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Caloric Value of Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats
We obtain 50% energy from carbohydrates 35% from fats and 15% from proteins. We require about 400 to 500 gm of carbohydrates, 60 to 70 gm of fats and 65 to 75 gm of proteins per day. Balanced diet of each individual will vary according to their age, gender, level of physical activity and others conditions such as pregnancy and lactation.
Carbohydrates are sugar and starch. These are the major source of cellular fuel which provides energy. The caloric value of carbohydrate is 4.1 Kcal per gram and its physiological fuel value is 4 Kcal per gram.
Lipids are fats and derivatives of fats, are also the best reserved food stored in our body which is used for production of energy. Fat has a caloric value of 9.45 Kcal and a physiological fuel value of 9 Kcal per gram. Proteins are source of amino acids required for growth and repair of body cells.
They are stored in the body only to a certain extent large quantities are excreted as nitrogenous waste. The
caloric value and physiological fuel value of one gram of protein are 5.65 Kcal and 4 Kcal respectively. According to ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research and WHO (World Health Organization), the daily requirement of protein for an average Indian is 1gm per 1 kg body weight.
Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram, protein provides 4 calories per gram, and fat provides 9 calories per gram. You can view this information on the bottom of the Nutrition Facts Panel on food packages.
Ethanol and fats have the highest amount of calorific value per gram i.e. 29 and 37 kilojoules per gram or 6.9 and 8.8kcal/g respectively and proteins and most carbohydrates both have about 17kJ/g or 4kcal/g.
Fat has more than twice as many calories per gram as carbohydrates and proteins. A gram of fat has about 9 calories, while a gram of carbohydrate or protein has about 4 calories. In other words, you could eat twice as much carbohydrates or proteins as fat for the same amount of calories.
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested in the intestine, where they are broken down into their basic units: Carbohydrates into sugars. Proteins into amino acids. Fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Which hormone regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism in the body. Thyroxin is the hormone that regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism in the body.