NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Online Education for NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Online Education for Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 6


Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. Paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore and aluminum from bauxite. Some types of clothes are manufactured from yarn which is an industrial product.

People employed in the secondary activities manufacture and process the primary materials into finished goods. This sector includes workers employed in steel factories, cars, breweries, textile industries, bakeries etc.

The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries. The manufacturing sector is the backbone of country’s development because:

  • Manufacturing industries modernise agriculture and reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income since it provides jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from India. This became the underlying philosophy of public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It also helps in reducing the regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  • Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and helps bring in foreign exchange.
  • Manufacturing products from raw materials brings prosperity to a country. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries quickly.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Frequently Asked:
Agriculture and industry move hand in hand and are inclusive of each other. Agro-industries in India raise the productivity of agriculture. Agro-Industries depend upon agriculture for raw materials and also sell their finished products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers.

The development and competitiveness of the manufacturing industry has helped agriculturists in increasing their production, also making the production processes very efficient.

Our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive apart from being self sufficient. To compete with international markets, goods manufactured by our industries must be of equal standards to those produced in international markets.

Contribution Of Industry To National Economy

In the recent past, the manufacturing factor has stagnated at 17 percent of GDP – out of a total of 27 per cent for the industry which includes 10 percent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas.

In some East Asian economies, this figure is 25-35 percent. Growth rate in manufacturing over the Last decade has been around 7 percent per annum as opposed to the desired growth rate for the next decade is 12 percent.

Since 2003, the manufacturing sector has been growing at the rate of 9-10 percent per annum. With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve this growth by next decade.

The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up to improve the productivity of the manufacturing sector.

Industrial Location

Industrial locations are complex in nature and influenced by the availability of raw material labour, capital, power and market. etc. Alt factors are hardly found at every Location. Manufacturing activity is generally located cit places where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost. Urbanisation foLLows industrial activity. Industries are located either close to or in cities.

Industrialization and urbanisation go hand in hand. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, Labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Example 1.
Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
Raw Material, power and proximity to the markets

Frequently Asked:

  • Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centers known as agglomeration economies. This is how a large industrial agglomeration takes place.
  • Before Independence, most manufacturing units were located in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, etc. for their closeness to the sea. There emerged certain pockets of industrially developed urban centres surrounded by a huge agricultural rural hinterland.
  • The key to the decision of the factory location is the least cost. Government policies and specialized labour also influence the location of industry.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Pdf Download Classification Of Industries

Industries may be classified as follows:
1. On the basis of source of raw materials used:

  • Agro Based Industries: Cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
  • Mineral Based Industries: Iron and steel, cement, aluminum, machine tools, petrochemicals.

2. On the basis of their main role:

  • Basic or Key Industries: Supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. Iron and Steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
  • Consumer Industries: Produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.

3. On the basis of capital investment:

  • Small Scale Industry: Maximum investment allowed on the assets of a small scaLe industry unit is 1 crore. This limit keeps changing over a period of time.
  • Medium Scale Industry: When the overall investment is more than Rs. 5 crores, and also less than Rs. 10 crores.
  • Large Scale Industry: When the overall investment is more than Rs. 10 crores.

4. On the basis of ownership:

  • Public Sector: Owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL, etc.
  • Private Sector: Owned and operated by an individual or a group -TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
  • Joint Sector: These industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by the public and private sector.
  • Cooperative Sector: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. The pool in the resources and share the profits or Losses proportionately. For example, sugar industry in Maharashtra, coir industry in Kerala.

5. Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:

  • Heavy Industries: Heavy raw materials used are Iron and Steel.
  • Light Industries: Light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Example 2.
Classify the following into two groups on the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
(i) Oil
(ii) Knitting needles
(iii) Brassware
(iv) Fuse wires
(v) Watches
(vi) Sewing Machines
(vii) Shipbuilding
(viii) Electric Bulbs
(ix) Paintbrushes
(x) Automobiles

  1. Light Industries: Knitting needles, fuse wire, watches, electric bulbs, paintbrushes.
  2. Heavy Industries: Oil, brassware, sewing. machine, shipbuilding, automobiles.

Agro-Based Industries
Cotton, jute, silk, woolen textiles, sugar and edible oil, etc. industries are based on agricultural raw materials.

Textile Industry:
The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy. It contributes significantly to industrial production (14 percent), employment generation (about 35% people are employed- second largest employer after agriculture) and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6 percent). It contributes 4 per cent towards GDP.

Frequently Asked:
The textile industry is the only industry in the country that is self-reliant and complete in the value chain. The process is a complete chain from raw material to the highest value-added products.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Pdf Notes Example 3.
Why is it important for us to keep the mill sector looming lower than the power loom and handloom.
It is important to keep the mill/sector loomage lower than power Loom and handloom because:

  • Many artisans and weavers work independently along with their families on handloom and powerlooms. This supports their families.
  • This is the only source of income for many poor families. If mill production was increased, the sales of these artisans and weavers will be affected.
  • Increase in miLl production will lead largely to rural unemployment and decline in standard of living.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes Pdf Cotton Textiles:

  1. In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques.
    Power-Looms came into use after the 18th century.
  2. Competition with the mill-made cloth from England led to destruction of native industries.
    Spinning is still centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu but weaving is highly decentralised to help incorporate traditional skills and designs of weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, etc.
  3. India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of faoric. Indian weavers do not use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
  4. Weaving is done by handloom, power loom and in mills.
  5. Handspun khadi provides employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Important:
The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

When the two world wars were fought in Europe, India was a British colony. There was a demand for cloth in UX. hence, they gave a boost to the development of the cotton textile industry.

British introduced cotton textile industries in India for their selfish purposes in the 19th century. By 2011, 1946 cotton and human-made fibre textile mills have been established in the country.

80 per cent of the mills have been established in the private sector and the remaining 20% in public and cooperative sectors. There are several thousand small factories with four to ten looms.

Earlier, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton-growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The factors that contributed towards their localisation are availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc. This industry provides employment to farmers, cotton boll pLuckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. The industry supports industries like chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works and creates great demands.

It is important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than power loom and handLoom.

Class 10 Manufacturing Industries Notes Frequently Asked:

  • India exports yarn to Japan, the U.S.A., the UX, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries are other importers.
  • India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world, with 43.13 million spindles (2011-12) after China. The spinning sector has received attention since the 1980s.
  • Indian produce accounts for one fourth of the total world trade of cotton yarn. We only contribute 4% in the world trade of textiles. Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fibres we produce.
  • Weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country. Most production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.
  • This is a drawback for the industry. Consequently, many of our spinners export cotton yarn while apparel/garment manufacturers have to import fabric.

Notes Of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Challenges: Major challenges are:

  • Despite an increase in the production of good quality long-staple cotton (356 lakh bales of 170 kgs annually 2011-12), the need of importing materials is felt frequently.
  • The power supply is erratic.
  • Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors.
  • Low output of Labour.
  • Stiff competition with the synthetic fiber industry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Geography Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes Jute Textiles:
India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. It is the second-largest exporter of jute goods after Bangladesh. By 2010-11, there were 80 jute mills in India. The majority mills are located in West Bengal.


  • The first jute milt was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra.
  • After partition of 1947, three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan) while Jute mills remained in India.

The following factors responsible for their location in the Hugli basin are:

  • The proximity of the jute-producing areas.
  • Inexpensive water transport.
  • Good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills.
  • Abundant water for processing raw jute, cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.

Class 10 Geography Manufacturing Industries Notes Frequently Asked:
Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.
The Jute industry supported 3.7 lakh workers and 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers engaged in cultivation ofjute in 2010-11.

Challenges: Challenges faced by the industry include:

  • Stiff competition from various synthetic substitutes and competitors Like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt, and Thailand.
  • Internal demand has increased owing to the government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging.
  • Products need to be diversified to stimulate demand.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Cbse Notes Pdf Important:
In 2005, the National Jute Policy was formulated to increase productivity, improve quality, ensure good prices to the jute farmers and enhance the yield per hectare.

U.S.A., Canada, Russia, Saudi Arabia, U.K. and Australia are the main markets ofJute. Jute is an eco-friendly package material and is proposed to replace plastic as a measure to save the environment.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Download Sugar Industry:
India is the second Largest sugar producer in the world. It however occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. Raw material of the sugar industry is bulky and in haulage, its sucrose content reduces. In 2010-11, over 662 sugar mills were spread in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.


  • 60% of the sugar mills are found in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Sugar industry is seasonal in nature and hence ideally suited to the cooperative sector.

Frequently Asked:

  • There is a recent tendency for sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states of India, especially in Maharashtra.
  • This is because the cane produced here has a higher sucrose content.
  • The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
  • Another plus point is that cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Challenges: Major challenges are:

  • Seasonal nature of the industry.
  • Old and inefficient methods of production.
  • Transport delay in reaching cane to factories.
  • The need to maximise the use of bagasse.

Notes Of Geography Class 10 Chapter 6 Mineral Based Industries:
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

Iron and Steel Industry:
The Iron and Steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries – heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Notes Of Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Pdf Frequently Asked:
The production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.

Iron ore, coking coal and limestone are required in the ratio of approximately 4:2:1. Some quantity of manganese is also required to harden the steel.

Finished products need an efficient transport network for their distribution to the markets and consumers. Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).

Chapter 6 Geography Class 10 Notes Example 4.
Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
(a) HAIL
(b) SAIL
(c) TATA Steel
(d) MNCC
(b) SAIL

Frequently Asked:

  • In 2010-11, India ranked 4th among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron.
  • In 2010-11, per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 49 kg per annum against the world average of 182 kg.

Class 10 Chapter 6 Geography Notes Important:

  • Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of various specifications.
  • An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
  • In the 1950s, China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel. Today, China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of steel. In 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel accounting for 2.25 per cent of the global steel trade.
  • Chottanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.

This region possesses special advantages for quick development of this industry.

  1. Low cost of iron ore
  2. High grade raw materials in proximity
  3. Cheap labour
  4. Vast growth potential in the home market

Challenges: India is not able to perform to its full potential in the production of Iron and Steel because:

  1. High costs and limited availability of coking coal
  2. Lower productivity of labour
  3. Irregular supply of energy
  4. Poor infrastructure.

India imports good quality steel from other countries. The overall production of steel is sufficient to meet our domestic demand. Liberalization and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has boosted the industry through the efforts of private entrepreneurs. More allocation of resources for research and development is required to produce steel more competitively.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Geography Chapter 6 Class 10 Notes Example 5.
Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computers, etc.
(a) Steel
(b) Electronics
(c) Aluminium
(d) Information Technology
(a) Steel

Aluminum Smelting:
Aluminum smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. The metal aluminum is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed like an alloy with other metals. Aluminum is useful to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.


  • Aluminum has gained popularity as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
  • Aluminum smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. India has produced over 15.29 lakh million tonnes of aluminum in 2008-2009.
  • Bauxite used as a raw material in the smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock. Regular supply of electricity and fixed and reliable source of raw material at minimum cost are the two prime factors for location of the industry.

Example 6.
Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Jute
(d) Steel
(a) Aluminium

Chemical Industries:
The chemical industry is growing and diversifying quickly in India. It contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP. Indian chemical industry is the third-largest in Asia and the twelfth largest in the world in terms of size. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units.

Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dyes stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. They are found widely spread over in the world.

Organic chemicals include petrochemicals for manufacture of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.

Frequently Asked:
The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
Basic chemicals undergo processing and produce chemicals used for industrial application, agriculture or directly for consumer markets.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Fertiliser Industry:
The fertiliser industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilisers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilisers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). Potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.

India is the third-largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers. There are 57 fertiliser units which manufacture nitrogenous and complex nitrogenous fertilisers, 29 of which manufacture urea and 9 for producing ammonium sulphate as a byproduct. 68 small units produce single superphosphate.


  • There are 10 public sector undertakings and one in cooperative sector at Hazira in Gujarat under the Fertiliser Corporation of India.
  • The industry has expanded to other parts of the country post Green Revolution.
  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala contribute towards half the fertiliser production. Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka contribute the other half

Cement Industry:
Cement is useful in activities like building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and other commercial establishments. Raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum are required by this industry. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.


  • The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat with suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
  • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
  • The cement industry expanded after Independence. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 coupled with other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology and production. There are 128 large plants and 332 mini cement plants in the country. India produces a variety of cement.

East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia have welcomed the new improved quality of cement apart from a large demand within the country. This industry is doing well in terms of production as well as export. Efforts to boost domestic demand and supply in order to sustain this industry are being pondered upon.

Example 7.
Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material?
(a) Aluminium
(b) Cement
(c) Sugar
(d) Jute
(b) Cement

Automobile Industry:
Automobiles like trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres. After the liberalisation, advancement in form of contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which in turn led to growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three wheelers.

Automobile industry has grown exponentially in the last 15 years. Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments. The industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry:
This industry covers transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers and many other equipment required by the telecommunication industry. Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.

By 2010-11, the Software Technology Parks of India have come up across 46 locations at different centres of India. The industry is majorly concentrated in Bangalore, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune. One of the most positive points about this industry is its employment generation. 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women. The growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector has brought a lot of foreign exchange reserves in the past couple years.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

The continuing growth in the hardware and software sector is the key to the success of the IT industry in India.

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

Industries might be positive for India’s economic growth and development, but they are detrimental for the environment. They increase the pollution of land, water, air, noise. One cannot overlook the degradation industries have caused to the environment. The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.

Frequently Asked:
Industries are responsible for four types of pollution:

  1. Air
  2. Water
  3. Land
  4. Noise

Air Pollution:

  • The presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases like sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide causes air pollution.
  • Airborne particulate materials include solid and liquid particles like dust, spray mists and smoke.
  • Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms.
  • Toxic gas leaks have severe long-term effects. Air pollution adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as well.

Water Pollution:

  • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and the effluents discharged into rivers.
  • Paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out into water bodies dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc.
  • Fly ash, phospho-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.

Thermal Pollution:

  • Thermal pollution of water is when the hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
  • Soil and water pollution are caused by the same effluents.
  • Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless.
  • Rain water percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.

Noise pollution:

  • Noise pollution causes irritation and anger, hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure along with other physiological effects.
  • Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.
  • Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills cause noise.

Control of Environmental Degradation

Every Litre of wastewater discharged by our industry pollutes eight times the quantity of fresh water.
To reduce industrial water pollution, the following steps can be taken:

  • minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
  • harvesting rainwater to meet water requirements.
  • treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

Industrial effluents can be treated in three phases:

  • Primary treatment by mechanical means- this involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation,
  • Secondary treatment by biological process.
  • Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes.
  • This involves recycling of wastewater.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

Example 8.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry where there is a threat to groundwater resources also needs to be regulated Legally. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smokestacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories. Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers. Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones. The challenge of sustainable development requires the integration of economic development with environmental concerns.
(A) Which of the following types of pollution is caused by generators?
(a) Water pollution
(b) Air Pollution
(c) Noise Pollution
(d) Land Pollution
(c) Noise Pollution

(B) Which of the following devices can be used in a way to reduce smoke?
(a) Silencers
(b) Rainwater Harvesting
(c) Smoke Stacks
(d) Earplugs and Earphones
(c) Smoke Stacks
Explanation: Smokestacks can be used in a way to reduce smoke.

(C) Define sustainable development.
Sustainable development can be defined as an approach to the economic development of a country without compromising the quality of the environment for future generations.

(D) Assertion (A): Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
Reason (R): Oil and Gas are sources of clean energy. Burning these do not emit smoke.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).


  • NTPC is a major power-providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001.
  • The NTPC works for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants.

This has been possible through:

  • Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
  • Maximum ash utilisation: This can help in less waste generation.
  • Provision of green belts: This nurtures ecological balance and addresses the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
  • Reduction of environmental pollution: Ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management helps reduce pollution and environmental degradation.
  • Ecological monitoring: This reviews and online database management for all its power stations.

Following are the steps for conserving the environment:

  1. Overdrawing of groundwater reserves by industry should be regulated.
  2. Smoke stacks should be fit in the factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators to reduce particulate matter in the air.
  3. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of conventional forms of energy in factories.
  4. Machinery, equipment and generators should be fitted with silencers.
  5. Machinery should be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.
  6. In addition to using earplugs, noise-absorbing materials can be built-in constructing infrastructure.
    The challenge of sustainable development requires the integration of economic development with environmental concerns.

→ Agglomeration: The act of amassing/assembling various parts.

→ Coir: Coarse fiber from the outer husk of coconut.

→ Haulage: Commercial transport of goods.

→ Khandsari: A term in hindi for cooked sugar.

→ Pig iron: Crude iron obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

→ Cryolite: A mineral consisting of a fluoride of sodium and aluminum.

→ NTPC: Major power providing corporation of India.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Notes Manufacturing Industries

→ Green Revolution: A movement with great increase in production of food grains due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, began in the mid 20th century.

→ Quarry: Deep pits from which stone or other materials are extracted.

→ 1854: First Textile Mill was established in Mumbai. 1859: First Jute Mill was established at Rishra.

→ 1904: Cement Plant was established in Chennai.

→ 2004: India became the largest producer of Crude steel. 2005: National Jute policy was implemented.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Lifelines of National Economy Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 7

Transport, Communication and Trade

All goods and services used in our day to day lives are not available in our immediate surroundings- some have to be transported from different places. The movement of these goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transport. Professionals like the traders help make the products come to the consumers by transportation. The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space. Efficient means of transport are prerequisites for fast development.

The movement of these goods and services can be over land, water and air. Transport can also be divided into land, water and air accordingly. For a long time, trade and transport were restricted to a limited space. But, with the development in science and technology, the area of influence of trade and transport has expanded multi-folds. Quick, efficient and easily available transport has made it possible for the world to be converted into a large village. Partnered with a developed communication system, the transport system has made the world more accessible and open. Therefore, transport, communication and trade are complementary to each other.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

India is well-linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic and socio-cultural plurality because of railways, airways, waterways, newspapers, radio and internet. These facilities have led to its socio-economic progress. Local to international level trade has added to the vitality of Indian and world economy. A dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a prerequisite for local, national and global trade.
Trade has enriched our life and added to the amenities and facilities which help humans live more comfortably.



  • India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh km.
  • Roadways have preceded railways in India.
  • They are easy to build and maintain and for this ease, they are preferred over railways.

The growing importance of road transport vis-a-vis rail transport is rooted in the following reasons:

  • The construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines.
  • Roads traverse highly dissected and undulating topography.
  • Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
  • Road transport is economical in the transportation of few persons and for relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
  • Road transport provides door-to-door service.
  • The cost of loading and unloading goods is much lower.
  • Road transport proves to be a good feeder to other modes of transports.
  • Roads provide a Link between railway stations, air, and seaports.

In India, roads are classified into six classes according to their capacity.

  • Golden Quadrilateral Superhighways
  • National Highways
  • State Highways
  • District Roads
  • Other Roads
  • Border Roads

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The roads Link Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways. The North-South
corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West Corridor connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) are Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways. These Super Highways are constructed to reduce the time and distance between mega Indian cities. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

National Highways:
National Highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are Laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). Major National Highways run in North- South and East-West directions.

Frequently Asked:
The historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway No.l, between Delhi and Amritsar.

State Highways:
Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. The State Public Works Department (PWD) maintains these highways in State and Union Territories.

District Roads:
These roads connect the district headquarters with other places in the district. These roads are maintained by Zila Parishad.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Other Roads:
Rural roads link rural areas and villages with towns. These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen SadakYojana.
Under this scheme, every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all season motorable road.

Border Roads:
Border Roads Organisation undertakes construction and maintenance of roads in the bordering areas of the country. BRO was established by 1960 for the maintenance of strategically important roads in the northern and north-eastern border areas. These roads have improved accessibility in areas with difficult terrain leading to economic development of these areas.

Roads are also classified according to the type of material used for their construction. They are divided into metalled and unmetalled roads.

  • Metalled roads may be made of cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal. They are all-weather roads.
  • Unmetalled roads are made of mud, clay or uneven stones and go out of use in the rainy season.

Example 1.
Which two of the following extreme locations are connected by the east-west corridor?
(a) Mumbai and Nagpur
(b) Silchar and Porbandar
(c) Mumbai and Kolkata
(d) Nagpur and Siligudi
(b) Silchar and Porbandar

Railways is the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Railways facilitate people conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances. Indian Railways has been an integrating force for more than 150 years.

Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture.

The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for their growth.

Rivers requiring the construction of bridges across their wide beds pose some obstacles to the construction of these tracks. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracks are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.

Himalayan mountainous regions are unfavourable for the construction of raiLway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. The terrain of sandy plains of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand were difficult to conquer for setting up of railway lines as well.

The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats).

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

The development of the Konkan railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in India’s busiest and most significant economic region.
There have been instances of sinking of track in some stretches and landslides.
Railways are more significant for our national economy than all other means of transport put together.

Rail transport suffers from various issues.

  • Many passengers travel without tickets.
  • Thefts and damaging of railway property is another issue. People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and damage the railway due to their negligence.


  • The Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking in the country. The first train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in 1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
  • The Indian Railway is now reorganised into 16 zones.

The pipeline transport network is the newest form of transportation. They were used to transport water and other liquids in the past. Today, they are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.


  • Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
  • The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat.
  • Gas-based fertilizer plants exist everywhere because of pipelines.
  • Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
  • It saves products by ruling out trans-shipment losses or delays.

Three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country can be seen as:

  1. From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad.
    It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
  2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat.
    It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu to other areas.
  3. From Hazira in Gujarat which connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh.
    It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahjahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Example 2.
Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?
(a) Railways
(b) Roadways
(c) Pipeline
(d) Waterways
(c) Pipelines

Example 3.
Which one of the following states is not connected with the H.V.J. pipeline?
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Gujarat
(d) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Maharashtra

Explanation: The HVJ pipeline runs from Hazira in Gujarat which connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh.

Example 4.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. In the past, these were used to transport water to cities and industries. Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry. The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be thought of only because of pipelines. Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays. There are three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
(A) Which of the following cannot be transported through the pipelines?
(a) Crude Oil
(b) Jelly
(c) Petroleum Products and Natural Gas
(d) Fertiliser factories
(b) Jelly

(B) Which of the following pipeline has branches in Eastern Indian states?
(a) From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab
(b) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh
(c) From Upper Assam to Kanpur
(d) Pipeline from Rajasthan to West Bengal
(c) From Upper Assam to Kanpur

Explanation: The pipeline begins from an oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahdbad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri

(C) Why were the Pipelines used in the past?
Pipelines were used to transfer water in the past.

(D) Assertion (A): Solids can also be transported through a pipeline.
Reason (R): The pipelines are accommodated with a net for transferring of solids.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

India was one of the seafaring countries from ancient times. Indian seamen sailed and carried and spread Indian commerce and culture. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. They can carry heavy and bulky goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.

India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out of these only 5685 km are navigable by mechanised vessels.

These have been declared as the National Waterways by the Government.

  1. The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)-N.W. No.1
  2. The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)-N.W. No.2
  3. The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapuram- Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakara canals-205 km) – N.W. No.3
  4. Stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km) – N.W. No.4
  5. Stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and East Coast Canal (588 km) – N.W. No.5

Some inland waterways which support transportation are Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak and backwaters of Kerala.

Frequently Asked:
India’s trade with foreign countries is carried from the ports located along the coast. 95 per cent of the country’s trade volume (68 per cent in terms of value) is moved by sea.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

Major Sea Ports:
With a long coastline of 7,516.6 km, India is dotted with 12 major and 200 notified minor ports. 95 per cent of the foreign trade is handled by these major ports.
1. Kandla in Kachchh was the first port to be developed after Independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port since Karachi port was lost to Pakistan post-partition. It handles exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrial belts stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

2. Mumbai has a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour.

3. The Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port.

4. Mormagao port in Goa is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country and accounts for about fifty per cent of India’s iron ore export.

5. New Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines.

6. Kochchi is an extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.

7. The extreme south-eastern port of Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. A flourishing trade handling of cargoes with the neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc. and the coastal regions of India is handled from here.

8. Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports of the country. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the volume of trade and cargo.

9. Visakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. This port was constructed for the trade of iron ore exports.

10. Paradwip port located in Odisha, specialises in the export of iron ore.

11. Kolkata is an inland riverine port. It caters to trade from the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. It requires constant dredging of Hooghly.

12. Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.

Frequently Asked:
Kandla port is a tidal port. It is called the Deendayal port.

Example 5.
Which one of the following ports is the deepest land-locked and well-protected port along the east coast?
(a) Chennai
(b) Paradip
(c) Tuticorin
(d) Visakhapatnam
(d) Visakhapatnam

Air transport is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
It can provide access through very difficult terrains Like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and also long oceanic stretches with great ease. The North-eastern states with big rivers, dissected relief, dense forests and frequent floods and international frontiers, etc., are well connected with the Indian mainland only because of air-transport.

The air transport was nationalised in 19S3. Air India provides domestic and international air services. Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation in its off-shore operations, to difficult terrains like north-eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Air travel is informally subsidized in the north-eastern states to extend the services to even the poorest classes. It is otherwise an expensive form of transport.


Humans have used multiple forms of communication devices ever since they’ve lived. Long distance communication becomes easier in case of no movement of the communicator or receiver.
Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films, etc. are the major means of communication in the country.

The Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
The Indian Postal Network handles parcels as well as personally written communications.

  • Cards and envelopes are first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
  • The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering Land and water transport.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. These are the Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.

India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia. About two-thirds of the villages in India have aLready been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD) telephone facility. To transfer information from the grassroot level to the highest, the government has extended a twenty-four hours STD facility to every village in the country. All STD facilities in India have a common rate. This could be done by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology.

Mass Communication:
Mass communication is the source of entertainment and awareness for people about national programmes and policies. It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films. ALl India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local Languages for a cross section of people of Indian society.

Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. for people of different age groups. Digital India is an umbrella programme to prepare India for a knowledge based transformation.

The focus of Digital India Programme is on being transformative to realise – IT (Indian Talent) + IT (Information Technology)=IT (India Tomorrow) and is on making technology central to enabling change.

India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals with varied periodicity annually.

Newspapers are published in 100 different languages and dialects. The largest number of newspapers published in the country are in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu.

India produces the largest number of feature films in the world annually. It produces short films, video feature films and short films. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.

International Trade

The exchange of goods and services among people, states and countries are termed as trade. Trade exchanges take place in the markets.

Example 6.
What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?

  • International Trade is the trade between two or more countries. International Trade can be facilitated through sea, air or land routes.
  • Local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages. State-level trade is carried between two or more states.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

The advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity; the economic barometer for a country.

Frequently Asked:
Resources are space-bound and countries can survive without international trade. Export and import are the components of trade. The Balance of trade of a country is the difference between its export and import.

When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade. On the contrary, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as an unfavourable balance of trade. India has trade relations with all the major trading blocs and most countries of the world. India exports items which include gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, agriculture and allied products, etc.

India imports petroleum crude and products, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture and allied products.

India has emerged as a software giant at the international level. India earns huge foreign exchange through the export of information technology.

Tourism As A Trade

Tourism has grown substantially over the last three decades in India. About 15 million people are currently engaged in the industry. Tourism promotes national integration and supports local handicrafts and cultural pursuits. It helps in the development of an international understanding about Indian culture and heritage.

Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.

India has a vast potential in the tourism industry waiting to be tapped. Industrialists and the government are making efforts to make tourism a promising industry.

→ First-Class Mail: Mail that is airlifted between stations.

→ Second-Class Mail: Mai that is carried by surface covering Land and water transport.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Notes Lifelines of National Economy

→ Balance of Trade: The difference between Exports and Imports

→ Socio-Cultural Plurality: Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities.

→ Aggravating: To make worse or more troublesome

→ Traverse: To move or travel through an area

→ Terrain: A piece of ground

→ Slurry: A slurry is a mixture of solids denser than water suspended in liquid.

→ Premier: Primary

→ Periodical: A paper, publication

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 5

Minerals and Their Significance

People use metals to create different products everyday. The metals are made of different minerals embedded in the rocks. Metals are extracted from these minerals after proper refinement.
Thus, minerals have become an indispensable part of our lives.

Almost everything used every day is created out of minerals. The railway lines, tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements and even the machinery are made from minerals.

Cars, buses, trains, aero planes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth. Even our food contains minerals. Human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites in all stages of development.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources


  • Abrasive minerals like silica, limestone, aluminum oxide and various phosphate minerals form the contents of a toothpaste. Fluoride reduces cavities and comes from a mineral fluorite.
  • Toothpastes also contain titanium oxide, which comes from minerals called rutile, ilmenite and anatase and makes the toothpaste white.
  • The sparkle in toothpastes is from mica. The toothbrush and tube containing the paste are made of plastics from petroleum.

Life processes cannot occur without minerals. Our mineral intake represents onLy about 0.3 per cent of our total intake of nutrients, they are potent enough to render the other 99.7 per cent of foodstuffs useless.

Minerals can be defined as homogenous, naturally occurring substances with a definable internal structure. Minerals are found in varied forms in nature- at times, hard like the diamond and at times, soft like the talc.

Rocks are combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals. Limestone consists of a single mineral only, most rocks consist of several minerals in varying proportions. Few are abundantly found while the rest are rare.

Formation of a particular mineral depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms. Thus, minerals come in a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density. Geologists use these properties to classify the minerals.

Minerals are classified in various categories.

Geographers study minerals as part of the earth’s crust for a better understanding of landforms and economic activities associated with them. A geologist studies the formation of minerals, their age and physical and chemical composition.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The term is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements. It is necessary that the mineral content of the ore be in sufficient concentration to make its extraction commercially viable. The type of formation or structure in which they are found determines the relative ease with which mineral ores may be mined. The cost of extraction also depends on this.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Minerals generally occur in the following forms:
1. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in the cracks, crevices, faults, or joints.
The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes. Generally, these are formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise. Metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead are obtained from veins and lodes.

2. In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. They accumulate over long periods under great heat and pressure. For example, coal and iron ore are sedimentary rocks formed in this way.

Few sedimentary rocks are gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.

  • Another way of formation involves decomposition of surface rocks, removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. For example, bauxite.
  • Minerals occur in alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals which cannot be corroded by water.
    For example, gold, silver, tin and platinum.
  • Ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals. They are too diffused to be useful economically. Common salt, magnesium and bromine are derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds are rich in manganese nodules.


  • Most minerals in India are nationalised; this means their extraction is possible only after obtaining due permission from the government.
  • In tribal areas of northeast India, minerals are owned by individuals or communities.
  • Meghalaya has huge deposits of coal, iron ore, limestone and dolomite etc. Coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is carried out privately through long narrow tunnels, known as ‘Rat hole’ mining.
  • The National Green Tribunal has declared such activities illegal.

India has rich and varied mineral resources. They are unevenly distributed.
Peninsular rocks contain reserves of coal, metallic minerals and other non-metallic minerals.

  1. Sedimentary rock reserves flank the western and eastern sides of the peninsula. Gujarat and Assam host most petroleum deposits.
  2. Rajasthan hosts rock systems of the peninsula, where non-ferrous minerals are found.
  3. The vast alluvial plains of north India are almost devoid of economic minerals. Variations occur because of differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Frequently Asked:

  • The economic viability of a reserve depends upon the concentration of mineral in the ore, the ease of extraction, and closeness to the market.
  • A mineral ‘deposit’ or ‘reserve’ turns into a mine when the extraction is carried out.

Example 1.
Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks?
(a) Sedimentary rocks
(b) metamorphic rocks
(c) Igneous rocks
(d) none of the above
(a) Sedimentary rocks

Ferrous Minerals:
Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They help in the development of metallurgical industries. India exports a good quantity of ferrous minerals.

Iron Ore:
Iron ore is the backbone of industrial development. India has abundant resources of iron ore.

  • Magnetite is the finest iron ore.
  • It contains a high content of iron up to 70 percent.
  • It has excellent magnetic qualities which are valuable in the electrical industry.
  • Hematite is an important industrial iron ore but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite. (50-60 percent).

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

The major iron ore belts in India are:
1. Odisha-Jharkhand belt: High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar districts in Odisha. Haematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in the district of Singhbhum in Jharkhand.

2. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt of Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra: Very high-grade hematite are found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. These hill ranges comprise 14 deposits of super high-grade hematite iron ore. It has the best physical properties needed for making steel. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Visakhapatnam port.

3. Ballari – Chitradurga – Chikkamagaluru Tumakuru belt in Karnataka: This belt has large reserves of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are a 100 percent export units. Kudremukh deposits hold the largest mineral reserves in the world. The ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

4. Maharashtra-Goa belt: The belt covers the Goa and Ratnagiri districts of Maharashtra. The quality of iron ore found here is not very rich, however, they have been efficiently exploited. Iron ore is exported through Marmagao port.


  • Kudre in Kannada means horse. The highest peak in the western ghats of Karnataka resembles the face of a horse.
  • The Bailadila hills get their name from its appearance- which resembles the hump of an ox.


  • Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferromanganese alloy.
  • Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel.
  • It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.

Non-Ferrous Minerals:
India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals are not enough and satisfactory. Non- Ferrous minerals like copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold play a vital role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources


  • India is critically deficient in reserves and the production of copper.
  • Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics, and chemical industries because it is malleable, ductile and a good conductor of electricity.
  • The BaLaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan and Singhbhum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper.


  • Aluminum is extracted from bauxite.
  • Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of rocks rich in aluminum silicates.
  • Aluminum combines the strength of metals such as iron, with qualities like extreme lightness, good conductivity and great malleability.
  • India’s bauxite deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni.


  • Bauxite is a day-Like substance that produces aiumina as an intermediate product and later aluminum is obtained.
  • Odisha was the largest bauxite-producing state in India in 2016-17. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.

Non-Metallic Minerals:
Mica is made of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets. It can be clear, black, green, red, yellow or brown. Mica is highly useful in electric and electronic industries. It has an excellent di-eLectric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage. Mica deposits are found in the northern parts of Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer.

Ajmer in Rajasthan is the main mica producing area. Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is another important mica producing area.

Example 2.
Koderma, in Jharkhand, is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Mica
(c) Iron ore
(d) Copper
(a) Bauxite

Explanation: Mica deposits are found in the northern parts of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Example 3.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets. These sheets can be so thin that a thousand can be layered into a mica sheet of a few centimeters high. Mica can be clear, black, green, red yellow or brown. Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries. Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer.

In Rajasthan, the major mica producing area is around Ajmer. Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is also an important producer in the country.
(A) Which of the following characteristic features of Mica makes it an ideal electric insulator?
(a) It can be split into sheets.
(b) It can be melted.
(c) It can be changed into crystals.
(d) It has good resistance to high voltage and insulating properties.
(d) It has good resistance to high voltage and insulating properties.

(B) Which of the following areas is not a producer of Mica?
(a) Chhota Nagpur Plateau
(b) Bengal Plateau
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Andhra Pradesh
(b) Bengal Plateau

Explanation: Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chhota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer. In Rajasthan, Mica is produced around Ajmer. Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is also an important producer in the country.

(C) Mention one property of Mica that is different from other minerals used to make electronic equipment?
Mica can be converted into very thin sheets.

(D) Assertion (A): Mica is made up of thin plates and sheets.
Reason (R): It is manufactured in the laboratory using a special thickening technique.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

Explanation: Mica is found in the form of crystals and individual mica crystals can easily be split into extremely thin elastic plates. This characteristic is described as perfect basal cleavage. They are thus converted into extremely thin sheets and stacked over each other to form mica sheets.

Rock Minerals:
Limestone is found in rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates.

It is found in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations. Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Frequently Asked Hazards of Mining:

  • The dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners expose them to the risk of pulmonary diseases. The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coal mines are a threat.
  • The water sources in the region get contaminated due to mining. Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land, soil leads to stream and river pollution.

Example 4.
Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) Coal
(b) Bauxite
(c) Gold
(d) Zinc
(b) Bauxite
To prevent mining from becoming a killer industry, stricter safety regulations and environmental Laws should be implemented.

Conservation of Minerals

There is a strong dependence of industry and agriculture upon mineral deposits and the substances manufactured from them. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is only one per cent of the earth’s crust.

Mineral resources which required millions of years to be created and concentrated are being consumed rapidly. The geological processes of mineral formation are slow. Rates of replenishment are infinitely small when compared to the rates of consumption. Mineral resources are infinite and non-renewable. Rich mineral deposits are short-lived possessions. Continued extraction of ores makes mineral extraction more difficult because extraction has to be done at greater depths. Ores extracted are of poor quality too.

An effort needs to be made to utilise mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner. Improved technologies need to be evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low costs. Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes help conserve our mineraL resources for the future.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Energy Resources

Energy is required to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries. Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity.
Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources.

  • Conventional sources include firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and eLectricity (both hydel and thermal).
  • Non-conventional sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy. Firewood and cattle dung cakes are used in rural India. About 70 percent of the energy requirement in rural households is met by them. It is becoming difficult to continue this due to a decreasing forest area.

Dung cake consumes most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture. Hence they are being discouraged.

Conventional Sources of Energy

Conventional sources of energy are those energy sources which are non-renewable and hazardous.
Energy is produced from non-renewable sources of energy. These cannot be replaced by natural substances and takes billions of years to form.

Coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India. It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs. India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements. Coal is formed due the compression of plant material over millions of years. Coal is found in forms depending on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial.

Decaying plants in swamps produce peat.

  • Peat has a low carbon and high moisture contents and low heating capacity.
  • Lignite is a low-grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. Lignite reserves at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu are used for the generation of electricity.
  • Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is called bituminous coal. It is the most popular coal for commercial use.
  • Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal.

Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.

Frequently Asked:

  • Coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages in India.
  • Condwana- they are a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.
  • Metallurgical coal is a huge resource of Gondwana coal. Reserves are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal- Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and
  • Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
  • Tertiary coals occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
    Heavy industries and thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Coal is a bulky material, which loses weight on use as it is reduced to ash.

Petroleum or mineral oil is an important source of energy. Petroleum provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for industries. Petroleum refineries are nodal industries for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries.

Petroleum occurrences in India are found in anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age. In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold. The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers.

Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks. Gas being lighter floats above the oil.

  • Mumbai High, Gujarat and Assam are major petroleum production areas in India.
  • Ankeleshwar is the most important oil field in Gujarat.
  • Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oilfields in the state.

Natural Gas:
Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum. It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry. Natural gas is considered an environment-friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions and is, therefore, the fuel for the present century.

  • Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin. Along the west coast, the reserves of the Mumbai High and allied fields are supplemented by finds in the Gulf of Cambay.
  • Andaman and Nicobar islands are also important areas having large reserves of natural gas.
  • The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassein with the fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
  • This artery has provided an impetus to India’s gas production. The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas. Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity in the country.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Per capita consumption of electricity is considered as an index of development for any country. Electricity is generated by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro-electricity. Electricity is also generated by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.


  • Hydroelectricity is generated by fast-flowing water, which is a renewable resource.
  • India has a number of multi-purpose projects like Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley corporation, Kopili Hydel Project etc., which produce hydroelectric power. Thermal electricity is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas. The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy:
India is becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas for energy. Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages threaten security of energy supply in future and also have serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.

Use of fossil fuels cause serious environmental problems. Use of renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material is imperative. These are called non- conventional energy sources. India has an abundance of sunlight, water, wind and biomass and has programmes for the development of these renewable energy resources.

Nuclear or Atomic Energy:

  • Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. Most energy released in the form of heat when alteration is made helps generate electric power.
  • Uranium and Thorium, available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for generating atomic or nuclear power.
  • The Monazite sands of Kerala are also rich in Thorium.

Example 5.
Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) Oil
(b) Uranium
(c) Thorium
(d) Coal
(c) Thorium

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Solar Energy:

  • India is a tropical country with an enormous supply of solar energy. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.
  • Solar energy has been gaining popularity in rural and remote areas.
  • Solar power plants have been established in different parts of India to minimize the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes,
  • This helps in environmental conservation and an adequate supply of manure in agriculture.

Wind power:

  • India has immense untapped potential for wind power.
  • In Tamil Nadu, from Nagercoil to Madurai, a huge wind cluster has been established for this purpose. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms.
  • Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer have been able to use their wind energy very effectively.

Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. Their decomposition yields gas with higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal.
Biogas plants are set up at municipal, cooperative and individual levels.

The plants which use cattle dung, called ‘Gobar gas plants’ in rural India, provide twin benefits to the farmer:

  1. in form of energy
  2. improved quality of manure.

Biogas uses cattle dung most efficiently. It prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuelwood and cow dung cakes.

Tidal Energy:
Oceanic tides generate electricity in the following ways:

  • Floodgate dams are built across inlets.
  • During high tide, water flows and gets trapped in the inlet when the gate is closed.
  • After the tide falls outside the flood gate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea via a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine.

The Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat on the western coast and Gangetic delta in Sundarban regions of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy in India.

Geo-Thermal Energy:
Geo-thermal energy is the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. Its source is the Earth which grows progressively hotter with increasing depth.
Groundwater in areas with shallower depth and higher temperatures absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It is hot enough to turn into steam as it rises to earth’s surface. It drives turbines and generates electricity.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. There are several hundred hot springs in India, which could be used to generate electricity.

Frequently Asked:

  • Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy.
  • One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.

Conservation of Energy Resources

Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of the national economy – agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic – needs inputs of energy. The economic development plans implemented since independence need a large amount of energy to remain operational. This has increased the consumption of energy in all forms all over the country.

A sustainable path of energy development is urgently needed.

Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy.

India is presently one of the least energy-efficient countries in the world. It is imperative to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of energy resources.

  1. This can be done using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles
  2. This can also be done by switching off electricity when not in use.
  3. Another option is by using power-saving devices and using non-conventional sources of energy. Energy saved is energy produced.

→ Ores: Naturally occurring solid materials through which metals and minerals are extracted. Homogeneous: Constituting similar parts or quality or nature throughout.

→ Ferrous: Includes or contains iron.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Minerals and Energy Resources

→ Anthracite: Highest quality hard coal.

→ Lodes: Larger occurrence of igneous or metamorphic rocks or minerals in cracks or crevices. Slurry: Mixture of solid denser than water in liquid.

→ Kudre: Horse in the Kannada language.

→ Thermal Energy: Energy generated and measured by heat.

→ Gobar Gas Plant: Biogas plants that use cattle dungs to generate energy.

→ Non-porous: A surface that does not allow any kind of liquid or gas to pass through it.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Agriculture Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 4

Agriculture In India

Agriculture is the very backbone of Indian economy. responsible for producing the raw materialfor various Two-thirds of Indian population is engaged in industries.
agricultural activities. Agriculture, a primary activity, Agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices are also produces almost all the food humans have. It is exported

Types of Farming

Agriculture is one q£ the most ancient economic activities in India. Despite some changes in the cultivation methods have changed significantly depending upon the characteristics of physical ehvironment, technological understanding and socio-cultural practices.

Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type.

Different Types of Farming practiced are:
Primitive Subsistence Farming

  1. This type of farming is practiced in small patches ‘ of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
    dao and digging sticks, and family/community tabour.
  2. It depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of ‘the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions for a good yield.
  3. It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
  4. Farmers produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.
  5. Farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land after one patch loses its fertility.

This can be called the natural way of replenishing the fertility of the soil through natural processes; land productivity is low as the farmer does not use fertilizers or other modern inputs.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Slash and Bum farming has different names varying according to their region:

  • North-eastern states like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram ‘ and Nagaland- Jhumming;
  • Pamela in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • The ‘slash and burn agriculture is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central America, ‘Conuco’ in Venezuela, Roca‘ in 158 EduCart Social Science
  • Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’ in Indonesia, ‘Ray in Vietnam.

In India, this primitive form of cultivation is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya in Madhya Pradesh, ‘Podu‘ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh, ‘Pama Dabi’ or Roman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha, ‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’ in South- 9 eastern Rajasthan, ‘KhW in the Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in ‘Jharkhand, and ‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • It is practiced in regions” of high population pressure on land. It is a labor intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
  • Land-holding size is uneconomical but farmers are able to achieve maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative sources of livelihood.
  • There is enormous pressure on agricultural land.

Right of Inheritance: It is about the successive division of landholdings.

Commercial Farming

  • It uses higher doses of modern inputs like high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
  • The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from one region to another.

Plantation Farming

  • Plantation is also a type of commercial farming.
  • A plantation is a place where a single crop is grown on a large area.
  • The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry.
  • They cover Large tracts of land, capital intensive inputs through the help of migrant labourers. The production is mainly for market.
  • The produce is used as a raw material for food processing industries.
  • In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane and bananas are important plantation crops.
  • Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in Karnataka are some of the important plantation crops grown in these states.

A well connected transportation and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and markets helps develop plantations.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.

Cropping Patterns

Physical diversities and plurality of cultures in India are also reflected in agricultural practices and cropping patterns of the country. There are various types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and fruits, spices and condiments, etc. grown in the country.

India has three cropping seasons — Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.

Rabi Crops:
They are sown in winter from October to December. They are harvested in summer from April to June. Some examples are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. These crops are grown in north and north-western parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclone helps in the growth of Rabi crops.

Success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has contributed to the growth of Rabi crops.

Kharif Crops:
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and are harvested in September-October.

Some examples are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and Soya bean. Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast), Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are some rice producing regions. Paddy has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Frequently Asked:
In Assam, West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro.

A short season during the summer months in between Kharif and Rabi crop season is called the Zaid season. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are some Zaid Crops.

Sugarcane requires a year to grow.

Major Crops

Variety of food and non food crops are grown depending upon the variations in soil, climate and cultivation practices. Some of these crops are Rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute.


  • Rice is the staple food crop in India. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.
  • Rice is a kharif crop and requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
  • It requires development of artificial irrigation devices like dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells to grow rice in regions of less rainfall like Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
  • Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.


  • This is the second most important cereal crop. It is the main food crop in the north and north-western parts of the country.
  • The crop requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine for ripening. About 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season is required.
  • Important wheat-growing zones of the country are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the northwest and black soil region of the Deccan.
  • Major wheat growing regions of India are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture


  • Jowar, bajra and ragi are few important millets grown in India. They are called coarse grains and have very high nutritional value.
  • Jowar is the third most important food crop. It is a rain-fed crop grown in the moist areas with irrigation facilities. Major Jowar producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Bajra is produced in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
  • Ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micronutrients and roughage.
  • Ragi grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy, and shallow black soils. It is a crop of dry regions grown in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Maize is a crop used as food and fodder. It is a kharif crop that requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C. It grows well in old alluvial soil.
  • Maize is grown in Bihar in the rabi season also.
  • Modern inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have contributed to the increasing production of maize. Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are major producing states.


  • India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. Pulses in the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet. Tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.
  • Pulses need less moisture to survive. Pulses (except arhar dal) are leguminous and help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
  • To replenish the fertility of the soil, Pulses are grown in rotation with other mainstream crops. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka are major pulse producing states.

Food Crops Other Than Grains


  1. It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. Sugarcane grows well in a hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall between 75- 100 cm.
  2. Irrigation is required in regions of low rainfall. Sugarcane can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting.
  3. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane. Brazil is the largest producer. Sugarcane produces sugar, gur (jaggery), Khansari and molasses.
  4. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana are the major sugarcane producing states.

Example 1.
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. It grows well in hot and humid climates with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall between 75 cm. and 100 cm. Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall. It can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting. India is the second-largest producer. only after Brazil. It is the main source of sugar, gur (Jaggery), khandsari and molasses. The major. producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar Punjab and Haryana.
(A) Identify the crop mentioned in the source?
(a) Jowar
(b) Bajra
(c) Sugarcane
(d) Rice
(c) Sugarcane

(B) Which of the following statements can be claimed positively about this crop?
(a) The crop is a Kharif Crop.
(b) The crop is a plantation crop.
(c) The crop is a labor-intensive crop.
(d) The crop is a rain fed crop.
(c) The crop is a labour-intensive crop Explanation: The source says that the crop requires manual labour from sowing to harvesting.

(C) Mention one reason why this crop is not grown in Jammu and Kashmir?
Jammu and Kashmir do not have the required climatic conditions in terms of temperature or rainfall.

(D) Assertion (A): The crop is a cash crop.
Reason (R): It produces so many products which are all meant for the market not consumption completely.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not th correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: It is the main source of sugar, gur (jaggery), khandsari and molasses.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture


  • Oilseeds means those crops or seeds which provide oils.
  • India was the second-largest producer of groundnut in the world in 2016. China was the largest.
  • In rapeseed production, India was the third-largest producer in the world after Canada and China in 2016. Oilseeds cover approximately 12 percent of the total cropped area of the country.
  • Main oilseeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til) soybean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower.
  • Most of these are edible and used as cooking mediums. They are used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
  • Linseed and mustard are Rabi crops. Sesamum is a Kharif crop in north and Rabi crop in south India.
  • Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.


  • Groundnut: Groundnut is a Kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.
  • Gujarat was the largest producer of groundnut followed by
  • Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh in 2016-17.


  • Tea is cultivated through plantation agriculture. It is a beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British.
  • The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
  • Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure the continuous growth of tender leaves.
  • Tea is a labor-intensive industry. It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour.
  • Tea is processed in the tea garden to restore its freshness. Tea-producing states are Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura.
  • In 2016, India was the second-largest producer of tea after China.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture


  • Indian coffee is known for its rich quality.
  • The Arabica variety brought from Yemen is also produced in this country which is in great demand.
  • Its cultivation began in the Baba Budan Hills. It is cultivated in Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

Horticulture Crops:

  • In 2016, India was the second-largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China. India produces both tropical as well as temperate fruits.
  • Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal, oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu, litchi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, pineapples of Meghalaya, grapes of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are famous all around.
  • India is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal, and potatoes.

Non-Food Crops


  1. It is an equatorial crop and it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas under special conditions. It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm and a temperature above 25°C.
  2. Rubber serves as an important raw material for industries. It is grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya primarily.

Fibre Crops:
Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India. Cotton, jute and hemp are grown in the soil, silk comes from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves especially mulberry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Frequently Asked:
Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.


  1. India is the home of cotton plants. Cotton is the main raw material for the cotton textile industry. In 2016, India was the second-largest producer of cotton after China.
  2. Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black or regur soil of the Deccan plateau.
  3. Its main requirements for growth are high temperature, Light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine.
  4. It is a Kharif crop. It requires 6-8 months to mature. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya
  5. Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh are cotton-producing states.


  1. Jute is also called golden fibre. Jute grows well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where
    soils are renewed every year. High temperature is required at the time of growth. Jute grows most in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya. Jute is used to create gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts.
  2. It has been losing its market to synthetic fibres and packing materials like nylon.

Example 2.
Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(c) Horticulture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture

Example 3.
Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
(a) Rice
(b) Gram
(c) Millets
(d) Cotton
(b) Gram

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Example 4.
Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
(a) Pulses
(b) Jawar
(c) Millets
(d) Sesamum
(a) Pulses

Technological and Institutional Reforms in Agriculture

Continuous indiscriminate use of land resources without any compatible techno-institutional changes has obstructed agricultural development.

Despite the development of sources of irrigation, farmers in India depend upon monsoon and natural fertility for yield. Agriculture provides livelihood for more than 60 per cent of its population. It requires serious technical and institutional reforms. Collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari were prioritised for institutional reforms in the country after Independence.


  • ‘Land reform’ was the main focus of our First Five Year Plan.
  • The ‘right of inheritance’ had already led to fragmentation of land holdings necessitating consolidation of holdings. Implementation of agricultural reforms was lukewarm and faulty. The Government of India introduced agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture during the mid 20th century. The Green Revolution was based on the usage of package technology.
  • The White Revolution (Operation Flood) was initiated to improve Indian agriculture. These revolutions developed certain fields and sectors only.
  • A comprehensive land development Programme including institutional and technical reforms was initiated.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Example 5.
Enlist the various institutional reform programs introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Some institutional and technological reforms include:

  1. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease were introduced.
  2. Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks were established to provide loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interests.
  3. Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) were introduced as schemes by the Government.
  4. Special weather bulletins and agricultural programs for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
  5. The government announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check corruption.

Bhoodan – Gramdan

Mahatma Gandhi declared Vmoba Bhave as his spiritual heir. He also participated in Satyagraha. He was one of the votaries of Gandhi’s concept of gram swarajya. Vmoba Bhave undertook padyatra to spread the message of Gandhi.

Vinoba Bhave assured landless farmers some land and requested the Government of India regarding the provision of land for them if they undertook cooperative farming.

Shri Ram Chandra Reddy offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 landless villagers. This act was known as ‘Bhoodan’.

Zamindars and land owners offered to distribute some villages among the landless. It was known as Gramdan. Many land-owners gave away their lands to the poor farmers due to the fear of land ceiling act. This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement initiated by Vinoba Bhave is also known as the Bloodless Revolution.

Contribution of Agriculture to The National Economy, Employment and Output

Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy however it has registered a declining trend from 1951 onwards.
More than half of the Indian population is dependent on agriculture for sustenance.

Stagnation in agriculture disrupts the functioning of the economy. The Government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture.

  1. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast, etc. were established.
  2. Infrastructure was also improved for the same.
  3. Despite agriculture’s rising growth rate in GDP, employment opportunities are not being generated. Growth rate is decelerating.

Indian farmers have been facing international competition and reduction in the public investment.
Subsidy on fertilisers has been decreasing. Cost of production has gone up. Reduction in import duties on agricultural products has obstructed the growth of agriculture.
Employment opportunities in agriculture are decreasing.

Impact of Globalisation On Agriculture

Globalisation has been present since the time of colonisation. Indian spices were exported to different countries of the world in the nineteenth century as well. Farmers of South India were encouraged to grow them. Spices form a huge part of Indian exports today too.

British were attracted to India cotton belts and cotton was exported to Britain as a raw material for their textile industries. Cotton textile industry in Manchester and Liverpool flourished due to the availability of good quality cotton from India.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

The Champaran Movement started because farmers of that region were forced to grow indigo on their land as a raw material for their textile industries. They were unable to grow food grains to sustain their families.

Farmers in India have been exposed to challenges despite being a producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea,
coffee, jute and spices. Our products have been incapable of matching the products from developed countries because of the highly subsidised agricultural practices.

Indian agriculture is facing the dangers of stagnation today. The proper thrust towards the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers will have to be given to improve the state of Indian agriculture. The green revolution has not been able to improve the state of Indian agriculture despite its promises. It has caused land degradation due to overuse of chemicals, drying aquifers and vanishing biodiversity.

Gene Revolution or Genetic engineering helps in invention of new hybrid varieties of seeds.
Organic farming is practised without factory made chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides. Thus, the environment is not affected negatively.

Problems and Solutions For Accelerating The Growth of Indian Agriculture

Indian farmers might face issues if they continued growing food grains on fields and farm holdings. About 833 million rural population of India depends upon 250 million (approximate) hectares of agricultural land.

Diversification of the cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops will be functional in fighting the impending stagnation in Indian agricultural sector. It will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation. Fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables, biodiesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation and attract better prices.

India’s diverse climate can support high-value crops.
Change in cropping pattern might force India to import food. India was a food insecure country in the 1960s but today it can afford this. If it imports cereals while exporting high-value commodities, it will be following successful economies like Italy, Israel and Chile. These countries export farm products (fruits, olives, speciality seeds and wine) and import cereals.

→ Subsistence: The state of having what is required to stay alive comfortably.

→ Equatorial: Close to the equator.

→ Subtropical: Relating to the regions of the Earth bordering on the tropics, just north of the Tropic of Cancer or just south of the Tropic of Capricorn.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

→ Interface: A boundary common to two or more similar or dissimilar systems, professions or methods.

→ Leguminous: An adjective used to describe plants in the legume family.

→ Biodiesel crops: A form of diesel fuel derived from plants or animals.

→ Subsidy: Benefit given to an individual, business or institution, usually by the government to encourage some economical activity.

→ Vinoba Bhave: An Indian advocate of nonviolence and human rights, best known for the Bhoodan Movement. He is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi.

→ 1970s: Green Revolution

→ 1980s: Comprehensive Land Reform programme launched.

Class 10 Social Science Notes