NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Online Education for Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 6


Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. Paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore and aluminum from bauxite. Some types of clothes are manufactured from yarn which is an industrial product.

People employed in the secondary activities manufacture and process the primary materials into finished goods. This sector includes workers employed in steel factories, cars, breweries, textile industries, bakeries etc.

The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries. The manufacturing sector is the backbone of country’s development because:

  • Manufacturing industries modernise agriculture and reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income since it provides jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from India. This became the underlying philosophy of public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It also helps in reducing the regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  • Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and helps bring in foreign exchange.
  • Manufacturing products from raw materials brings prosperity to a country. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries quickly.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Frequently Asked:
Agriculture and industry move hand in hand and are inclusive of each other. Agro-industries in India raise the productivity of agriculture. Agro-Industries depend upon agriculture for raw materials and also sell their finished products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.

The development and competitiveness of the manufacturing industry has helped agriculturists in increasing their production, also making the production processes very efficient.

Our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive apart from being self sufficient. To compete with international markets, goods manufactured by our industries must be of equal standards to those produced in international markets.

Contribution Of Industry To National Economy

In the recent past, the manufacturing factor has stagnated at 17 percent of GDP – out of a total of 27 per cent for the industry which includes 10 percent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.

In some East Asian economies, this figure is 25-35 percent. Growth rate in manufacturing over the Last decade has been around 7 percent per annum as opposed to the desired growth rate for the next decade is 12 percent.

Since 2003, the manufacturing sector has been growing at the rate of 9-10 percent per annum. With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve this growth by next decade.

The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up to improve the productivity of the manufacturing sector.

Industrial Location

Industrial locations are complex in nature and influenced by the availability of raw material labour, capital, power and market. etc. Alt factors are hardly found at every Location. Manufacturing activity is generally located cit places where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost. Urbanisation foLLows industrial activity. Industries are located either close to or in cities.

Industrialization and urbanisation go hand in hand. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, Labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Example 1.
Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
Raw Material, power and proximity to the markets

Frequently Asked:

  • Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centers known as agglomeration economies. This is how a large industrial agglomeration takes place.
  • Before Independence, most manufacturing units were located in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc. for their closeness to the sea. There emerged certain pockets of industrially developed urban centres surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.
  • The key to the decision of the factory location is the least cost. Government policies and specialized labour also influence the location of industry.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Pdf Download Classification Of Industries

Industries may be classified as follows:
1. On the basis of source of raw materials used:

  • Agro Based Industries: Cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
  • Mineral Based Industries: Iron and steel, cement, aluminum, machine tools, petrochemicals.

2. On the basis of their main role:

  • Basic or Key Industries: Supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. Iron and Steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
  • Consumer Industries: Produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.

3. On the basis of capital investment:

  • Small Scale Industry: Maximum investment allowed on the assets of a small scaLe industry unit is 1 crore. This limit keeps changing over a period of time.
  • Medium Scale Industry: When the overall investment is more than Rs. 5 crores, and also less than Rs. 10 crores.
  • Large Scale Industry: When the overall investment is more than Rs. 10 crores.

4. On the basis of ownership:

  • Public Sector: Owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL, etc.
  • Private Sector: Owned and operated by an individual or a group -TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
  • Joint Sector: These industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sector.
  • Cooperative Sector: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The pool in the resources and share the profits or Losses proportionately. For example, sugar industry in Maharashtra, coir industry in Kerala.

5. Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:

  • Heavy Industries: Heavy raw materials used are Iron and Steel.
  • Light Industries: Light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Example 2.
Classify the following into two groups on the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
(i) Oil
(ii) Knitting needles
(iii) Brassware
(iv) Fuse wires
(v) Watches
(vi) Sewing Machines
(vii) Shipbuilding
(viii) Electric Bulbs
(ix) Paintbrushes
(x) Automobiles

  1. Light Industries: Knitting needles, fuse wire, watches, electric bulbs, paintbrushes.
  2. Heavy Industries: Oil, brassware, sewing. machine, shipbuilding, automobiles.

Agro-Based Industries
Cotton, jute, silk, woolen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials.

Textile Industry:
The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy. It contributes significantly to industrial production (14 percent), employment generation (about 35% people are employed- second largest employer after agriculture) and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6 percent). It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP.

Frequently Asked:
The textile industry is the only industry in the country that is self-reliant and complete in the value chain. The process is a complete chain from raw material to the highest value-added products.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Pdf Notes Example 3.
Why is it important for us to keep the mill sector looming lower than the power loom and handloom.
It is important to keep the mill/sector loomage lower than power Loom and handloom because:

  • Many artisans and weavers work independently along with their families on handloom and powerlooms. This supports their families.
  • This is the only source of income for many poor families. If mill production was increased, the sales of these artisans and weavers will be affected.
  • Increase in miLl production will lead largely to rural unemployment and decline in standard of living.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Pdf Cotton Textiles:

  1. In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
    Power-Looms came into use after the 18th century.
  2. Competition with the mill-made cloth from England led to destruction of native industries.
    Spinning is still centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu but weaving is highly decentralised to help incorporate traditional skills and designs of weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, etc.
  3. India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of faoric. Indian weavers do not use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
  4. Weaving is done by handloom, power loom and in mills.
  5. Handspun khadi provides employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Important:
The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

When the two world wars were fought in Europe, India was a British colony. There was a demand for cloth in UX. hence, they gave a boost to the development of the cotton textile industry.

British introduced cotton textile industries in India for their selfish purposes in the 19th century. By 2011, 1946 cotton and human-made fibre textile mills have been established in the country.

80 per cent of the mills have been established in the private sector and the remaining 20% in public and cooperative sectors. There are several thousand small factories with four to ten looms.

Earlier, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton-growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The factors that contributed towards their localisation are availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. This industry provides employment to farmers, cotton boll pLuckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. The industry supports industries like chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works and creates great demands.

It is important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than power loom and handLoom.

Class 10 Manufacturing Industries Notes Frequently Asked:

  • India exports yarn to Japan, the U.S.A., the UX, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries are other importers.
  • India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world, with 43.13 million spindles (2011-12) after China. The spinning sector has received attention since the 1980s.
  • Indian produce accounts for one fourth of the total world trade of cotton yarn. We only contribute 4% in the world trade of textiles. Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fibres we produce.
  • Weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country. Most production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.
  • This is a drawback for the industry. Consequently, many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufacturers have to import fabric.

Notes Of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Challenges: Major challenges are:

  • Despite an increase in the production of good quality long-staple cotton (356 lakh bales of 170 kgs annually 2011-12), the need of importing materials is felt frequently.
  • The power supply is erratic.
  • Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors.
  • Low output of Labour.
  • Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber industry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Geography Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes Jute Textiles:
India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. It is the second-largest exporter of jute goods after Bangladesh. By 2010-11, there were 80 jute mills in India. The majority mills are located in West Bengal.


  • The first jute milt was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra.
  • After partition of 1947, three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan) while Jute mills remained in India.

The following factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin are:

  • The proximity of the jute-producing areas.
  • Inexpensive water transport.
  • Good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills.
  • Abundant water for processing raw jute, cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.

Class 10 Geography Manufacturing Industries Notes Frequently Asked:
Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.
The Jute industry supported 3.7 lakh workers and 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers engaged in cultivation ofjute in 2010-11.

Challenges: Challenges faced by the industry include:

  • Stiff competition from various synthetic substitutes and competitors Like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt, and Thailand.
  • Internal demand has increased owing to the government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
  • Products need to be diversified to stimulate demand.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Cbse Notes Pdf Important:
In 2005, the National Jute Policy was formulated to increase productivity, improve quality, ensure good prices to the jute farmers and enhance the yield per hectare.

U.S.A., Canada, Russia, Saudi Arabia, U.K. and Australia are the main markets ofJute. Jute is an eco-friendly package material and is proposed to replace plastic as a measure to save the environment.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Download Sugar Industry:
India is the second Largest sugar producer in the world. It however occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. Raw material of the sugar industry is bulky and in haulage, its sucrose content reduces. In 2010-11, over 662 sugar mills were spread in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.


  • 60% of the sugar mills are found in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Sugar industry is seasonal in nature and hence ideally suited to the cooperative sector.

Frequently Asked:

  • There is a recent tendency for sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states of India, especially in Maharashtra.
  • This is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content.
  • The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
  • Another plus point is that cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Challenges: Major challenges are:

  • Seasonal nature of the industry.
  • Old and inefficient methods of production.
  • Transport delay in reaching cane to factories.
  • The need to maximise the use of bagasse.

Notes Of Geography Class 10 Chapter 6 Mineral Based Industries:
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

Iron and Steel Industry:
The Iron and Steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries – heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Notes Of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Pdf Frequently Asked:
The production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.

Iron ore, coking coal and limestone are required in the ratio of approximately 4:2:1. Some quantity of manganese is also required to harden the steel.

Finished products need an efficient transport network for their distribution to the markets and consumers. Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).

Chapter 6 Geography Class 10 Notes Example 4.
Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(a) HAIL
(b) SAIL
(c) TATA Steel
(d) MNCC
(b) SAIL

Frequently Asked:

  • In 2010-11, India ranked 4th among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron.
  • In 2010-11, per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 49 kg per annum against the world average of 182 kg.

Class 10 Chapter 6 Geography Notes Important:

  • Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of various specifications.
  • An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
  • In the 1950s, China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel. Today, China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of steel. In 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel accounting for 2.25 per cent of the global steel trade.
  • Chottanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.

This region possesses special advantages for quick development of this industry.

  1. Low cost of iron ore
  2. High grade raw materials in proximity
  3. Cheap labour
  4. Vast growth potential in the home market

Challenges: India is not able to perform to its full potential in the production of Iron and Steel because:

  1. High costs and limited availability of coking coal
  2. Lower productivity of labour
  3. Irregular supply of energy
  4. Poor infrastructure.

India imports good quality steel from other countries. The overall production of steel is sufficient to meet our domestic demand. Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has boosted the industry through the efforts of private entrepreneurs. More allocation of resources for research and development is required to produce steel more competitively.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Geography Chapter 6 Class 10 Notes Example 5.
Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computers, etc.
(a) Steel
(b) Electronics
(c) Aluminium
(d) Information Technology
(a) Steel

Aluminum Smelting:
Aluminum smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. The metal aluminum is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed like an alloy with other metals. Aluminum is useful to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.


  • Aluminum has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
  • Aluminum smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. India has produced over 15.29 lakh million tonnes of aluminum in 2008-2009.
  • Bauxite used as a raw material in the smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock. Regular supply of electricity and fixed and reliable source of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for location of the industry.

Example 6.
Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Jute
(d) Steel
(a) Aluminium

Chemical Industries:
The chemical industry is growing and diversifying quickly in India. It contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP. Indian chemical industry is the third-largest in Asia and the twelfth largest in the world in terms of size. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.

Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. They are found widely spread over in the world.

Organic chemicals include petrochemicals for manufacture of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.

Frequently Asked:
The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
Basic chemicals undergo processing and produce chemicals used for industrial application, agriculture or directly for consumer markets.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Fertiliser Industry:
The fertiliser industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilisers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). Potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.

India is the third-largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers. There are 57 fertiliser units which manufacture nitrogenous and complex nitrogenous fertilisers, 29 of which manufacture urea and 9 for producing ammonium sulphate as a byproduct. 68 small units produce single superphosphate.


  • There are 10 public sector undertakings and one in cooperative sector at Hazira in Gujarat under the Fertiliser Corporation of India.
  • The industry has expanded to other parts of the country post Green Revolution.
  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half the fertiliser production. Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka contribute the other half

Cement Industry:
Cement is useful in activities like building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and other commercial establishments. Raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum are required by this industry. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.


  • The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat with suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
  • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
  • The cement industry expanded after Independence. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 coupled with other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology and production. There are 128 large plants and 332 mini cement plants in the country. India produces a variety of cement.

East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia have welcomed the new improved quality of cement apart from a large demand within the country. This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export. Efforts to boost domestic demand and supply in order to sustain this industry are being pondered upon.

Example 7.
Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Sugar
(d) Jute
(b) Cement

Automobile Industry:
Automobiles like trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres. After the liberalisation, advancement in form of contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which in turn led to growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three wheelers.

Automobile industry has grown exponentially in the last 15 years. Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments. The industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry:
This industry covers transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipment required by the telecommunication industry. Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.

By 2010-11, the Software Technology Parks of India have come up across 46 locations at different centres of India. The industry is majorly concentrated in Bangalore, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune. One of the most positive points about this industry is its employment generation. 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women. The growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector has brought a lot of foreign exchange reserves in the past couple years.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

The continuing growth in the hardware and software sector is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

Industries might be positive for India’s economic growth and development, but they are detrimental for the environment. They increase the pollution of land, water, air, noise. One cannot overlook the degradation industries have caused to the environment. The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.

Frequently Asked:
Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:

  1. Air
  2. Water
  3. Land
  4. Noise

Air Pollution:

  • The presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases like sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide causes air pollution.
  • Airborne particulate materials include solid and liquid particles like dust, spray mists and smoke.
  • Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms.
  • Toxic gas leaks have severe long-term effects. Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as well.

Water Pollution:

  • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and the effluents discharged into rivers.
  • Paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out into water bodies dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc.
  • Fly ash, phospho-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.

Thermal Pollution:

  • Thermal pollution of water is when the hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
  • Soil and water pollution are caused by the same effluents.
  • Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless.
  • Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.

Noise pollution:

  • Noise pollution causes irritation and anger, hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure along with other physiological effects.
  • Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.
  • Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills cause noise.

Control of Environmental Degradation

Every Litre of wastewater discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of fresh water.
To reduce industrial water pollution, the following steps can be taken:

  • minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
  • harvesting rainwater to meet water requirements.
  • treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

Industrial effluents can be treated in three phases:

  • Primary treatment by mechanical means- this involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation,
  • Secondary treatment by biological process.
  • Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
  • This involves recycling of wastewater.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Example 8.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry where there is a threat to groundwater resources also needs to be regulated Legally. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smokestacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories. Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers. Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones. The challenge of sustainable development requires the integration of economic development with environmental concerns.
(A) Which of the following types of pollution is caused by generators?
(a) Water pollution
(b) Air Pollution
(c) Noise Pollution
(d) Land Pollution
(c) Noise Pollution

(B) Which of the following devices can be used in a way to reduce smoke?
(a) Silencers
(b) Rainwater Harvesting
(c) Smoke Stacks
(d) Earplugs and Earphones
(c) Smoke Stacks
Explanation: Smokestacks can be used in a way to reduce smoke.

(C) Define sustainable development.
Sustainable development can be defined as an approach to the economic development of a country without compromising the quality of the environment for future generations.

(D) Assertion (A): Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
Reason (R): Oil and Gas are sources of clean energy. Burning these do not emit smoke.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).


  • NTPC is a major power-providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001.
  • The NTPC works for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants.

This has been possible through:

  • Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
  • Maximum ash utilisation: This can help in less waste generation.
  • Provision of green belts: This nurtures ecological balance and addresses the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
  • Reduction of environmental pollution: Ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management helps reduce pollution and environmental degradation.
  • Ecological monitoring: This reviews and online database management for all its power stations.

Following are the steps for conserving the environment:

  1. Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry should be regulated.
  2. Smoke stacks should be fit in the factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators to reduce particulate matter in the air.
  3. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of conventional forms of energy in factories.
  4. Machinery, equipment and generators should be fitted with silencers.
  5. Machinery should be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
  6. In addition to using earplugs, noise-absorbing materials can be built-in constructing infrastructure.
    The challenge of sustainable development requires the integration of economic development with environmental concerns.

→ Agglomeration: The act of amassing/assembling various parts.

→ Coir: Coarse fiber from the outer husk of coconut.

→ Haulage: Commercial transport of goods.

→ Khandsari: A term in hindi for cooked sugar.

→ Pig iron: Crude iron obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

→ Cryolite: A mineral consisting of a fluoride of sodium and aluminum.

→ NTPC: Major power providing corporation of India.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

→ Green Revolution: A movement with great increase in production of food grains due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, began in the mid 20th century.

→ Quarry: Deep pits from which stone or other materials are extracted.

→ 1854: First Textile Mill was established in Mumbai. 1859: First Jute Mill was established at Rishra.

→ 1904: Cement Plant was established in Chennai.

→ 2004: India became the largest producer of Crude steel. 2005: National Jute policy was implemented.

Class 10 Social Science Notes