Agriculture Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 4

Agriculture In India

Agriculture is the very backbone of Indian economy. responsible for producing the raw materialfor various Two-thirds of Indian population is engaged in industries.
agricultural activities. Agriculture, a primary activity, Agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices are also produces almost all the food humans have. It is exported

Types of Farming

Agriculture is one q£ the most ancient economic activities in India. Despite some changes in the cultivation methods have changed significantly depending upon the characteristics of physical ehvironment, technological understanding and socio-cultural practices.

Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type.

Different Types of Farming practiced are:
Primitive Subsistence Farming

  1. This type of farming is practiced in small patches ‘ of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
    dao and digging sticks, and family/community tabour.
  2. It depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of ‘the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions for a good yield.
  3. It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
  4. Farmers produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.
  5. Farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land after one patch loses its fertility.

This can be called the natural way of replenishing the fertility of the soil through natural processes; land productivity is low as the farmer does not use fertilizers or other modern inputs.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Slash and Bum farming has different names varying according to their region:

  • North-eastern states like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram ‘ and Nagaland- Jhumming;
  • Pamela in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • The ‘slash and burn agriculture is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central America, ‘Conuco’ in Venezuela, Roca‘ in 158 EduCart Social Science
  • Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’ in Indonesia, ‘Ray in Vietnam.

In India, this primitive form of cultivation is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya in Madhya Pradesh, ‘Podu‘ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh, ‘Pama Dabi’ or Roman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha, ‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’ in South- 9 eastern Rajasthan, ‘KhW in the Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in ‘Jharkhand, and ‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • It is practiced in regions” of high population pressure on land. It is a labor intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
  • Land-holding size is uneconomical but farmers are able to achieve maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative sources of livelihood.
  • There is enormous pressure on agricultural land.

Right of Inheritance: It is about the successive division of landholdings.

Commercial Farming

  • It uses higher doses of modern inputs like high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.
  • The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from one region to another.

Plantation Farming

  • Plantation is also a type of commercial farming.
  • A plantation is a place where a single crop is grown on a large area.
  • The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry.
  • They cover Large tracts of land, capital intensive inputs through the help of migrant labourers. The production is mainly for market.
  • The produce is used as a raw material for food processing industries.
  • In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane and bananas are important plantation crops.
  • Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in Karnataka are some of the important plantation crops grown in these states.

A well connected transportation and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and markets helps develop plantations.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.

Cropping Patterns

Physical diversities and plurality of cultures in India are also reflected in agricultural practices and cropping patterns of the country. There are various types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and fruits, spices and condiments, etc. grown in the country.

India has three cropping seasons — Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.

Rabi Crops:
They are sown in winter from October to December. They are harvested in summer from April to June. Some examples are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. These crops are grown in north and north-western parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclone helps in the growth of Rabi crops.

Success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has contributed to the growth of Rabi crops.

Kharif Crops:
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and are harvested in September-October.

Some examples are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and Soya bean. Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast), Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are some rice producing regions. Paddy has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Frequently Asked:
In Assam, West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro.

A short season during the summer months in between Kharif and Rabi crop season is called the Zaid season. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are some Zaid Crops.

Sugarcane requires a year to grow.

Major Crops

Variety of food and non food crops are grown depending upon the variations in soil, climate and cultivation practices. Some of these crops are Rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute.


  • Rice is the staple food crop in India. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.
  • Rice is a kharif crop and requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
  • It requires development of artificial irrigation devices like dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells to grow rice in regions of less rainfall like Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
  • Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.


  • This is the second most important cereal crop. It is the main food crop in the north and north-western parts of the country.
  • The crop requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine for ripening. About 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season is required.
  • Important wheat-growing zones of the country are the Ganga-Satluj plains in the northwest and black soil region of the Deccan.
  • Major wheat growing regions of India are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture


  • Jowar, bajra and ragi are few important millets grown in India. They are called coarse grains and have very high nutritional value.
  • Jowar is the third most important food crop. It is a rain-fed crop grown in the moist areas with irrigation facilities. Major Jowar producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Bajra is produced in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
  • Ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micronutrients and roughage.
  • Ragi grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy, and shallow black soils. It is a crop of dry regions grown in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Maize is a crop used as food and fodder. It is a kharif crop that requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C. It grows well in old alluvial soil.
  • Maize is grown in Bihar in the rabi season also.
  • Modern inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have contributed to the increasing production of maize. Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are major producing states.


  • India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. Pulses in the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet. Tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.
  • Pulses need less moisture to survive. Pulses (except arhar dal) are leguminous and help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
  • To replenish the fertility of the soil, Pulses are grown in rotation with other mainstream crops. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka are major pulse producing states.

Food Crops Other Than Grains


  1. It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. Sugarcane grows well in a hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall between 75- 100 cm.
  2. Irrigation is required in regions of low rainfall. Sugarcane can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting.
  3. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane. Brazil is the largest producer. Sugarcane produces sugar, gur (jaggery), Khansari and molasses.
  4. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana are the major sugarcane producing states.

Example 1.
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. It grows well in hot and humid climates with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall between 75 cm. and 100 cm. Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall. It can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting. India is the second-largest producer. only after Brazil. It is the main source of sugar, gur (Jaggery), khandsari and molasses. The major. producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar Punjab and Haryana.
(A) Identify the crop mentioned in the source?
(a) Jowar
(b) Bajra
(c) Sugarcane
(d) Rice
(c) Sugarcane

(B) Which of the following statements can be claimed positively about this crop?
(a) The crop is a Kharif Crop.
(b) The crop is a plantation crop.
(c) The crop is a labor-intensive crop.
(d) The crop is a rain fed crop.
(c) The crop is a labour-intensive crop Explanation: The source says that the crop requires manual labour from sowing to harvesting.

(C) Mention one reason why this crop is not grown in Jammu and Kashmir?
Jammu and Kashmir do not have the required climatic conditions in terms of temperature or rainfall.

(D) Assertion (A): The crop is a cash crop.
Reason (R): It produces so many products which are all meant for the market not consumption completely.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not th correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: It is the main source of sugar, gur (jaggery), khandsari and molasses.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture


  • Oilseeds means those crops or seeds which provide oils.
  • India was the second-largest producer of groundnut in the world in 2016. China was the largest.
  • In rapeseed production, India was the third-largest producer in the world after Canada and China in 2016. Oilseeds cover approximately 12 percent of the total cropped area of the country.
  • Main oilseeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til) soybean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower.
  • Most of these are edible and used as cooking mediums. They are used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
  • Linseed and mustard are Rabi crops. Sesamum is a Kharif crop in north and Rabi crop in south India.
  • Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.


  • Groundnut: Groundnut is a Kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.
  • Gujarat was the largest producer of groundnut followed by
  • Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh in 2016-17.


  • Tea is cultivated through plantation agriculture. It is a beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British.
  • The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
  • Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure the continuous growth of tender leaves.
  • Tea is a labor-intensive industry. It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour.
  • Tea is processed in the tea garden to restore its freshness. Tea-producing states are Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura.
  • In 2016, India was the second-largest producer of tea after China.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture


  • Indian coffee is known for its rich quality.
  • The Arabica variety brought from Yemen is also produced in this country which is in great demand.
  • Its cultivation began in the Baba Budan Hills. It is cultivated in Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

Horticulture Crops:

  • In 2016, India was the second-largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after China. India produces both tropical as well as temperate fruits.
  • Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal, oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu, litchi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, pineapples of Meghalaya, grapes of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are famous all around.
  • India is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal, and potatoes.

Non-Food Crops


  1. It is an equatorial crop and it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas under special conditions. It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm and a temperature above 25°C.
  2. Rubber serves as an important raw material for industries. It is grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya primarily.

Fibre Crops:
Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India. Cotton, jute and hemp are grown in the soil, silk comes from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves especially mulberry.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Frequently Asked:
Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.


  1. India is the home of cotton plants. Cotton is the main raw material for the cotton textile industry. In 2016, India was the second-largest producer of cotton after China.
  2. Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black or regur soil of the Deccan plateau.
  3. Its main requirements for growth are high temperature, Light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine.
  4. It is a Kharif crop. It requires 6-8 months to mature. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya
  5. Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh are cotton-producing states.


  1. Jute is also called golden fibre. Jute grows well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where
    soils are renewed every year. High temperature is required at the time of growth. Jute grows most in West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya. Jute is used to create gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts.
  2. It has been losing its market to synthetic fibres and packing materials like nylon.

Example 2.
Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(c) Horticulture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture

Example 3.
Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
(a) Rice
(b) Gram
(c) Millets
(d) Cotton
(b) Gram

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Example 4.
Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
(a) Pulses
(b) Jawar
(c) Millets
(d) Sesamum
(a) Pulses

Technological and Institutional Reforms in Agriculture

Continuous indiscriminate use of land resources without any compatible techno-institutional changes has obstructed agricultural development.

Despite the development of sources of irrigation, farmers in India depend upon monsoon and natural fertility for yield. Agriculture provides livelihood for more than 60 per cent of its population. It requires serious technical and institutional reforms. Collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari were prioritised for institutional reforms in the country after Independence.


  • ‘Land reform’ was the main focus of our First Five Year Plan.
  • The ‘right of inheritance’ had already led to fragmentation of land holdings necessitating consolidation of holdings. Implementation of agricultural reforms was lukewarm and faulty. The Government of India introduced agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture during the mid 20th century. The Green Revolution was based on the usage of package technology.
  • The White Revolution (Operation Flood) was initiated to improve Indian agriculture. These revolutions developed certain fields and sectors only.
  • A comprehensive land development Programme including institutional and technical reforms was initiated.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

Example 5.
Enlist the various institutional reform programs introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Some institutional and technological reforms include:

  1. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease were introduced.
  2. Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks were established to provide loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interests.
  3. Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) were introduced as schemes by the Government.
  4. Special weather bulletins and agricultural programs for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
  5. The government announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check corruption.

Bhoodan – Gramdan

Mahatma Gandhi declared Vmoba Bhave as his spiritual heir. He also participated in Satyagraha. He was one of the votaries of Gandhi’s concept of gram swarajya. Vmoba Bhave undertook padyatra to spread the message of Gandhi.

Vinoba Bhave assured landless farmers some land and requested the Government of India regarding the provision of land for them if they undertook cooperative farming.

Shri Ram Chandra Reddy offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 landless villagers. This act was known as ‘Bhoodan’.

Zamindars and land owners offered to distribute some villages among the landless. It was known as Gramdan. Many land-owners gave away their lands to the poor farmers due to the fear of land ceiling act. This Bhoodan-Gramdan movement initiated by Vinoba Bhave is also known as the Bloodless Revolution.

Contribution of Agriculture to The National Economy, Employment and Output

Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy however it has registered a declining trend from 1951 onwards.
More than half of the Indian population is dependent on agriculture for sustenance.

Stagnation in agriculture disrupts the functioning of the economy. The Government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture.

  1. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast, etc. were established.
  2. Infrastructure was also improved for the same.
  3. Despite agriculture’s rising growth rate in GDP, employment opportunities are not being generated. Growth rate is decelerating.

Indian farmers have been facing international competition and reduction in the public investment.
Subsidy on fertilisers has been decreasing. Cost of production has gone up. Reduction in import duties on agricultural products has obstructed the growth of agriculture.
Employment opportunities in agriculture are decreasing.

Impact of Globalisation On Agriculture

Globalisation has been present since the time of colonisation. Indian spices were exported to different countries of the world in the nineteenth century as well. Farmers of South India were encouraged to grow them. Spices form a huge part of Indian exports today too.

British were attracted to India cotton belts and cotton was exported to Britain as a raw material for their textile industries. Cotton textile industry in Manchester and Liverpool flourished due to the availability of good quality cotton from India.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

The Champaran Movement started because farmers of that region were forced to grow indigo on their land as a raw material for their textile industries. They were unable to grow food grains to sustain their families.

Farmers in India have been exposed to challenges despite being a producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea,
coffee, jute and spices. Our products have been incapable of matching the products from developed countries because of the highly subsidised agricultural practices.

Indian agriculture is facing the dangers of stagnation today. The proper thrust towards the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers will have to be given to improve the state of Indian agriculture. The green revolution has not been able to improve the state of Indian agriculture despite its promises. It has caused land degradation due to overuse of chemicals, drying aquifers and vanishing biodiversity.

Gene Revolution or Genetic engineering helps in invention of new hybrid varieties of seeds.
Organic farming is practised without factory made chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides. Thus, the environment is not affected negatively.

Problems and Solutions For Accelerating The Growth of Indian Agriculture

Indian farmers might face issues if they continued growing food grains on fields and farm holdings. About 833 million rural population of India depends upon 250 million (approximate) hectares of agricultural land.

Diversification of the cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops will be functional in fighting the impending stagnation in Indian agricultural sector. It will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation. Fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables, biodiesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation and attract better prices.

India’s diverse climate can support high-value crops.
Change in cropping pattern might force India to import food. India was a food insecure country in the 1960s but today it can afford this. If it imports cereals while exporting high-value commodities, it will be following successful economies like Italy, Israel and Chile. These countries export farm products (fruits, olives, speciality seeds and wine) and import cereals.

→ Subsistence: The state of having what is required to stay alive comfortably.

→ Equatorial: Close to the equator.

→ Subtropical: Relating to the regions of the Earth bordering on the tropics, just north of the Tropic of Cancer or just south of the Tropic of Capricorn.

NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Agriculture

→ Interface: A boundary common to two or more similar or dissimilar systems, professions or methods.

→ Leguminous: An adjective used to describe plants in the legume family.

→ Biodiesel crops: A form of diesel fuel derived from plants or animals.

→ Subsidy: Benefit given to an individual, business or institution, usually by the government to encourage some economical activity.

→ Vinoba Bhave: An Indian advocate of nonviolence and human rights, best known for the Bhoodan Movement. He is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi.

→ 1970s: Green Revolution

→ 1980s: Comprehensive Land Reform programme launched.

Class 10 Social Science Notes