countries with higher income are more developed than those with less income. It is based on the assumption that more income means development and a better lifestyle. Greater income will help people buy more. Hence, greater income itself is considered to be one important goal.

The income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country. This gives us the total income of the country.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Example 1.
Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country.
India has a huge demographic where more than 60% of our population belongs to the age group of 18-40 years. Thus to achieve development, Indian government should begin capacity building exercises for these young people and offer employment opportunities.

Education has to be more diverse and vocational. More workshops will have to be set up for industrial training. Capacity has to be built up for the agricultural sector.

However, for comparison between countries, total income is not such a useful measure. Comparing total income doesn’t tell us what a person is likely to earn since each country has a different population. Thus, it is wiser to compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population. The average income is also called per capita income. In World Development Reports, brought out by the World Bank, this criterion is used in classifying countries.

Example 2.
Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
No, it does not guarantee that all the groups are progressing at the same pace. The average income of any country is an average of how all the sections are performing together not individually. Cumulative growth does not convey the performance of individual sections on the correct parameters of growth.

For example, despite growth, agriculture is still stagnant. Despite the growth, high-income inequality also does not talk about the pitiable condition of lower classes.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Countries with per capita income of US$ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the category of low-middle-income countries because its per capita income in 2017 was just US$ 1820 per annum.

Public Facilities

The rich countries, excluding countries of the Middle East and certain other small countries, are generally called developed countries.

People also think of ideals such as security, respect for others, equal treatment, freedom, etc. as criteria for development.

There is more to a nation’s development than just the average income of its people.

  1. Money cannot buy all the goods and services required to live well and hence income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
  2. Money cannot buy a pollution-free environment or unadulterated medicines, it can only buy you a house in a better community.
  3. Money may also not be able to protect people from infectious diseases unless mass prevention and precautions are in practice.

The cheapest and best way to ensure the provision of goods and services to people is to provide them collectively. It will be cheaper to have collective security for the whole locality or for each house to have its own security. However, the same cannot be said for basic amenities like education, public health services, medical facilities, food, water etc.

Some people are not willing to study while many other children want to study. Many people believe that the government should open schools and provide other facilities so that all children have a chance to study. Despite that, children, particularly girls, are not able to go to high school because the government/society has not provided adequate facilities.

Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) because it has the adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Example 1.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Lets look at the figures of Per Capita Net State Domestic Product at Current Prices for 2016-17. Let us ignore what this complicated term exactly means. Roughly, we can take it to be the per capita income of the state. We find that of the three, Haryana has the highest per capita State Per Capita Income (in Rs.) Haryana 1,80,174, Kerala 1,63,475 and Bihar 34,409 income and Bihar is at the bottom.

This means that, on an average, a person in Haryana earned Rs. 1,80,174 in one year whereas, on an average, a person in Bihar earned only around Rs. 34,409. In Kerala, out of 1000 children born, 10 died before completing one year of age but in Haryana the proportion of children dying within one year of birth was 30, which is two times more than that of Kerala. On the other hand, the per capita income of Haryana is more than that of Kerala as shown in Table.

Table: Per Capita Income of Selected States


Per Capita Income (in Rs.)

1. Haryana 1,80,174
2. Kerala 1,63,475
3. Bihar 34,409

(A) Which of the following states are most developed on the basis of per capita income?
(a) Kerala
(b) Haryana
(c) Bihar
(d) All three are equally developed because income does not decide development.
(b) Haryana

Explanation: On average, a person in Haryana earned Rs. 1,80,174 in one year, which is greater than Kerala. Hence, on the basis of this, Haryana is the most developed.

(B) Which of the following states have richer citizens?
(a) Kerala
(b) Haryana
(c) Bihar
(d) All three are equal.
(b) Haryana

Explanation: It’s per capita income is the highest, which means it has richer people than average.

(C) What is per capita income?
Per capita income is the average income of a citizen in a state/city/country.

(D) Assertion (A): Haryana is more developed because it has more number of children dying within one year of birth.
Reason (R): People in Haryana are not as educated.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.

Explanation: People in Haryana are less developed because they do not have appropriate medical facilities to save their infants, which makes Haryana less developed. That is, if you look at development from the perspective of child mortality rate.

The Public Distribution System (PDS) ensures the provision of food grains to underprivileged people at subsidized rates. The Health and nutritional status of people in such states is certainly likely to be better.

Sri Lanka, a smaller country than India, is much ahead of India in every respect and a big country like ours has such a low rank in the World Development Index. Though Nepal and Bangladesh have a lower per capita income than that of India, yet they are better than India in life expectancy. Many improvements have been suggested in calculating HDI and many new components have been added to the Human Development Report the name makes it very clear that the development of people, their health, their well-being, is the most important thing for a country.

Maintenance of development and growth is desirable. However, since the second half of the twentieth century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels, of development, are not sustainable.

Health and education indicators are important indicators used by certain commissions to measure development. The Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.

Body Mass Index (BMI) measures our nutrition levels. To calculate weight and height are necessary. Weight is to be calculated in Kgs. The height recorded is to be converted from centimeters into meters. Divide the weight in kg by the square of the height. This is used to check whether a student is malnourished or not.

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

Example 2.
The development of a country can generally be determined by:
(a) its per capita income
(b) its average literacy level
(c) health status of its people
(d) all of the above
(d) all of the above

Example 3.
Which of the following neighboring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(a) Bangladesh
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Nepal
(d) Pakistan
(b) Sri Lanka

Example 4.
Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs. 5000. If the income of three families is Rs. 4000, Rs. 7000 and Rs. 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(a) Rs. 7500
(b) Rs. 3000
(c) Rs. 2000
(d) Rs. 6000
(d) Rs. 6000

Sustainability of Development

Groundwater is an example of renewable resources. These resources are replenished by nature as in the case of crops and plants but even these resources may be overused. Non-renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use. We have a fixed stock on earth that cannot be replenished. We do discover new resources. New sources in this way add to the stock of resources discovered already. However, even these resources will get exhausted.

Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries; this issue is no longer region or nation-specific. Our future is linked together.

Sustainability of development is comparatively a new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together.

In general, the question of development or progress is perennial. The debate on development is incessant.

→ HDI: Human Development Index.

→ Life Expectancy: This between birth denotes, as the name suggests, average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

→ Per Capita Income: Average income of each person in a country/state.

→ BMI: Body Mass Index

NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes Development

→ Sustainability: It is the ability to exist constantly without harming the current condition.

→ Infant Mortality Rate: Infant Mortality Rate indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.

→ Literacy Rate: It measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7-and-above age group.

→ Net Attendance Ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of a total number of children in the same age group.

→ Perennial: Permanent

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Outcomes of Democracy Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 7

Assessment of Democracy’s Outcomes

Democracy is a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative.
We feel that democracy was better because it

  • Promotes equality among citizens;
  • Enhances the dignity of the individual;
  • Improves the quality of decision making;
  • Provides a method to resolve conflicts; and
  • Allows room to correct mistakes.

Most people support democracies over the rule by a monarch, military or religious leaders in theory. Democracy is seen to be good in principle, but not considered as efficient in practice.

More than a hundred countries across the world claim to practice some kind of democratic politics. This is facilitated through formal constitutions such as elections and the presence of political parties.

These states have also guaranteed rights to citizens. Despite the similarities, these democracies are different from one another in terms of their social situations, their economic achievements and their cultures. Consequently, the ideals achieved or not achieved under each of these democracies will be very different.

Our generic expectations from democracy are that it can address all socio-economic and political problems. Any underachievement pushes us to complain about the principle of democracy. We question the idea or existence of democracy itself.

It is necessary to recognise that democracy is just a form of government. It can only create conducive conditions for achievement of some goals. To realise them, citizens have to avail those opportunities and achieve those goals.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Accountable, Responsive and Legitimate Government

In a democracy, it is important to ensure that people have the right to choose their rulers and people have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in making decisions on matters that affect them all. The most basic outcome of democracy should be to produce a competent government, accountable to the citizens and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

It is a common belief that democracy produces less effective government. Non-democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about consensus and public opinion and thus the decision-making is quick and simple, and the implementation, efficient and effective.

The following are a few features of democracies:
1. Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation.

  • Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. It is bound to take some time to reach a consensus and decide.
  • Even though the decisions are slow because the procedure takes a lot of time, they are popular and accepted by the public- which leads to greater compliance. The cost of time that is paid by democratic governments is thus worth it.

2. A democratic government has to be transparent. It should facilitate its citizens if they want to know whether a decision was taken through the correct procedure, right information within a decent time period.

Every citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. This factor is often missing from a non-democratic government.

3. A significant outcome of a democracy is to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the people.

It can be expected that the democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable. It should also build mechanisms for citizens to participate in decision making whenever they think fit.

Frequently Asked:
To measure if a country does well on these parameters, the following institutions or practices must be checked:

  • Regular, free, and fair elections;
  • Open public debate on major policies and legislations:
  • Citizens’ right to information about the government and its functioning. Democracies show an average performance on these parameters.


  • Democracies have had greater success in setting up regular and free elections and in setting up conditions for open public debate. Most democracies fall short of free and fair elections.
  • Democratic governments do not have a very good record when it comes to sharing information with citizens. Democratic governments are better than non-democratic governments in this respect.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Example 1.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
The routine tales of corruption are enough to convince us that democracy is not free of this evil. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people.
There is one respect in which democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives: democratic government is legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean.
But a democratic government is the people’s own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. As the accompanying evidence from South Asia shows, the support exists in countries with democratic regimes as well as countries without democratic regimes.
(A) Which country in South Asia shows less support for democracy?
(a) India
(b) Bangladesh
(c) Pakistan
(d) Sri Lanka
(c) Pakistan

(B) Why is democratic government a legitimate government?
Democratic government is a legitimate government because it has been elected by popular support.

(C) Which of the following evils are not found in a democracy?
(a) Casteism
(b) Economic Inequalities
(c) Political Inequality
(d) Corruption
(c) Political inequality

Explanation: Democracy is based on political equality. It provides so by universal adult franchise.

(D) Assertion (A): Democracy is slow and inefficient.
Reason (R): It is a rule of minority.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(c) (A) is correct but (R.) is wrong.

Explanation: Democracy is a rule of majority. It is slow because to get the consent of the majority and think of every citizen’s well-being requires deliberation and hence cannot be taken without proper procedures and discussions.

Support for Democracy:
A democratic government should be attentive to the needs and demands of the people. It is also very common to expect a democracy to be largely free of corruption. However, democracies do not fare well on these two counts. Democracies frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a majority of its population. Democratic governments and administration are filled with corrupt officials. However, no study proves that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the needs of the people.

Democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives in one respect- it is a legitimate government.
It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. It is however a popular government. A democratic government is people’s own government. Democracy is supported all around the world.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Democracy is preferred over dictatorships everywhere except in Pakistan.
With accompanying evidence South Asia shows, this support exists in countries with democratic regimes as well as countries without democratic regimes. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is one of the most important outcomes of democracy.

On an average dictatorial regime have had a slightly better record of economic growth. But when we compare their record only in poor countries, there is virtually no difference.
Within democracies there can be a very high degree of inequalities. In democratic countries like South Africa and Brazil, the top 20 per cent people take away more than 60 per cent of the national income, leaving less than 3 percent for the bottom 20 per cent population. Countries like Denmark and Hungary are much better in this respect.

Economic Growth and Development

Democracies are expected to produce both good governance and development. However, democracies have not been able to fulfil these expectations. During the period between 1950-2000, a comparison between democracy and dictatorships shows that dictatorships have a slightly higher rate of growth.

The inability of democracy to achieve higher economic development is concerning. However, the concept of democracy can just not be rejected because it gives slightly less economic growth.

Economic development depends on several factors:

  1. A country’s population size,
  2. Its global situation,
  3. Cooperation from other countries
  4. Economic priorities adopted by the country, etc.

The difference in the rates of economic development between less developed countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible. Democracy cannot be called a guarantee of economic development. However due to the nature of democracy, people expect democracy not to lag behind dictatorships in terms of economic development.

Frequently Asked w Despite differences in the rates of economic growth between countries under dictatorship and democracy, it is better to prefer democracy as it has several positive outcomes.

Reduction of Inequality and Poverty

It is reasonable to expect democracies to reduce economic disparities. It is a common dilemma whether a democratic country achieves economic growth, so that the wealth will be distributed in a way that benefits all classes of citizens equally. It is a common question whether a democracy will lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities. Questions such as will the wealth be distributed in such a way that all citizens of the country have a better life will be in minds of people.

Economic growth in democracies is accompanied by increased inequalities among the people.
Democracies lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities. Democracies are based on political equality. All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives. Parallel to promoting political participation, economic inequalities grow in a democracy.

A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a large amount of wealth and income. This share keeps increasing. The poorest classes do not have much resources to depend upon. Their incomes have been declining to the point that sometimes meeting basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health becomes difficult.

However, democracies are not very successful in reducing economic inequalities. The poor voters make or break a party in elections but even then, the democratically elected governments do not appear to be as keen to address the question of poverty. In most countries, the situation is terrible.

In Bangladesh, more than half of its population live in poverty. People in several poor countries are now dependent on the rich countries even for food supplies.

Accommodation of Social Diversity

It is a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life. Democracies accommodate various social divisions. Belgium has successfully negotiated differences among ethnic populations. A harmonious social life can only be attained in case of accommodation and provision of equal respect to all social groups and tribes.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Frequently Asked:
Democracies develop a procedure to conduct their competition. This reduces the possibility of these tensions becoming explosive or violent.

No society is capable of resolving conflicts among different groups.
We have to learn to accommodate the differences and evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences.
Democracy is best suited to produce this outcome. Non-democratic regimes suppress internal social differences. Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes.

The situations in Sri Lanka reminds us that a democracy must fulfil two conditions in order to achieve this outcome:
1. Democracy is not simply ruled by majority opinion. The majority has to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.

2. It is also necessary that rule by the majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. Rule by majority might make that government despotic. In case of every election, different persons and groups may and can form a majority. Democracy can be called democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time. If there is discrimination in those terms, then the democratic rule ceases to be accommodative for that person or group.

Example 2.
In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct – democracies have successfully eliminated:
(a) conflicts among people.
(b) economic inequalities among people.
(c) differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated.
(d) the idea of political inequality.
(d) the idea of political inequality

Explanation: Democracies provide political equality through universal adult franchise. It promotes equality of treatment.

Example 3.
In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:
(a) free and fair elections.
(b) dignity of the individual.
(c) majority rule.
(d) equal treatment before law.
(c) majority rule
Explanation: Democracy ensures rule of the will of the people.

Example 4.
Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that:
(a) democracy and development go together.
(b) inequalities exist in democracies.
(c) inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.
(d) dictatorship is better than democracy.
(b) inequalities exist in democracies.
Explanation: Inequalities exist but they are better accommodated.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Dignity and Freedom of The Citizens

Democracy is superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. Conflicts arise among individuals if they feel they are not being treated with respect. The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democratic governments recognise that, at least in principle.

Non-democratic societies are built on the basis of subordination and domination. They are unable to recognize that all individuals are equal. Most societies across the world were historically male-dominated societies.

Long struggles by women have changed the mindset of the society. It has now been established that respect and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society. However, women are not actually always treated with respect. Recognition of a principle makes it easier for women to wage a struggle against unacceptable behaviour legally and morally. In a non-democratic set up, this unacceptability would not have legal basis because the principle of individual freedom and dignity does not have the legal and moral force there. This can also be said in case of caste inequalities.

Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.

Instances of caste-based inequalities and atrocities are still reported, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. The recognition of their claims makes ordinary citizens value their democratic rights.

Frequently Asked:
Expectations from democracy can be used as parameters to judge any democratic country. For a democracy, its examination is never over. As democracy passes one test, it produces another test. As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and want to make democracy even better.

Example 5.
Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions:
1. Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.
Dictatorships guarantee better economic growth but they do not guarantee reduction of economic inequality. Dictatorships are not dedicated to promote the dignity of each individual or provide them equal opportunities for development.

2. Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.
Democracy makes effort to reduce inequalities and at least recognises its intention of doing so. Dictatorships do not make an effort.

3. Governments in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.
Governments in poor countries should spend equally on both to encourage development both economically and that of lifestyles and standards.

4. In democracy all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of any domination and conflict.
Conflicts are present but they are better accommodated. Domination is also possible but again better accounted for.

Because its test never ends, people always come up with more expectations, and many complaints.
The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy: Because it shows that people have developed awareness and the ability to expect and critically analyse power holders and people with authority.

A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows that a democratic project is successful: it transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen. Individuals have begun to believe that their votes make a difference to the way the government is run and to their own self-interest.

→ Dictatorship: A type of government in which a state is ruled by one person and all authority resides in him.

→ Military rule: A type of government in which the control of the state/government is with the military.

→ Accountable: Responsible and answerable.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

→ Deliberation: Discussion and debates.

→ Transparency: State where all procedures of the government and administration are open to the examination of the citizens.

→ Legitimate: Approved by majority.

→ Atrocities: Incidences of violence against citizens.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 4

Gender And Politics

Gender division is a form of hierarchical social division expressed usually but studied occasionally in political science. Gender division tends to be understood as natural and unchangeable. In practice, it is not based on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.

Children are taught to believe that Sexual division of labour is natural and organic- that women are meant to be the caregivers, housewives and do stereotypical chores like washing clothes, tailoring, cleaning etc.

Example 1.
Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated against or disadvantaged in India.
People are made to believe that men are supposed to work outside the homes- earn and provide for the family. Cleaning and cooking at their houses are just roles cut out for women- if the similar roles were paid, men should and would take these jobs too.

In villages, women fetch water, collect fuel and work in the fields. In urban areas, poor women work as domestic helpers in middle class homes, while middle class women work in offices. Most women indulge in some jobs apart from their daily chores. This work is not valued ar.d recognised.

Although women constitute half of humanity, their role in public Life, especially politics, is minimal. Only men were allowed to participate in public affairs, vote and contest for public offices until very recently.

Eventually, the gender issue was raised in politics when women in different parts of the world organised and agitated for equal rights. One of the issues was the extension of voting rights to women. Women revolutionaries demanded strengthening the political and legal status of women. They wanted to improve their educational and career opportunities.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 2.
When we speak of gender divisions, we usually refer to:
(a) Biological difference between men and women
(b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
(c) Unequal child sex ratio
(d) Absence of voting rights for women in democracies
(b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women

A few radical women movements aimed at equality in the personal and family sphere. These movements have been called Feminist movements.

Political expression of gender division and political mobilisation on this issue improved the status of women. Women received their due share of opportunities to work as scientists, doctors, engineers, Lawyers, managers and college and university teachers- jobs that were strictly restricted to men before. This development however has not been uniform all around the world.

Frequently Asked:

  • In Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.
  • In India, women still lag much behind men despite some improvement since Independence. Indian Society can still be called male dominated, Patriarchal society.

Women have to face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways:
1. The literacy rate among women is only 54 per cent compared with 76 per cent among men.

2. Dropout rates in higher educational institutions among girl students is significantly higher than that of males. Despite being good students, girls have to drop out due to lack of resources, orthodox, conservative thinking and parent’s prejudice for a son as their heir.

3. The proportion of women in highly paid jobs is very less.

4. Despite working harder than men, women Labourers are paid significantly less than their male counterparts. The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976 provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work without any discrimination on basis of gender, caste or creed. Despite that women are paid less in various fields ranging from sports and cinema to factories and fields.

5. Indian parents prefer to have male children over female children. Sex-selective abortion leads to a decline in Child Sex-Ratio in the country to merely 919 for every thousand. In select states, the ratio is even lower.

6. Various kinds of harassment, exploitation and violence against women everywhere, especially in urban areas, which have become particularly unsafe for women. Domestic violence has destroyed their peace and security at their homes too.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Women’s Political Representation:
Issues like these have been ignored for centuries. This ^ has led to many feminists and women’s movements to the conclusion that to attract adequate consideration and attention, women will have to gain power. One way to empower them is through political k empowerment. In India, the proportion of women in the legislature has been very low.

Frequently Asked:
The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha touched 14.36 per cent of its total strength for the first time in 2019 elections. Their share in the state assemblies is still less than 5 per cent. India is among the bottom group of nations in the world in women participation in the public sphere.

In this regard, India is behind the developing countries of Africa and Latin America. Cabinets are largely all-male in Central or state legislatures even when a woman becomes the Chief Minister or the Prime Minister. A step taken to introduce reforms in this matter was to reserve one-third of seats in local self-government bodies (in panchayats and municipalities) for women. Today, there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies. Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women.

A bill with this proposal has been pending before the Parliament for more than a decade. The bill has not been passed owing to the lack of consensus.

Gender divisions drive home the point that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics. It expresses that disadvantaged groups benefit when social divisions become a political issue.

Example 3.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. This is what the Panchayati Raj has done in India. One Third of seats in local government bodies – in panchayats and municipalities – are now reserved for women. Now there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies. Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women.

A bill with this proposal has been pending before the Parliament for more than a decade. But there is no consensus over this among all the political parties. The bill has not been passed. Gender division is an example that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics.
(A) Which of the following is the best performing country in terms of womens’ participation in political movements?
(a) Norway
(b) Russia
(c) Saudi Arabia
(d) India
(a) Norway

(B) Do you agree “Gender division is an example that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics”?
Yes. It has helped women mobilise and speak up for themselves.

(C) One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. How has this been achieved through Panchayati Raj in India?
(a) Through reservation of l/6th of seats for women in local self government bodies.
(b) Through removal of l/6th of seats from the legislatures to reduce competition.
(c) Through reservation of l/3rd of seats in local self government bodies.
(d) Through increasing the number of seats in order to accommodate more men.
(c) Through reservation of 1/3 rd of seats in local self government bodies.
Explanation: Reservation of seats has helped to accommodate more women in local self governance bodies and institutions of decision making.

(D) Assertion (A): Women do not participate enough in public and political life in India.
Reason(R): India is a matriarchal society.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

Explanation: India is a patriarchal society. Most families still consider that women should be caregivers and homemakers. Hence their participation is less in the political sphere.

Religion, Communalism And Politics

Religious divisions are not as universal as gender, but religious diversity is fairly widespread in the world today. Many countries including India host multiple religious groups.

Like in the case of Northern Ireland, despite belonging to the same religion, people can have difficulties over the way it is practiced. Religious differences are expressed in the field of politics. Gandhiji believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.

Human rights groups have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities. They have requested that the government take special steps to protect religious minorities. Women’s movements have also argued that family laws of all the religions discriminate against women. They have demanded changes in laws to bring equality between the sexes.

Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions play a role in politics. People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as members of religious communities. Leaders should be able to regulate the practice of religion so as to prevent discrimination and oppression. Political acts are not wrong as long as they treat all religions equally.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Problems arise when religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms, when one religion and its followers are instigated and played against another. When beliefs of one religion are presented as superior when compared to others, when state power is used to establish domination of one reLigious group over the rest and the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another, Communalism begins.
Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

Communalism involves that the stakeholders believe:

  1. That the followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Differences are trivial for community life.
  2. Followers of different religions cannot belong to the same social communities. Any commonalities among them are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.

Communalism spreads the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. They can only live peacefully if one dominates the rest or else they have to form separate countries.

It is not necessary for all the people of one religion to have the same interests and aspirations in every context. There are many voices inside every community which have to be heard. Any attempt to bring up common features will destroy their individuality and uniqueness.

Example 4.
Consider the following statements on the meaning of communal politics. Communal politics is based on the belief that:
A. One religion is superior to that of others.
B. People belonging to different religions can live together happily as equal citizens.
C. Followers of a particular religion constitute one community.
D. State power cannot be used to establish the domination of one religious group over others. Which of the statements is /are correct?
(a) A, B, C, and D
(b) A, B, and D
(c) A and C
(d) B and D
(c) A and C

Explanation: Communal politics believes in superiority of one religion over the other and that the followers of a particular religion that constitute one community strictly cannot live together peacefully.

Forms of Communalism

Communalism can take various forms in politics:
1. Through everyday debates and conversations involving religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions. It is the most common form of expression of communalism. This takes the form of mdjoritarian dominance if corrupted. This also leads to separationist tendencies among the minorities. It can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.

2. Another form is political mobilisation on reLigious lines. Sacred symbols, religious leaders, and emotional appeal are used to unify people in the name of religion under one political arena. Minority or majority appeasement is one of the main measures used for this purpose.

3. Communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. India and Pakistan suffered the same during Partition.
Secular state Communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in our country.

Secular State:
The model of Secular state was introduced in the Constitution to save India from division based on lines of religion.

Several Constitutional provisions in India reflect this idea:

  1. There is no official religion for the Indian state.
  2. The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any
  3. The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion. The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example. The Constitution bans untouchability. In India, Secularism is not just an ideology of some parties or persons.
  4. Communalism should not be seen as a threat to some people in India. It threatens the very idea of India. Communism needs to be removed. Communal prejudices and propaganda need to be countered in everyday life and religion based mobilisation needs to be countered or kept away from politics.

Buddhism is the state religion in Sri Lanka, Islam in Pakistan and Christianity is the state religion in England.

Caste in Politics

The interaction of caste and politics has both positive and the negative aspects. Caste division is unique to Indian society. Social inequalities and forms of division of labour cause occupations to be passed on from one generation to another, which has further led to the emergence of Caste System. Hereditary occupational division has been sanctioned by rituals.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 5.
Social divisions based on ………………. are peculiar to India.

Members within a caste or community are supposed to practice similar occupations, get married within the caste group and not eat with members from other caste groups. Caste system has been based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘outcaste’ groups. This also caused the practice of untouchability. Political leaders and social reformers UkeJyotibaPhule, Gandhiji, B. R. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswamy Naicker advocated and worked to establish a society without caste inequalities.

The Census of India counts two social groups: the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. These broad groups include hundreds of castes or tribes whose names are listed in an official Schedule. Thus they are called Scheduled.

The Scheduled Castes commonly known as Dalits, include those that were previously regarded as ‘outcaste’ in the Hindu social order and were subjected to exclusion and untouchability. The Scheduled Tribes, often referred to as Adivasis, include those communities that led a secluded life usually in hills and forests and did not interact much with the rest of society. In 2011, the Scheduled Castes were 16.6 per cent and the Scheduled Tribes were 8.6 per cent of the country’s population.

Combined with their efforts, socio-economic changes, castes and caste system has changed drastically. With economic development, large scale urbanisation, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and the weakening of the position of landlords and Zamindars in the villages, the old rigid notions of Caste hierarchy are dying.

The Constitution of India prohibited any caste-based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system. There have been major developments but despite the efforts, effects of centuries of these practices continue to be felt today.

Caste is an important source of economic inequality because it regulates access to resources of various kinds. For example, in the past, the so-called ‘untouchable’ castes were denied the right to own land, while only the so-called ‘twice born’ castes had the right to education.

The castes with access to older education have accepted modern education. Few groups continue to lag behind due to lack of opportunities. There is a disproportionately large presence of ‘upper caste’ among the urban middle classes in our country. Caste continues to be closely linked to economic status.

Like Communal politics with religion- Casteism is rooted in the belief that caste is the sole basis of social community. Just like religious groups, caste groups have been formed.

Caste is one aspect of our experience but it is not the only relevant or the most important aspect.

Frequently Asked:
Caste can take various farms in politics

  1. Parties nominate candidates from different castes to muster necessary support to win elections since people in India vote their caste, not cast their vote.
  2. When governments are formed, political parties ensure representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
  3. Political parties and candidates in elections appeal to casteist sentiments to muster support. Universal Adult Franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote fbrce political parties to mobilise and muster public support.
  4. It brings consciousness among the people of Lower and deprived castes.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 6.
State reasons to saj that caste atone cannot determine election results in India.
Despite the huge role castes play in elections, elections and politics are not only just about Caste. This can be asserted:
1. No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. Consequently, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of various castes and communities to win elections.

2. No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community. Many political parties may put up candidates from the same caste which may cause the votes to get divided. Some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidate from their caste.

3. The ruling party and the sitting ministers or members of legislatures frequently lose elections in India. Hence caste vote bank is fluid and can turn any side.

4. The voters have strong attachment to political parties which is often stronger than their attachment to their caste or community. People belonging to different classes within the same caste vote differently.

5. People’s assessment of the performance of the government and the leaders are decisive in elections.

Politics in Caste

There is a two-way relationship between caste and politics. Politics too influences the caste system by politicising it.
It is not politics that gets caste-ridden but caste that gets politicised.

  1. Each caste group tries to gain membership by including states and neighbouring territories in their caste group.
  2. Caste groups form a coalition with other castes or communities to enter into a dialogue and negotiation and assert their significance and powers on others.
  3. New caste groups have come into society. These are labelled as ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups.

Caste plays different kinds of roles in politics . Where on one hand, expression of caste differences in politics helps disadvantaged communities in expring their needs and demands of their share of power. This improves their decision making process. Multiple organisations, institutions and groups have been demanding for an end to all kinds of discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.

Excessive attention to certain caste groups has resulted in negative consequences. Like religion, politics based on caste based identity alone is not very healthy in a democracy. Caste division leads to tensions, conflict and violence. It diverts attention from real issues like poverty, development and corruption.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 7.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:

List I

List II

(1) A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.  (A) Communalist
(2) A person who says that religion is the principal basis of community.  (B) Feminist
(3) A person who thinks that caste is the principal basis of community.  (C) Secularist
(4) A person who does not discriminate against others on the basis of religious beliefs.  (D) Castiest

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste 1
(b) BADC

Example 8.
Which among the following statements about India’s Constitution is wrong?
(a) prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
(b) gives official status to one religion.
(c) provides to all individuals freedom to profess any religion.
(d) ensures equality of citizens within religious communities.
(b) gives official status to one religion.

Explanation: The Constitution of India does not recognize any specific religion at our state religion.

→ Feminist Movements: A range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.

→ Mobilization: The act of encouraging, organizing, and making ready for use or action.

→ Patriarchal Society: Of relating to the male head of the family or society.

→ Oppression: A situation where people are governed in an unfair and cruel way.

→ Partisan: A strong supporter of a political party.

→ Secular: Not associated with a particular religion.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

→ Communalism: Allegiance to one’s own ethnic group rather than to the wider society.

→ Propaganda: Ideology used in a misleading way.

→ Occupational mobility: It refers to the ease at which a worker can leave one job for another in a different field.

→ Constituency: A group of voters in a specified area who elect a representative to a legislative body.

→ Apartheid: A policy of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race; prevalent in South Africa

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Federalism Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 2


One of the key changes made in the Constitution of Belgium was to devolve the powers of the central government to give these powers to the regional governments. This was different from their original arrangement where these powers were given to regional governments by the central government and could be withdrawn by the latter too.

Regional governments were made independent of the central government constitutionally in 1993. Belgium shifted from a unitary to a federal form of government.

Sri Lanka is still a unitary system where the national government has all the powers. Tamil leaders want
Sri Lanka to become a federal system.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Frequently Asked:
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central government and various separately answerable to the people constituent units of the country. A federation has two levels of government.

One is the central/pan-nation government responsible for a few subjects of common national interest Regional/ Provincial governments at the level of provinces or states that look after general administration of their state. These governments enjoy their power independent of the other.

Federations are contrasted with unitary governments because unitary governments have only one level of government. If more levels are present, the sub-units are subordinate to the central government.

The central government delegates powers and orders to the provincial government. In a federal system, the central government does not have the authority to order the state governments to do anything, except in the interests of the territorial integrity of the nation. State government is not answerable or accountable to the central government.
The central and the state governments are both separately answerable to the people.

Features of Federalism

Key Features of Federalism
1. There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.

2. Each tier has its own jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation, economic affairs and administration. Despite this, they govern the same citizens.

3. Their jurisdictions and powers have been lucidly laid down in the Constitution. Their composition, responsibilities and powers are constitutionally guaranteed.

4. The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally amended by any one level of government. Amendments affecting their jurisdictions have to be passed by both the levels of government.

5. Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government. The courts have been given responsibilities of dispute resolution,
custodianship of Fundamental Rights and that of the Constitution apart from other powers. They have also been made the neutral party to judge and resolve disputes between the centre and state or between states.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

6. The Constitution clearly lays down sources of revenue for each level of government. This ensures its independence and financial autonomy.

7. The Federal System thus has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

8. Governments at different levels should agree to rules of power sharing. They should have mutual trust among them.

9. An ideal Federal System has both aspects: mutual trust and agreement to live together. The composition and power separation varies from federation to federation.

  • This balance depends on the historical context behind the formation of the federation.
  • Federations are formed in two ways.
  • The first route involves independent states coming together by their own will to form a bigger unit.
  • They give up parts of their sovereignty. They retain identity but are able to increase their security in this way.
  • This type of ‘coming together’ federations include the USA, Switzerland and Australia.
  • All the constituent states usually have equal power and are strong vis-a-vis the federal government.
  • The second route is where a large country divides its power between the constituent states and the national government. India, Spain and Belgium are examples of this kind of ‘holding together’ federation.
  • The Central Government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the States.
  • Different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers.

Despite only 25 of the world’s 193 countries having federal political systems, their citizens make up 40 percent of the world’s population.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism


Example 1.
The distinguishing feature of a federal government is:
(a) National government gives some powers to the provincial government.
(b) Power is distributed among the legislature, executive and judiciary.
(c) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
(d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.
(d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.

Features of India As a Federal Country

India is a vast country. It hosts a huge variety of diversity in its territory. India emerged as an independent nation after partition where Muslim-dominated provinces were strung together to form Pakistan. The Constitution declares India as a Union of States. Indian Union is based on the principles of Federalism. The term Federation has not been mentioned or used in the Constitution.

All the features of federalism apply to the provisions of the Indian Constitution.

  1. The Constitution initially provided for a two-tier system of government- the Union/central government and the state governments.
  2. The third tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. All tiers are tasked with responsibilities and their respective jurisdiction.
  3. The Constitution provides a threefold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and the State Governments in form of three lists:

The Union List contains subjects of national importance such as defense of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications, and currency. This was done to ensure a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country. Only the Union government makes laws on subjects in the Union list.

The State List contains subjects of State and local importance. For example, police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. Only the state governments can make laws relating to subjects mentioned in this list.

The Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments, such as education, forests, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession. The Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on these subjects. In case of a deadlock, the law made by the Union Government will prevail.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Frequently Asked:
According to our constitution, the Union Government has the power to legislate on the ‘residuary’ subjects. Any subject introduced after the Constitution was drafted or left by omission. Most federations that are formed by ‘holding together’ do not give equal power to its constituent units.

Example 2.
A few subjects in various lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State, and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below.
A. Defence;
B. Police;
C. Agriculture;
D. Education;
E. Banking;
F. Forests;
G. Communications;
H. Trade;
I. Marriages

  • Union list: Defence. Banking and Communications
  • State List: PoLice, Agriculture and Trade
  • Concurrent list: Education, Forests, and Marriages

Different states enjoy different powers. Jammu and Kashmir enjoyed a special status under article 370 and 35A till 2019. Many provisions of the Indian Constitution were not applicable to this State without the approval of the State Assembly. Indians who were not permanent residents of this State could not buy land or reside here permanently. Few other states enjoy some special status too.

Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram enjoy special powers under certain provisions of the Constitution of India (Article 371) due to their peculiar social and historical circumstances.

Few territories or units of India which were too small to become an independent State but which could not be merged with any of the existing states enjoy very little power, for example, Chandigarh, or Lakshadweep or the capital city of Delhi. These are called Union Territories. They do not have the status or the powers of a State. The Central Government runs them through special provisions.

Power-sharing between the Union Government and the State governments is basic to the structure of the Constitution. The Parliament cannot unilaterally change this arrangement. For proposing and implementing a change, resolutions have to be passed by both Houses of Parliament with at least two-thirds majority. It has to be ratified by the legislatures of at least half of the total States.

The judiciary supervises the implementation of constitutional provision. The High Courts and the Supreme Court have the power and responsibility to resolve any dispute between centre and states or among states.
The Union and State governments have been given the power to raise resources by levying taxes in order to function and run their respective states.

Example 3.
Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
Both India and Belgium possess and promote the separation of Powers and Decentralisation. In Belgium, like India, regional governments were given constitutional powers making them independent.

Unlike India, Belgium possesses a community government elected by communities separately that controls its cultural affairs. India does not have any such government.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Example 4.
(A) Pokharan, the place where India conducted its nuclear tests, lies in Rajasthan. Suppose the Government of Rajasthan was opposed to the Central Government’s nuclear policy, could it prevent the Government of India from conducting the nuclear tests?
No it cannot preventthe Central government because the subject of energy and national security is under the Union List. The action was a test to ascertain our potential for using nuclear power for peaceful purposes.

(B) Suppose the Government of Sikkim plans to introduce new textbooks in its schools. But the Union Government does not like the style and content of the new textbooks. In that case, does the state government need to take permission from the Union Government before these textbooks can be launched?
Yes. It is important because education is

  • a subject of the Concurrent list. In case of a
  • deadlock, the law or decision by the Union government is final.

(C) Suppose the Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha have different policies on how their state police should respond to the naxalites. Can the Prime Minister of India intervene and pass an order that all the Chief Ministers will have to obey?
No, because police is a state subject.

The Practice of Federalism

Only clearly laid out Constitutional provisions cannot guarantee the success of Federalism. The real success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in our country. The nature and practice of democratic politics in our country ensured that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together become a shared ideal in our country.

Linguistic States:
The creation of Linguistic States was one of the most fundamental tests of democratic politics in our country.

Most old states have been divided to form new states. Areas, boundaries and names of the states have been changed. In 1947, the boundaries of several old states of India were delimited in order to create new states. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State.

Some states were created not on the basis of language but to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography. National leaders feared that if new states were created, it would lead to the disintegration of the country. The Central Government resisted the formation of linguistic states for some time.

The formation of linguistic states has actually made the country more united. It has also made administration easier.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Example 5.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
If you look at the political map of India when it began its journey as a democracy in 1947 and that of 2019, you will be surprised by the extent of the changes. Many old States have vanished and many new States have been created. Areas, boundaries and names of the States have been changed. In 1947, the boundaries of several old States of India were changed in order to create new States. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State. Some States were created not on the basis of language but to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.

When the demand for the formation of States on the basis of language was raised, some national leaders feared that it would lead to the disintegration of the country. The Central Government resisted linguistic States for some time. But the experience has shown that the formation of linguistic States has actually made the country more united. It has also made administration easier.
(A) Which of the following states were made to recognise differences based on language or ethnicity?
(a) Bihar
(b) Goa
(c) Nagaland
(d) Rajasthan
(a) Nagaland

(B) When was the boundary of the states delimited for the first time after Independence?
(a) 1967
(b) 1947
(c) 1950
(d) 1953
(b) 1947
Explanation: For the first time, 600 provincia and British ruled units were combined to form a nation.

Related Theory:
The second linguistic reorganisation of states took place in 1956.

(C) What features of democracy could be realised with linguistic reorganisation of the states?
Recognition and accommodation of diversities and social divisions help maintain peace in the nation. This is one of the features of democracy, equal respect to all diversities.

(D) Assertion (A): When the demand for the formation of states on the basis of language was raised, some national leaders feared that it would lead to the disintegration of the country.
Reason(R): When people with similar identities stay together, isolationist tendencies might increase.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: Since people with similar identities are able to relate better, they are unable to associate themselves with other groups. This leads to inception of isolationist tendencies. It was a legitimate fear that these groups might try to isolate themselves.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Language Policy:
Our Constitution does not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language. It is the mother tongue of only about 40 per cent of Indians especially those residing in northern India. Therefore, there were many safeguards put in place to conserve the rest of the language. 21 other languages besides Hindi were recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution.

Any Central Government level examination can be taken in any of these languages. States too have their own official languages. All the government work takes place in the official language of the concerned State.

Indian leaders unlike Sri Lankans made it a point to represent and recognise each linguistic diversity.
The Constitution mentioned that the use of English Language for official purposes was to stop in 1965. Most non-Hindi speaking states demanded that this use continue. In Tamil Nadu, this movement took a violent form. The Central Government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.

Numerous critics believed that this step favoured the English speaking elite. However, the promotion of Hindi continues to be the official policy of the Government of India. The promotion does not force the language upon the citizens. The flexibility shown by Indian political leaders helped our country avoid the kind of situation that Sri Lanka finds itself in.

The census of 1991 recorded more than 1500 distinct languages which people mentioned as their mother tongues. They have been grouped together under major Language groups. Post grouping, the aggregate is 114 major languages. Of these, 22 languages are now included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and are therefore called ‘Scheduled Languages’.

Others are called ‘non- Scheduled Languages’. In terms of languages, India is perhaps the most diverse country in the world.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Center-state Relations:
Restructuring and strengthening the Centre-State relations has also helped in concretisation of federal practices. The constitutional arrangements for sharing power depends on how the ruling parties and leaders follow these arrangements majorly. During early years post-Independence, one political party dominated both the Centre and the States. This left state governments with minimum powers to exercise as autonomous federal units.

When the ruling party at the state Level was different, the parties at the centre attempted to undermine them. The Constitution was used as a tool to dismiss the state governments that were controlled by rival parties which belittled the spirit of federalism.

Post 1990s, with the rise of regional political parties in many states of the country, the era of Coalition governments was born. In situations, when no single party got a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, the major national parties wouLd enter into an alliance with other like minded parties including several regional parties to form a government at the Centre.

A new culture of power sharing began. The respect for the autonomy of State Governments grew.
The Supreme Courts gave various decisions to make it difficult for the Central Government to dismiss state governments in an arbitrary manner. Federal power sharing has become more effective than it was before.

Decentralization In India

In a vast country like India, it is necessary to have multiple tiers of government to allow better and effective administration. States in India are as large as independent countries of Europe. They are internally diverse.
Power-sharing within these States was essential. Federal power sharing in India which required a tier below that of the State governments became the rationale for decentralisation of power. Thus, resulted in a third-tier of government, called the local government.

In terms of population, Uttar Pradesh is bigger than Russia, Maharashtra is about as big as Germany.

When power is taken away from Central and State governments and given to the local government, it is called Decentralisation. A large number of problems and issues are better settled at the local level and hence decentralization is important to empower people who are the smallest unit of a democracy. People have better knowledge of problems in their localities and better ideas on where to spend money and how to manage things more efficiently. Direct public participation is only possible at the lower level of governments.

Local Self Governments

Local Government helps us realise the important principle of democracy- local self-government.
The need for decentralisation has been recognised in our Constitution. To realise this, multiple efforts have been undertaken. Panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas were set up in all the states, directly under the control of state governments.

Elections to these local governments have not been held regularly. Local governments depend on state governments for all resources and powers. There was not much decentralisation. In an effort to truly realise the concept of decentralization, a major step was taken in 1992.

The Constitution was amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

  1. It has been made mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies by the Constitution.
  2. Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes.
  3. One-third of alL positions are reserved for women.
  4. Independent State Election Commissions have been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
  5. The State governments are required to devolve some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from State to State.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Example 6.
State any two differences between the local government before and after the Constitutional Amendment in 1992.
Constitutional Amendments gave constitutional status to decentralization making it compulsory for the states to devolve powers. This was not mandatory before.

  • The structure of the local government was decided by this step.
  • State Election Commissions were given the responsibility to conduct elections. States had the power before.
  • Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayati Raj.
  • Each village or group of villages has a Gram Panchayat. This is a council consisting of several ward members called Panch, and headed by a president or Sarpanch. They are directly elected by all the adult population (above 18 years of age) living in that ward or village.
  • It is the decision-making body for the entire village.

The panchayat works under the overall supervision of the Gram Sabha. All the voters in the village are its members. It has to meet at least twice or thrice in a year to approve the annual budget of the Gram Panchayat and to review the performance of the Gram Panchayat

The local government structure goes right up to the district level. A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form what is usually called a Panchayat Samiti or block or Mandat The members of this representative body are elected by all the panchayat members in that area. All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zilla (district) Parishad.

Most members of the Zilla Parishad are elected. Members of the Lok Sabha and MLAs of that district. Its members include some senior level officials from other districts as well. Zilla Parishad is headed by a chairperson.
Local bodies for urban areas are called Municipalities. Municipalities are set up in towns. Big cities have municipal corporations. Municipalities and Municipal Corporations are controlled by elected bodies consisting of people’s representatives. Municipal chairperson is the political head of the Municipality. Mayor heads the Municipal Corporation. This new system of local government is the largest experiment in democracy in the world.

Constitutional status for local governments has helped to deepen democracy in our country. It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism


  • Brazil’s tryst with Democracy
  • Porto Alegre in Brazil has carried out an experiment by combining decentralization with participative democracy. It set up a parallel organization operating alongside the municipal council, enabling local inhabitants to take real decisions for their city.
  • The city has been divided into many sectors or what we call wards. Each sector has a meeting, like that of the Gram Sabha, in which anyone living in that area can participate. There are some meetings to discuss issues that affect the entire city. Any citizen of the city can participate in those meetings. Municipality takes the final decisions.
  • In our own country, a similar experiment has taken place in some areas in Kerala. Ordinary people have participated in making a plan for the development of their locality.

Issues with Local Self Governments:
Gram Sabha sessions are often very irregular. Most state governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments. They are in lack of funds, functionaries and functions which have to be devolved by the State government.

Some states do not have proper maintained structures of these bodies. Numerous representatives are unable to use their powers due to discrimination based on caste, creed or gender.
It will take India a long time in realising the ideal of self-government.

Example 7.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List 1

List II

1. Union of India A. Prime Minister
2. State B. Sarpanch
3. Municipal Corporation C. Governor
4. Gram Panchayat D. Mayor

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism 1
(c) ACDB

→ Constitutional: Authorised by the Constitution.

→ Unitary: A system of administration where all the power is vested in one central government.

→ Jurisdiction: Area over which some institution/person has Legal authority.

→ Unilaterally: Of doing something involving only one side, without involving the other.

→ Autonomy: Independence or freedom.

→ Federation: A political entity which has a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government which devolved powers to them through the Constitution.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

→ Linguistic states: States divided and created on basis of language.

→ Disintegration: The process of something becoming weaker or being destroyed by breaking into smaller parts or pieces.

→ Decentralisation: It is referred to as an organisational structure where the delegation of authority is by the top management to the middle and lower levels of management in an organisation.

→ 1956: Linguistic reorganization of States in India.

→ 1992: Regional Governments in India were given constitutional powers and status.

→ 1993: Regional Governments in Belgium were given constitutional status and powers.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Power Sharing Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 1

Belgium and Its Peculiar Ethnic Composition

Belgium, situated in Europe, covers less area than the state of Haryana. It shares its geographical borders with the Netherlands, France and Germany. Its population is half of that of Haryana. Belgium is an ethnically diverse country. A major portion of its population- 59 percent, lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch while about 40 percent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French. Only 1% of the Belgians speak German.

The capital Brussels is dominated by French-speaking communities (about 80 %) while 20 percent are Dutch-speaking. In Brussels, the minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. Despite that, the Dutch-speaking community could experience the benefit of economic development and education way later than the French-speaking minority community. This fuelled tensions between Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s-60s.


  • The Dutch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but a minority in the capital, Brussels.
  • In Belgium, the Dutch community could take advantage of its numeric majority and impose its will on the French and German-speaking population for selfish benefits leading to greater conflict among communities. In that case, Brussels could come in the middle of this communal conflicts-disrupting the administration of the country.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Example 1.
Source Based:
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later. This led to tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s. The tension between the two communities was more acute in Brussels. Brussels presented a special problem: the Dutch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but a minority in the capital. Let us compare this to the situation in another country. Sri Lanka is an island nation, just a few kilometres off the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. The democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy.
(A) Why did the Dutch-speaking community resent the French-speaking community?
(a) They were the minority and they were rich.
(b) There were the minority community and enjoyed all the benefits for their welfare despite being rich.
(c) They were the majority community.
(d) French community was different in terms of religious practices.
(b) There were the minority community and enjoyed all the benefits for their welfare despite being rich.

Explanation: The Dutch-speaking community were insecure of the favours received by the minority French community, despite the latter being affluent and powerful.

(B) Which of the following reasons best describes why Brussels presented a separate problem in Belgium?
(a) Brussels was located on the outskirts of mainland Belgium which made it difficult to administer.
(b) Brussels was dominated by a French-speaking community which formed a minority in the rest of Belgium.
(c) Brussels was divided into two territories- One was dominated by a French-speaking community and the other by Dutch speaking community.
(d) People of Brussels wanted to be a separate region.
(b) Brussels was dominated by a French-speaking community which formed a minority in the rest of Belgium.

Explanation: The problem would have been severe because if the majoritarian government were to assert their power throughout the country, Brussels would suffer even worse and result into disruption in administration.

(C) Mention one similarity between the countries of Sri Lanka and Belgium with respect to their ethnic composition.
Both Sri Lanka and Belgium house ethnically diverse communities.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

(D) Assertion (A): Belgium managed to accommodate its diversities.
Reason(R): It took care of the interests of both French and Dutch-speaking communities.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: Belgium accommodated the diversities by taking care of the communities by amending the constitution four times.

Sri Lanka And The Ethnic Tensions

Sri Lanka is an island nation, situated close to the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. Its population is almost equal to that of Haryana. Sri Lanka has an ethnically diverse population. Sinhala-speakers (74 percent) and Tamil-speakers (18 percent) are the two major ethnic groups.

The Tamil citizens are further divided into two sub-groups. Native Tamils are called ‘Sri Lankan Tamils’ (13 per cent) and those Tamils who migrated to Sri Lanka from India as plantation workers during the colonial period, are called ‘Indian Tamils’ (almost 3-4 %). Sri Lankan Tamils are concentrated in the north and east of the country.

Frequently Asked:
Most Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhist, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. About 7 per cent of Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala. The Sinhala community could impose its will on the entire country since it enjoys a drastic majority over the Tamils.

Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka gained Independence in 1948.
To secure dominance over the government by virtue of their majority, Sinhalas, who were the democratically elected government, adopted a series of majoritarian measures. This established supremacy of Sinhalas.

  1. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language. Tamil was disregarded.
  2. The governments followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
  3. The constitution declared that Sri Lanka officially recognized Buddhism as its state religion. It promised to promote and foster that.These measures made the Tamils feel alienated and isolated in their own nation. They believed that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders were sensitive to their language and culture and that the constitution and government policies deprived them of equal political rights and opportunities of employment and development.

The Sinhala- Tamil camaraderie only worsened with time.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Frequently Asked:

  • Despite the multiple parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs launched by Sri Lankan Tamils, their demand for more autonomy to provinces populated by the Tamils was repeatedly denied.
  • Consequently, several political organizations were established to demand an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

The rising conflict between the communities fuelled by the feeling of mistrust soon turned into a Civil War.
The Civil war killed thousands of people belonging to both communities. Livelihoods were lost Various families fled the country to save their lives. There was an influx of refugees from Sri Lanka in India due to this war. Sri Lanka’s excellent record of economic development, education and health encountered a terrible setback as a result of this war and ethnic tensions.

Accommodation in Belgium:

  • The Belgian Leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. To adopt the idea of inclusive growth, they amended their constitution four times between 1970 and 1993 to enable everyone to live together within the same country peacefully.
  • The arrangement is innovative and efficient.

Following are some of its features:

  1. The Belgian Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government.
  2. Some special laws require the support of the majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no community can make decisions unilaterally.
  3. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government. State governments of the two regions have been given powers of the Central government for better governance.
  4. Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government.
  5. A third kind of government has been established by the constitution. This is the ‘community government’ – which is elected by all the people belonging to the individual language communities-Dutch, French and German-speaking, irrespective of their places of residence.
  6. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational, and language-related issues.
  7. The Belgian model, though complicated, has proven to be very effective. They helped to avoid civic strife between the two major communities and even partition of the country on linguistic lines.
    Brussels was chosen as the headquarters of European Union. This shows that the country has been successful in establishing peace and camaraderie among its people.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

The European Union is an international organization comprising 26 European countries (Post the exit of Britain). It governs the common economic, social, and security policies of the region. The EU was created by the Maastricht Treaty, which entered into force on November 1, 1993. The EU’s common currency is the Euro.

Though democratic, both Belgium and Sri Lanka deal with the question of power-sharing differently.
Belgian leaders realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. They created mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power.

The example of Sri Lanka shows that if a majority community wants to force its dominance over others
and refuses to share power, it can undermine the unity of the country.

Example 2.
Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
(A) In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
(B) In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.
(C) The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
(D) The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) (A), (B), (C) and (D)
(b) (A), (B) and (D)
(c) (C) and (D)
(d) (B), (C) and (D)
(d) (B), (C) and (D)

Explanation: The Dutch-speaking majority community were displeased because they could enjoy the benefit of economic development and education later than the French-speaking minority community could. This made them resent the minority community.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Example 3.
Annette studies in a Dutch medium school in the northern region of Belgium. Many French-speaking students in her school want the medium of instruction to be French. Selvi studies in a school in the northern region of Sri Lanka. All the students in her school are Tamil-speaking and they want the medium of instruction to be Tamil. If the parents of Annette and Selvi were to approach respective governments to realise the desire of the child who is more likely to succeed? And why?
If both of their parents were supposed to request their respective governments, the Belgian government was more likely to solve the problems of medium of instruction through appropriate deliberation. Since the Belgian government is more inclined towards recognition and democratic solutions to ethnic tensions. The Sri Lankan government does not believe in this and asserts its authority over Tamils, declaring their language to be a foreign language.

Power Sharing

Power-sharing is desirable because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Social conflict often leads to violence and political instability. Power sharing ensures the stability of political order. Imposing the will of the majority community over others undermines the unity of the nation.
Tyranny of the majority is both oppressive for the minority and brings ruin to itself as well.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Frequently Asked:
A democratic rule implies sharing power with those affected by the exercise of these powers, and with those who have to live with its effects. Democracy means that the people have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.

A legitimate government is one where citizens participate enthusiastically and organically in the system.
The first reason is the prudential reason while the second can be considered moral. The prudential reasons stress that power-sharing will bring out better outcomes. The moral reasons emphasise that the very act of power-sharing as valuable.

Power-sharing is the spirit of democracy.

Forms of Power Sharing

The concept of power sharing emerged in opposition to the notion of undivided political power.
Before the introduction of the concept of power sharing, power was accumulated in one person. It was preferred that the Government reside in one person or group of persons located at one place. This was done to ensure quicker and stable decisions.

The situation was drastically altered by the emergence of democracy. The concept of democracy states that people are the source of all political power and they rule themselves through institutions of self-governance.
Due respect and recognition is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society. Every citizen has a voice in the shaping of public policies. It follows the principle that democratic political power should be divided among all.

Example 4.
What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
Power-sharing arrangements take many forms in modern democracies. Following are some of these forms:
1. Power is shared among the three principal organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary.

  • This places different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers and hence can be called Horizontal level of Power-sharing.
  • This prevents accumulation of power and arbitrary use of unlimited power.
  • This results in a balance of power and establishes a system of checks and balances among various institutions.
  • Ministers and government officials are responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies. Even though Judges are appointed by the executive, they can check the functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures.

2. Power is also shared among governments at different levels- union government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. This is the Federal form of Government.

  • The central/national government is called the federal or Union government. The governments at the provincial or regional level are called by different names in different countries.
  • In India, we call them State Governments. Not all countries have state or provincial governments- the system with a single government is called the Unitary system of government.
  • In Federal countries, the constitution recognizes and clarifies powers of different levels of government. Belgian government did the same by amending their constitution. This is called federal division of power.
  • The same principle is also extended to levels of government lower than the State government- Local Self government brHies in its and villages. This is called the vertical division of power.

3. Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. For example- ‘Community government’ in Belgium is one such form of sharing.

4. The constitutional and legal arrangements whereby vulnerable sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration is also a form of power-sharing.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

5. The system of ‘reserved constituencies’ in assemblies and the parliament of our country share power and this can also be a form of power-sharing. This arrangement enables the representation of diverse social groups in government and institutional bodies and prevents rise of feelings of isolation and vulnerability. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power.

6. Political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power- this is also a form of power-sharing arrangements.

7. Power is also shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups since political parties are always competing for an opportunity to form governments. Political parties also share powers directly, where two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections. On winning, they form a coalition government.

8. Interest groups of traders, businessmen, industrialists, farmers and industrial workers also share governmental power, either through participation in government-instituted committees or by asserting influence on the decision-making process.

UK, France, Italy and Japan are unitary states. India, US are Federal states.

Example 5.
Here are some examples of power-sharing. Which of the four types of power-sharing do these represent? Who is sharing power with whom?
1. The Bombay High Court ordered the Maharashtra state government to immediately take action and improve living conditions for the 2,000-odd children at seven children’s homes in Mumbai.
This showcases power-sharing on a horizontal level- between different organs of the government placed at the same level- Judiciary and the State Legislative assembly in this case.

2. The government of Ontario state in Canada has agreed to a land claim settlement with the aboriginal community. The Minister responsible for Native Affairs announced that the government will work with aboriginal people in a spirit of mutual respect and cooperation.
The power-sharing arrangement followed here is the form with different social and ethnic groups.

3. Russia’s two influential political parties, the Union of Right Forces and the Liberal Yabtoko Movement, agreed to unite their organizations into a strong right-wing coalition. They propose to have a common list of candidates in the next parliamentary elections.
This power-sharing arrangement is between 2 political parties. A Coalition government is formed after alliance formation.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

4. The finance ministers of various states in Nigeria got together and demanded that the federal government declares its sources of income. They also wanted to know the formula by which the revenue is distributed to various state governments.
This is the vertical form of government. Power is shared between the union government and the state.

Example 6.
After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Thomman: Power sharing is necessary only in societies that have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.
Mathayi: Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.
Ouseph: Every society needs some form of power-sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.
We can agree with Ouseph’s conclusion when he says that every society needs power sharing irrespective of social divisions because power-sharing prevents accumulation of powers in the hands of a person or in a group and reduces chances of possible tensions in future.

→ Ethnic: Of relating to a common and distinctive culture, religion, language etc. People belong to distinct ethnic groups and communities.

→ Majority: A community which dominates the other owing to its large size. In a country, the majority community is the one which has the largest number of people identifying or belonging to it.

→ Minority: A community which is dominated by other communities due to its small size or distinct culture.

→ Majoritarian: When a majority community gathers powers and begins to assert the same through political actions and orders, it is said to have asserted majoritarianism.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

→ Civil War: War between communal groups within a country.

→ Eelam: Tamil word for state.

→ Community government: Government elected by community groups for regulation of ethnic and linguistic affairs

→ Tyranny: Despotic rule

→ Coalition government: Dovernment formed by alliance of two or more parties.

→ 1948: Sri Lanka gained Independence

→ 1956: Sri Lanka passed the Official Language Act recognising Sinhala as the only offcial language

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Lifelines of National Economy Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 7

Transport, Communication and Trade

All goods and services used in our day to day lives are not available in our immediate surroundings- some have to be transported from different places. The movement of these goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transport. Professionals like the traders help make the products come to the consumers by transportation. The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. Efficient means of transport are prerequisites for fast development.

The movement of these goods and services can be over land, water and air. Transport can also be divided into land, water and air accordingly. For a long time, trade and transport were restricted to a limited space. But, with the development in science and technology, the area of influence of trade and transport has expanded multi-folds. Quick, efficient and easily available transport has made it possible for the world to be converted into a large village. Partnered with a developed communication system, the transport system has made the world more accessible and open. Therefore, transport, communication and trade are complementary to each other.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

India is well-linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic and socio-cultural plurality because of railways, airways, waterways, newspapers, radio and internet. These facilities have led to its socio-economic progress. Local to international level trade has added to the vitality of Indian and world economy. A dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a prerequisite for local, national and global trade.
Trade has enriched our life and added to the amenities and facilities which help humans live more comfortably.



  • India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh km.
  • Roadways have preceded railways in India.
  • They are easy to build and maintain and for this ease, they are preferred over railways.

The growing importance of road transport vis-a-vis rail transport is rooted in the following reasons:

  • The construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
  • Roads traverse highly dissected and undulating topography.
  • Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
  • Road transport is economical in the transportation of few persons and for relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
  • Road transport provides door-to-door service.
  • The cost of loading and unloading goods is much lower.
  • Road transport proves to be a good feeder to other modes of transports.
  • Roads provide a Link between railway stations, air, and seaports.

In India, roads are classified into six classes according to their capacity.

  • Golden Quadrilateral Superhighways
  • National Highways
  • State Highways
  • District Roads
  • Other Roads
  • Border Roads

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The roads Link Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways. The North-South
corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West Corridor connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) are Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways. These Super Highways are constructed to reduce the time and distance between mega Indian cities. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

National Highways:
National Highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are Laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). Major National Highways run in North- South and East-West directions.

Frequently Asked:
The historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway No.l, between Delhi and Amritsar.

State Highways:
Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. The State Public Works Department (PWD) maintains these highways in State and Union Territories.

District Roads:
These roads connect the district headquarters with other places in the district. These roads are maintained by Zila Parishad.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Other Roads:
Rural roads link rural areas and villages with towns. These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen SadakYojana.
Under this scheme, every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.

Border Roads:
Border Roads Organisation undertakes construction and maintenance of roads in the bordering areas of the country. BRO was established by 1960 for the maintenance of strategically important roads in the northern and north-eastern border areas. These roads have improved accessibility in areas with difficult terrain leading to economic development of these areas.

Roads are also classified according to the type of material used for their construction. They are divided into metalled and unmetalled roads.

  • Metalled roads may be made of cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal. They are all-weather roads.
  • Unmetalled roads are made of mud, clay or uneven stones and go out of use in the rainy season.

Example 1.
Which two of the following extreme locations are connected by the east-west corridor?
(a) Mumbai and Nagpur
(b) Silchar and Porbandar
(c) Mumbai and Kolkata
(d) Nagpur and Siligudi
(b) Silchar and Porbandar

Railways is the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Railways facilitate people conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances. Indian Railways has been an integrating force for more than 150 years.

Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.

The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for their growth.

Rivers requiring the construction of bridges across their wide beds pose some obstacles to the construction of these tracks. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracks are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.

Himalayan mountainous regions are unfavourable for the construction of raiLway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. The terrain of sandy plains of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand were difficult to conquer for setting up of railway lines as well.

The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats).

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

The development of the Konkan railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in India’s busiest and most significant economic region.
There have been instances of sinking of track in some stretches and landslides.
Railways are more significant for our national economy than all other means of transport put together.

Rail transport suffers from various issues.

  • Many passengers travel without tickets.
  • Thefts and damaging of railway property is another issue. People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and damage the railway due to their negligence.


  • The Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking in the country. The first train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in 1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
  • The Indian Railway is now reorganised into 16 zones.

The pipeline transport network is the newest form of transportation. They were used to transport water and other liquids in the past. Today, they are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.


  • Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
  • The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat.
  • Gas-based fertilizer plants exist everywhere because of pipelines.
  • Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
  • It saves products by ruling out trans-shipment losses or delays.

Three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country can be seen as:

  1. From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad.
    It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
  2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat.
    It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu to other areas.
  3. From Hazira in Gujarat which connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh.
    It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahjahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Example 2.
Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?
(a) Railways
(b) Roadways
(c) Pipeline
(d) Waterways
(c) Pipelines

Example 3.
Which one of the following states is not connected with the H.V.J. pipeline?
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Gujarat
(d) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Maharashtra

Explanation: The HVJ pipeline runs from Hazira in Gujarat which connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh.

Example 4.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. In the past, these were used to transport water to cities and industries. Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry. The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be thought of only because of pipelines. Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays. There are three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
(A) Which of the following cannot be transported through the pipelines?
(a) Crude Oil
(b) Jelly
(c) Petroleum Products and Natural Gas
(d) Fertiliser factories
(b) Jelly

(B) Which of the following pipeline has branches in Eastern Indian states?
(a) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab
(b) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh
(c) From Upper Assam to Kanpur
(d) Pipeline from Rajasthan to West Bengal
(c) From Upper Assam to Kanpur

Explanation: The pipeline begins from an oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahdbad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri

(C) Why were the Pipelines used in the past?
Pipelines were used to transfer water in the past.

(D) Assertion (A): Solids can also be transported through a pipeline.
Reason (R): The pipelines are accommodated with a net for transferring of solids.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

India was one of the seafaring countries from ancient times. Indian seamen sailed and carried and spread Indian commerce and culture. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. They can carry heavy and bulky goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.

India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out of these only 5685 km are navigable by mechanised vessels.

These have been declared as the National Waterways by the Government.

  1. The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)-N.W. No.1
  2. The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)-N.W. No.2
  3. The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapuram- Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakara canals-205 km) – N.W. No.3
  4. Stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km) – N.W. No.4
  5. Stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and East Coast Canal (588 km) – N.W. No.5

Some inland waterways which support transportation are Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak and backwaters of Kerala.

Frequently Asked:
India’s trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports located along the coast. 95 per cent of the country’s trade volume (68 per cent in terms of value) is moved by sea.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Major Sea Ports:
With a long coastline of 7,516.6 km, India is dotted with 12 major and 200 notified minor ports. 95 per cent of the foreign trade is handled by these major ports.
1. Kandla in Kachchh was the first port to be developed after Independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port since Karachi port was lost to Pakistan post-partition. It handles exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belts stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

2. Mumbai has a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour.

3. The Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port.

4. Mormagao port in Goa is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country and accounts for about fifty per cent of India’s iron ore export.

5. New Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines.

6. Kochchi is an extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.

7. The extreme south-eastern port of Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. A flourishing trade handling of cargoes with the neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc. and the coastal regions of India is handled from here.

8. Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports of the country. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the volume of trade and cargo.

9. Visakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. This port was constructed for the trade of iron ore exports.

10. Paradwip port located in Odisha, specialises in the export of iron ore.

11. Kolkata is an inland riverine port. It caters to trade from the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. It requires constant dredging of Hooghly.

12. Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.

Frequently Asked:
Kandla port is a tidal port. It is called the Deendayal port.

Example 5.
Which one of the following ports is the deepest land-locked and well-protected port along the east coast?
(a) Chennai
(b) Paradip
(c) Tuticorin
(d) Visakhapatnam
(d) Visakhapatnam

Air transport is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
It can provide access through very difficult terrains Like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and also long oceanic stretches with great ease. The North-eastern states with big rivers, dissected relief, dense forests and frequent floods and international frontiers, etc., are well connected with the Indian mainland only because of air-transport.

The air transport was nationalised in 19S3. Air India provides domestic and international air services. Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation in its off-shore operations, to difficult terrains like north-eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Air travel is informally subsidized in the north-eastern states to extend the services to even the poorest classes. It is otherwise an expensive form of transport.


Humans have used multiple forms of communication devices ever since they’ve lived. Long distance communication becomes easier in case of no movement of the communicator or receiver.
Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films, etc. are the major means of communication in the country.

The Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
The Indian Postal Network handles parcels as well as personally written communications.

  • Cards and envelopes are first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
  • The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering Land and water transport.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. These are the Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.

India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia. About two-thirds of the villages in India have aLready been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD) telephone facility. To transfer information from the grassroot level to the highest, the government has extended a twenty-four hours STD facility to every village in the country. All STD facilities in India have a common rate. This could be done by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology.

Mass Communication:
Mass communication is the source of entertainment and awareness for people about national programmes and policies. It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films. ALl India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local Languages for a cross section of people of Indian society.

Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. for people of different age groups. Digital India is an umbrella programme to prepare India for a knowledge based transformation.

The focus of Digital India Programme is on being transformative to realise – IT (Indian Talent) + IT (Information Technology)=IT (India Tomorrow) and is on making technology central to enabling change.

India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals with varied periodicity annually.

Newspapers are published in 100 different languages and dialects. The largest number of newspapers published in the country are in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu.

India produces the largest number of feature films in the world annually. It produces short films, video feature films and short films. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.

International Trade

The exchange of goods and services among people, states and countries are termed as trade. Trade exchanges take place in the markets.

Example 6.
What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?

  • International Trade is the trade between two or more countries. International Trade can be facilitated through sea, air or land routes.
  • Local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages. State-level trade is carried between two or more states.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

The advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity; the economic barometer for a country.

Frequently Asked:
Resources are space-bound and countries can survive without international trade. Export and import are the components of trade. The Balance of trade of a country is the difference between its export and import.

When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade. On the contrary, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as an unfavourable balance of trade. India has trade relations with all the major trading blocs and most countries of the world. India exports items which include gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, agriculture and allied products, etc.

India imports petroleum crude and products, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture and allied products.

India has emerged as a software giant at the international level. India earns huge foreign exchange through the export of information technology.

Tourism As A Trade

Tourism has grown substantially over the last three decades in India. About 15 million people are currently engaged in the industry. Tourism promotes national integration and supports local handicrafts and cultural pursuits. It helps in the development of an international understanding about Indian culture and heritage.

Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.

India has a vast potential in the tourism industry waiting to be tapped. Industrialists and the government are making efforts to make tourism a promising industry.

→ First-Class Mail: Mail that is airlifted between stations.

→ Second-Class Mail: Mai that is carried by surface covering Land and water transport.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

→ Balance of Trade: The difference between Exports and Imports

→ Socio-Cultural Plurality: Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities.

→ Aggravating: To make worse or more troublesome

→ Traverse: To move or travel through an area

→ Terrain: A piece of ground

→ Slurry: A slurry is a mixture of solids denser than water suspended in liquid.

→ Premier: Primary

→ Periodical: A paper, publication

Class 10 Social Science Notes