Online Education for Speech Writing Format CBSE Class 11 Examples, Samples, Topics

Speech Writing Class 11

Though speech is essentially an essay, it is significantly different. Whereas an essay or an article is read by people at a distance in time and place, a speech is delivered ‘live’ to an audience. This fact determines, to a great extent, the language and style of the composition.

A speech consists of the words spoken by a person to a gathering. The speaker could be a leader, a learned man, a man in a position of power and authority or an ordinary person, a student. The ‘address’, the language and style are determined by the occasion and the audience.

This grammar section explains Online Education English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 11 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/speech-writing-format-cbse-class-11/

Online Education for Speech Writing Format CBSE Class 11 Examples, Samples, Topics

Speech Writing Class 11

♦ Format:

(a) Address the gathering, e.g., Respected Principal, teachers, students, Good Morning.
(b) Speech in three or four paragraphs.
(c) A speech ends with Thank you. The speaker thanks the listeners for their patient hearing. Content:

♦ Content:

According to the occasion, you may include quotations. Organise the speech into introduction, main points and conclusion.

Language and style should be a mingling of the serious and conversational modes.

Speech Topics For Class 11 Question 1.
You are Mukesh/Mukta of Saket. You have been reading the news items on Nithari killings. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be given in the morning assembly, stressing the need of keeping a close vigil on the anti-social elements of the locality and taking care of young children of the area so that they don’t fall prey to bad characters.
Answer:

Crimes Against Children
by Mukta (XIA)

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends. Good Morning. I am Mukta of Class XI. Today I would like to share my views with you on crimes against children. It is a horrifying reality with which we have to contend.

Some recent tragic events have opened our eyes to the magnitude of crimes against children. Mostly, children are kidnapped for ransom if they are from rich families, or for begging and stealing if they are from ordinary families. Cases of child abuse are growing in alarming proportions.

The most disgusting and horrifying of these cases was the one discovered at Noida, where the owner- servant team carried out dastardly crimes against children behind closed doors. Investigations are unveiling horrible acts.

In such a scenario, it is imperative that parents take good care of their children. Children should be trained not to.trust strangers.

The security of a neighbourhood depends on the alertness of the citizens. We have a tremendous responsibility towards our youngsters.

I hope my words will make you think about the matter.
Thank you

Format Of Speech Writing For Class 11 Question 2.
Children usually come to school without taking breakfast in the morning and eat junk food from the school canteen. This habit affects adversely the performance of students in academics and sports. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be given in your school assembly about ‘How Health is Affected by Lifestyle’.
Answer:

How Health is Affected by Lifestyle

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends,

Good morning, I am Mamta of XI A, and I wish to speak to you on a very important matter. I wish to speak to you on how our health is affected by our lifestyle.

Yesterday, a class VI student fainted in the assembly. The reason was that she had not taken her breakfast of porridge, fruit and milk. She wanted noodles only with coffee!

Friends, the breakfast her mother had prepared was nutritious, it would have given her energy for the whole day. If we fill our stomach, meal after meal, with junk food, how shall we grow tall and strong? How will we get the energy for mental work?

Like food, rest is an important part of our lifestyle. My friend Roshan was unable to answer his English paper in the unit test; he was feeling sleepy. He had studied till 3 a.m. because he thought English could be studied in a few hours. Had he been regular in work and study, he would have done well, for he is very intelligent.

My last word is for my obese friends who form almost 30% of our student body. Exercise, exercise and regular exercise is the answer to your problems.

I sincerely hope you will improve your lifestyle to be healthier and stronger.

Thank You.

♦ Analysis:

  1. Notice that the speech opens with an address to the listeners. They are addressed in order of importance. Do not forget to address the student audience.
  2. Notice the conclusion. The speech ends with thanking the audience.
  3. Notice that the language and style are more conversational than that of an article.
  4. The structure of the content of a speech is very similar to that of an article/essay, i.e., having an introduction, main body and conclusion.

Speech Format Class 11 Question 3.
A recent survey by the Ministry of Health shows that the growing tendency of obesity among children today is caused by addiction to junk food and lack of physical exercise, and it adversely affects their learning power. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the morning assembly of the school highlighting the importance of good health and motivating the children to eat healthy, balanced diet.
Answer:

Side Effects of Junk Food

Respected Principal, Vice Principal, teachers, and dear friends. Good morning.

I am grateful to the Principal, Dr N. Ravi, for giving me this opportunity to speak on a matter that is close to the heart of all teenagers.

As I stand here, I can see about eight to ten overweight students in each class line. Surely, they are embarrassed and have become the butt of jokes. To look fit and trim is vital for a good personality.

Friends, I want you to look at your daily routine and see what you are doing to get this bulky figure. Are you excessively fond of cold drinks, pizzas and hamburgers? Do you love to sit before TV and munch wafers and packaged chips of all brands ? Is your favorite snack during the long break everyday a spicy oily ‘samosa’ or ‘bread pakora’?

Later in the evening do you just sit indoors and work on your computer, complete your homework or watch TV ?

If the answer to these questions is ‘Yes’, you know why you have this ungainly figure. In order to be slim and athletic, you need to eat right, exercise briskly in fresh air and live a disciplined life. The food that your mother prepares is what you should consume rather than junk food.

Thank you

Format Of Speech Writing Class 11 Question 4.
With the visual media technology overtaking the print-media, you have observed a decline in the people’s interest in reading books. You are disturbed by this excessive dependence of the young on television and computer games as the source of entertainment. Write a speech in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the “Pleasures of Reading” or “The Company of Books. ”
Answer:

The Pleasures of Reading
by ABC

Reading affords pleasure like no other activity. It is deeply fulfilling and satisfying. While reading, the reader is in direct communication with the writer, however distant he may be in time or space. The reader is fully focussed and enjoys the content as well as the beauty and power of language. Reading offers an infinite variety according to one’s taste. Knowledge, imagination and the reader’s own appreciation of the written word are some of the rewards of reading. If one is adventurous, one can venture into unknown cultures through books. For example, a reading of Tolstoy or Chekhov gives us an insight into the life of the Russians as a reading of Dickens gives us of the British, particularly of London dwellers.

Reading makes us more sensitive to human greatness as well as human suffering. A reading of Premchand’s short stories acquaints us with the strengths and weaknesses of human character. The classics of literature are eternal in their appeal.

Unfortunately, today most of us visit the celluloid version of Sharat Chandra’s ‘Devdas’ three four times, and the original printed one not even once.

Speech Writing Format Class 11 Question 5.
The world that we are living in is under a great threat of extinction. Large scale pollution, deforestation and industrialization are suffocating the environment. You, as a concerned citizen, want to share the causes and effects of global warming. You would also like to give a few suggestions on how to contribute to the making of a better world. As Vivek/Vineeta Arora, Head Boy/Girl of the school, prepare a speech on this issue for the morning assembly under the heading “The Hazards of Global Warming”. (150-200 words)
Answer:

The Hazards of Global Warming

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends,

This morning, I wish to draw your attention to the catastrophe that is slowly and surely coming towards us. I am talking about the hazards of global warming.

Some of my friends may not be aware of ‘global warming’. This term means the rise of the temperature of the atmosphere surrounding our planet. This is happening because of over industrialisation, large-scale pollution and deforestation. Hot emissions from industry and release of chemicals in the air are making the atmosphere of the earth warmer.

What are the hazards of global warming? Already, the polar ice caps have started melting. This can bring disaster to the world. Huge glaciers in the Himalayas and other mountains are shrinking. This will cause a rise in the sea level and will eventually lead to the flooding of coastal areas. Global warming will also bring about changes in the world climate. There will be excess rains, floods, unbearable heat and cold. These changes will surely bring disaster to the flora and fauna of our planet.

What can we do about this problem? The countries need to exercise discipline ajpout putting up industries. Effective measures to control pollution are needed.

Friends, I have tried to acquaint you with the problem the whole world is facing.

Thank you.

Speech Writing Class 11 Format Question 6.
You are the Class Representative, Class XI of Gandhi Memorial School, Pushp Vihar. You have been asked to prepare a speech on the need to imbibe principles of truthfulness, gentleness and cooperation to counter the growing violence in today’s world. Write this speech in 150-200 words.
Answer:

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends,

Today, I wish to speak to you on the very familiar subject of values like truthfulness, gentleness and cooperation. If we wish to counter the growing violence around us, these values are the only recourse open to us. (Develop these points).

Truthfulness – the basis of social stability – will rid society of deceit and fraud – example of Gandhiji! who could defeat the mighty British with the weapon of truth.

Gentleness – tolerance of the other colour, religion and caste, patience and compassion advocated by Buddha and Mahavir.

Cooperation – inevitable in the era of globalization.

Thank you

Speech Class 11 Question 7.
You are Rajini/Rajat Gaur. After seeing some obese children in your school, you are worried about
the craze for junk food and electronic gadgets in students. Write a speech to be read out in the morning assembly highlighting the need to have good eating habits and the benefits of outdoor activities. (Word limit: 150-200 words)
Answer:

Respected principal, teachers and dear friends. Today I am standing before you to express my views on the topic “obesity among school children”. Obesity has become a cause of concern for one and all. With the entry of companies like McDonalds, Kentucky chicken, wimpeys, Pizza Huts, etc. the concept of fast food has spread like a wild fire. More and more school children have taken to chocolates and soft drinks without worrying for colories. The result is obesity increasing by leaps and bounds among school children.

‘Junk food’ appeals to our taste buds but our digestive system repels it. Oil and extra fat harm our liver. We put on flesh and increase our weight. Fresh home cooked meals are hygenic, better and full of vitamins. Minerals can be easily digested. Our food should consist of coarse cereals, green and leafy vegetables, fruits, and pulses, etc. To keep ourselves agile, energetic and robust, we must do physical exercises, play games like football, badminton, kabbaddi, volleyball, etc.

By eating healthy food, doing regular physical activities not only our body will be healthy and toned our minds would remain active. I hope you all will give some consideration to my suggestion and try to instil it in your daily routine.

Thank you all for giving me a patient hearing.

Speech Writing Examples For Class 11 Question 8.
Yoga is beneficial. Speak about the benefits of yoga in the morning assembly. (Word limit: 150-200)
Answer:

Respected Principal, teachers and friends, a very good morning to one and all. Today I am standing before you to express my views on the benefits of practising yoga.

Many of us perform yoga but do we know what this entails and why is it performed? Basically yoga is a means to attain balance in our body, i.e., gaining strength, increasing flexibility and attaining spirituality. Postures and asanas are an indispensable part of yoga. These are performed keeping in mind all the body parts, combining breathing practices, and include guided mediation, Yoga is a union between body and mind. In other words, we can say it is a balance between mind and helps us keep ourselves fit and fine.

Yoga has the potential to cure many diseases like respiratory problem, abdominal problem and diseases related to the nervous system. Yoga helps in releasing toxins, reduces stress and increases concentration. In short, yoga helps us keep disease-free, happy, wealthy, wise and toned up. Yoga is a never-ending process. The deeper you delve into it the more fruitfull will be the results.

I would like to end my speech on this note.

Online Education for Water in the Atmosphere Class 11 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 11

Here we are providing Online Education for Class 11 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere. Important Questions for Class 11 Geography are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.

Online Education Important Questions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere

Water in the Atmosphere Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture?
Answer:
The surface of the ocean is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture.

Question 2.
What is meant by humidity?
Answer:
The state of the atmosphere with respect to its content of moisture or water vapour is called humidity.

Question 3.
What is meant by sensible temperature?
Answer:
It is the cold or heat felt by the human body, depending not only on actual temperature but also on relative humidity and wind.

Question 4.
Name three states in which water exists.
Answer:
Water exists in three states or forms:

  1. Solid (ice),
  2. Liquid (water),
  3. Gas (water vapour).

Question 5.
What is the measure of absolute humidity?
Answer:
Absolute humidity is measured in grams per cubic metre (g/m3).

Question 6.
What is the dew point?
Answer:
It is the temperature at which air, on cooling, becomes saturated with water vapour, and below which condensation begins and dew forms.

Question 7.
Why dew and frost form on grass quite readily?
Answer:
Because grass is a good radiator and, therefore, cools quickly.

Question 8.
Identify various forms of precipitation.
Answer:
Various forms of precipitation include rainfall, snowfall, hail, sleet and drizzle.

Question 9.
Name three types of precipitation.
Answer:
The three types of precipitation are convectional, orographic and cyclonic precipitation.

Question 10.
How does precipitation take place?
Answer:
Precipitation takes place as a result of the continued condensation and growth of the moisture particles until they become too large to remain suspended in the air.

Question 11.
What is the source of atmospheric moisture?
Answer:
The oceanic surface is the main source of atmospheric moisture.

Question 12.
Which factors control evaporation?
Answer:
There are three main factors which control evaporation:

  1. aridity,
  2. temperature,
  3. movement of air.

Question 13.
Name the various types of clouds.
Answer:
Cirrus clouds, stratus clouds, stratocumulus and cumulus clouds.

Question 14.
What are the different types of fog?
Answer:
Fogs are of three types: radiating, advection and frontal fog.

Question 15.
What is condensation?
Answer:
Cooling of saturated air is called condensation.

Question 16.
What are the different types of rainfall?
Answer:
Rainfall is of three types: convectional, orographic and cyclonic rainfall.

Question 17.
What is sublimation?
Answer:
The process of conversion of ice into liquid or vapour is known as sublimation.

Question 18.
Name the temperature at which a given sample of air becomes saturated.
Answer:
Dew point.

Question 19.
What do you mean by saturated air?
Answer:
The air that contains moisture to full capacity.

Question 20.
What is relative humidity?
Answer:
The ratio of the amount of water vapour actually presents in the air at a particular temperature to the amount of water vapour required to saturate the same air at the same temperature.

Question 21.
What is sleet?
Answer:
The falling of frozen raindrops and frozen melted snow on the earth’s surface is known as sleet.

Question 22.
Name the various types of humidity.
Answer:
Absolute humidity, specific humidity and relative humidity.

Water in the Atmosphere Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe various processes involved in the change of state (form) of water.
Answer:
Water exists in three forms, solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas-(vapour). All three states are interchangeable. The change of solid to ‘ liquid is called melting; from liquid to solid is freezing; from liquid to gas is evaporation and from gas to liquid is condensation. But sometimes ice directly converts into vapour or vice-versa. This is called sublimation.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-1

Question 2.
Describe various sources of atmospheric moisture on the earth.
Answer:
The surface of the ocean is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture. Besides, smaller water bodies, vegetation and damp surfaces also contribute significant amounts of moisture.

Question 3.
What is relative humidity and how is it measured?
Answer:
The amount of water vapour in the air compared with the amount that would be present if the air was saturated at that temperature. It is expressed in percentage determined by dividing the absolute humidity by water holding capacity of air. If the air is saturated, its relative humidity is 100%; if only half saturated, the relative humidity. is 50%. Since the capacity of air for absorbing and retaining moisture varies with temperature, the relative humidity of air mass can be altered by merely lowering its temperature without changing the actual amount of moisture present in it.

Question 4.
Discuss the reasons which impede the formation of dew or frost.
Answer:
On cool nights in early winter, when Radiation from the ground is relatively rapid, the air in contact with the ground may be chilled to the dew point and moisture condenses on the leaves and grass in the form of dew. If the dew point is below the freezing point, the condensation takes place in the form of ice crystals or frost. The formation of dew or frost is impeded by

  1. Dry air,
  2. Wind mixes the air and prevents its lower portion from reaching the dew point, and
  3. Clouds which slow down terrestrial radiation.

Question 5.
What are the middle clouds?
Answer:
The clouds which form at height of2000-7000 km. above the ground are called middle clouds. Altostratus and altocumulus are examples.

Altostratus – It is a uniform sheet of cloud, grey or bluish in colour and usually has a fibrous structure.

Altocumulus – These are flattened globular masses of clouds arranged in lines or waves. They have large globules with shadows.

Question 6.
Why does the amount of water vapour decrease rapidly with altitude?
Answer:
Water vapour in the atmosphere is the result of the evaporation of water from the earth’s surface, a continual process dependent on air. Since the air becomes thinner with the altitude, so also does the water vapour.

Question 7.
What is condensation and how does it take place?
Answer:
Condensation is the process of water vapour changing to a liquid state. If the air is cooled below its dew point, some of the air’s water vapour becomes liquid. Thus, any amount of cooling of saturated air starts the process of condensation. Condensation may start with the addition of any further water vapour to the saturated air, or with the reduction of its temperature.

Question 8.
What is precipitation? What are the conditions to determine the form of precipitation?
Answer:
Precipitation is a process of condensation of water vapour in ‘ the atmosphere which falls to the earth in the form of rain, snow, hail or sleet. These are the various forms of precipitation.
Conditions for precipitation.

  1. There should be evaporation so that the relative humidity is „ high in the air.
  2. There should be adiabatic cooling of the moist air.
  3. There should be dust particles in the air.

Question 9.
What are the effects of humidity?
Answer:
The main effects of humidity are:

  1. The skin of the human body starts to crack due to low relative humidity.
  2. It causes joint pain in the human body.
  3. The high relative humidity is harmful to the human body.
  4. The joints of furniture get loosened.

Question 10.
Why does the amount of water vapour decrease rapidly with altitude?
Answer:
The amount of water in the atmosphere is variable from place to place and from time to time. It decreases rapidly with altitude. The temperature decreases as the altitude increases.

Question 11.
How is rainfall caused?
Answer:
The moist air is cooled, saturated and condensation takes place. Water vapour condenses on a large number of dust particles to form clouds.

The cloud droplets merge to form raindrops. When these raindrops become so heavy that air cannot hold them, these fall on the earth in the form of rainfall. The release of moisture in the form of drops of water is called rainfall.

Question 12.
Describe the conditions for the formation of dew.
Answer:
Following are the favourable conditions for the formation of dew:

  1. Clear sky
  2. Calmness, i.e., the wind should not blow
  3. High relative humidity
  4. Rich vegetation cover
  5. Long nights

Water in the Atmosphere Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Distinguish between:
1. Relative humidity and Absolute humidity.
2. Evaporation and Condensation.
3. Dew and Frost.
Answer:
1. Relative humidity and Absolute humidity:
Relative humidity:
The amount of water vapour in the air compared with the amount that would be present if the air was saturated at that temperature. It is expressed in percentage determined by dividing the absolute humidity by water holding capacity of air. If the air is saturated, its relative humidity is 100%; if only half saturated, the relative humidity. is 50%. Since the capacity of air for absorbing and retaining moisture varies with temperature, the relative humidity of air mass can be altered by merely lowering its temperature without changing the actual amount of moisture present in it.

Absolute humidity:
It is the actual amount of water vapour present per unit volume of air and it is measured in grams per cubic meter.

2. Evaporation and Condensation
Evaporation is the process by which a solid or liquid is converted to a gaseous state or vapour. It occurs whenever energy is transported to an evaporated surface and temperature rises. The molecules become more mobile and overcome the forces binding them to the water surface and break away resulting in evaporation.

Condensation:
Condensation is the process of water vapour changing to a liquid state. If the air is cooled below its dew point, some of the air’s water vapour becomes liquid. Thus, any amount of cooling of saturated air starts the process of condensation. Condensation may start with the addition of any further water vapour to the saturated air, or with the reduction of its temperature.

3. Dew and Frost:
Dew: When the moisture is deposited in the form of water droplets on cooler surfaces of solid objects, such as stones, grass blades and plant leaves, it is known as dew. Clear sky, calm air, high relative humidity, cold and long nights are the ideal conditions for the formation of dew.

Frost: Frost forms on cold surfaces at a dew point which is at or below the freezing point when an excess of moisture is deposited in the form of minute ice crystals instead of droplets of water.

Question 2.
Write short notes on:
(a) Convectional precipitation
(b) Cyclonic precipitation
(c) Orographic precipitation
Answer:
(a) Convectional precipitation:
It occurs when moist air over the heated ground becomes warmer than the surrounding air and is forced to rise, expand, cool and yield some of its moisture.

Convectional rain is common in low latitudes and usually comes in the form of short heavy showers, often during the hottest part of the day. Thunder and lightning generally accompany the showers. If the convection currents are especially strong and turbulent, hail is formed.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-2

(b) Cyclonic precipitation:
It occurs in low-pressure areas, where cyclonic winds coming from various directions converge and force the large volumes of light air to rise and cause rain.

Cyclonic precipitation is generally associated with the passage of depression in middle or high latitudes, as the warm moist air mass of the depression rises and over-rides colder, heavier air.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-3

(c) Orographic precipitation:
It is caused due to relief. It occurs when the moist wind is forced to rise over a mountain or any other height. Precipitation occurs due to cooling of moisture-laden air as it rises over a high relief barrier. It happens, particularly on the windward slopes! On the other side of the barrier or on the leeward side of the slopes, there develops rain shadow area with no or very little rainfall because as the moisture-laden wind descends down the slope, after precipitating on the windward side, it becomes warmer and drier. Such a situation occurs along the western coasts of Qudra, North America and South America. The moist air from the Arabian Sea is forced by Sahyadri hills of the Western Ghats to rise up resulting in expansion, cooling and rainfall.

Amount of precipitation depends on slope, the height of the hills, temperature and moisture content of the air mass. On the other side of the mountain, the descending wind is devoid of moisture and, hence, does not give rain. The eastern slope of Sahyadri mountains in India falls in the rain shadow area.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-4

Question 3.
Describe the factors controlling the rate of evaporation and evapotranspiration.
Answer:
vaporation is the process by which liquid water or ice changes into water vapour. It occurs whenever energy is transported to an evaporated surface and temperature rises. The molecules become more mobile and overcome the forces binding them to the water surface and break away resulting in evaporation.

Evapotranspiration, on the other hand, is the amount of moisture transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation of liquid and solid water plus transpiration from living tissues principally from the plants.

Factors like the temperature of the air, source of moisture, vegetation cover, latitude, permeability and water retention effect evaporation and evapotranspiration.

Evaporation depends upon air temperature. Greater the temperature, higher is the rate of evaporation and so on. Therefore, the highest rate of evaporation occurs in deserts in conditions Of great heat and lack of surface cone.

The surface of oceans is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture.

Vegetation is an important factor, particularly in evapotranspiration. Because, under transpiration, the loss of water takes place from the green plants resulting in a stream of water with dissolved mineral salts surfing up through the plants.

Question 4.
Describe the various forms of precipitation and the major precipitation regimes of the world.
Answer:
Precipitation results from the continued condensation and growth of the moisture particles until they become too large to remain suspended in the air.

If condensation takes place at a temperature above 0°C, the resulting precipitation is in the form of rain.

If the process through a layer of colder air on the way down, it may freeze and fall as sleet.

In a strong turbulent current of a thunderstorm, water drops may be carried upward into freezing temperatures and eventually fall as hail. In fact, violent air currents may keep hailstones shuttling up and down until they grow to enormous sizes.

When the more. moisture crystallises into ice particles from vapour at a temperature below freezing point, it called snow. If snowflakes grow without interference, they form beautiful symmetrical, six-sided Crystals.

Ice-storms result when rain, already near the freezing point, falls on colder ground and vegetation and freezes upon contact.

Major precipitation regimes:
(a) Convectional precipitation:
It occurs when moist air over the heated ground becomes warmer than the surrounding air and is forced to rise, expand, cool and yield some of its moisture.

Convectional rain is common in low latitudes and usually comes in the form of short heavy showers, often during the hottest part of the day. Thunder and lightning generally accompany the showers. If the convection currents are especially strong and turbulent, hail is formed.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-2

(b) Cyclonic precipitation:
It occurs in low-pressure areas, where cyclonic winds coming from various directions converge and force the large volumes of light air to rise and cause rain.

Cyclonic precipitation is generally associated with the passage of depression in middle or high latitudes, as the warm moist air mass of the depression rises and over-rides colder, heavier air.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-3

(c) Orographic precipitation:
It is caused due to relief. It occurs when the moist wind is forced to rise over a mountain or any other height. Precipitation occurs due to cooling of moisture-laden air as it rises over a high relief barrier. It happens, particularly on the windward slopes! On the other side of the barrier or on the leeward side of the slopes, there develops rain shadow area with no or very little rainfall because as the moisture-laden wind descends down the slope, after precipitating on the windward side, it becomes warmer and drier. Such a situation occurs along the western coasts of Qudra, North America and South America. The moist air from the Arabian Sea is forced by Sahyadri hills of the Western Ghats to rise up resulting in expansion, cooling and rainfall.

Amount of precipitation depends on slope, the height of the hills, temperature and moisture content of the air mass. On the other side of the mountain, the descending wind is devoid of moisture and, hence, does not give rain. The eastern slope of Sahyadri mountains in India falls in the rain shadow area.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-4

Question 5.
Why dew is not formed on cloudy, windy nights and in shady places?
Answer:
Dew is formed when objects radiate heat thoroughly so that the moist air coming into contact with them may be sufficiently cooled down and the water vapour condenses into water droplets. The clouds act as a blanket for the earth’s surface. They check the radiation of heat so it does not radiate heat thoroughly. Hence, dew is not formed on cloudy nights and in shady places.

Similarly, dew is not formed on windy nights, because the winds blow fast and the moist air does not come long enough into contact with cold objects to get cooled. Hence, condensation does not take place and no dew can be formed.

Online Education NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 8 Silk Road

Here we are providing Online Education NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 8 Silk Road. Students can get Class 11 English Silk Road NCERT Solutions, Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

Online Education Silk Road NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 8

Silk Road NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

Silk Road Understanding the text

I. Give reasons for the following statements.

Question 1.
The article has been titled ‘Silk Road.’
Answer:
The article has been titled Silk Road because it chronicles the author’s expedition to Mount Kailash through the Silk Road region. The name Silk Road or Silk Routes, coined by German geographer and traveller, Ferdinand von Richthofen, refers to a network of trade roads that connected the East and the West. The road’owes its name to the silk trade that was established between China, Europe and Africa.

Question 2.
Tibetan mastiffs were popular in China’s imperial courts.
Answer:
Tibetan mastiff is a ferocious breed of dog found in Tibet. These dogs are used as guards and hunting dogs. These are big dogs with massive jaws. They cock their big heads when they see an approaching stranger and fix them in their sights. They are totally fearless and shoot straight at the stranger like a bullet from a gun. While passing by nomads’ tents, the author’s car was chased by Tibetan mastiffs.

They put up a fierce chase for about a hundred meters and gave up only when they realised the car was off the property. The sinister sight of the dogs and their aggressive behavior made the author realise why the Tibetan mastiff was popular in China’s imperial courts as hunting dogs.

Question 3.
The author’s experience at Hor was in stark contrast to earlier accounts of the place.
Answer:
The earlier travel accounts the author read or heard of presented the town in a completely different light from what he saw before his eyes. He found the place grim and miserable, dusty and rocky with no vegetation. Years of accumulated refuse scattered all over the place. It was an unfortunate sight given the fact that Hor was situated on the shore of Lake Manasarovar.

The author expected something spectacular which would appeal to his senses and his psyche. According to one of the earlier accounts, Ekai Kawaguchi, a Japanese monk who arrived at Lake Manasarovar in 1900, was so moved by the sight that he burst into tears. The same happened to a Swedish traveller, Sven Hedin, who broke into tears too at the Lake. However, the author found his experience in stark contrast to the earlier accounts.

Question 4.
The author was disappointed with Darchen.
Answer:
The author was slightly disappointed in Darchen. To begin with, he had an acute breathing problem. Due to cold as well as the height of the place from the sea level, he felt heaviness in his chest and was unable to breathe every time he tried to lie down. He literally spent the first night in Darchen sitting wide awake against a wall. The problem, however, subsided after he visited a doctor the next day and took Tibetan medicine.

Secondly, the place was dusty and partly neglected. There were heaps of rubbish scattered around. Since the author was too early to arrive, there were hardly any pilgrims in Darchen. He was lonely and felt so because there was hardly anyone who spoke English. Had it not been for a clear sky and a brightly shining sun, Darchen would itself gloomier than ever to the author.

Question 5.
The author thought that his positive thinking strategy worked well after all
Answer:
The author was dejected in Darchen. A bad health, a gloomy town, almost no pilgrims and no one around to talk to made his stay in the town quite demoralising. Although he was trying to boost himself up with positive thinking, his options to make it to Mount Kailash seemed severely limited to him. It was then that he met Norbu, a Tibetan academic, in the only cafe of Darchen. Norbu worked in Beijing, spoke English and was on his way to Mount Kailash.

When the author revealed that that was his intention too, Norbu suggested that they made a team. This was something the author wanted and hoped for. He needed a company, someone who knew the region and could also spoke English. At that point in time, there could not be any better companion for him than Norbu. This made the author feel his positive thinking really worked.

II. Briefly comment on

Question 1.
The purpose of the author’s journey to Mount Kailash.
Answer:
The author, Nick Middleton, is a geographer and a traveller. His purpose of the journey to Mount Kailash was to do the kora, which is the pilgrimage walk around Tibet’s most sacred mountain, Mount Kailash.

Question 2.
The author’s physical condition in Darchen.
Answer:
The author’s physical condition in Darchen was far from being good. He had already been suffering from cold and one of his nostrils was blocked compelling him to breathe through only one nostril. He also suffered from breathlessness due to high altitude. The first night in Darchen was all the more difficult for him as he could not sleep due to heaviness in the chest. This problem, however, was cured by the Tibetan treatment he received the next day.

Question 3.
The author’s meeting with Norbu.
Answer:
The author’s meeting with Norbu was accidental, which, for him was more than a welcome accident. He met Norbu at the cafe of Darchen where he sat pondering over his options of making it to Mount Kailash. Norbu approached the author and struck up a conversation with him. The author was happy to meet Norbu, primarily because he spoke English. Norbu was a Tibetan academic working at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, in Beijing. He was in Darchen for the Kailash kora on which he had written many academic papers but never did it himself. When he heard the author also hoped to do the kora, he suggested that they made a team. This was what the author wanted too to complete his expedition and hence it was a happy meeting for him.

Question 4.
Tsetan’s support to the author during the journey.
Answer:
Tsetan was a good guide and a competent driver. He was very careful driving the car in the rough terrain. He knew everything about the region which made the journey of the author quite easy. Tsetan also took care of the author when he fell sick. He took the author to the hospital and saw to it that the latter got proper treatment.

Question 5.
“As a Buddhist, he told me, he knew that it didn’t really matter if I passed away, but he thought it would be bad for business. ”
Answer:
Tsetan was a Buddhist and believed that death was not the end of all. Moreover, passing away at the Manasarovar Lake near Mount Kailash would actually be a good thing. So he told the author that it didn’t really matter if the author passed away at Darchen. However, it wouldn’t be good for his business because if any of his tourists passed away, he would lose his credibility as someone who could not look after his tourists.

Silk Road Talking about the text

Discuss in groups of four

Question 1.
The sensitive behaviour of hill-folk.
Answer:
Hill-folk shown in the text are shown to be very cordial and empathetic towards the narrator. The driver Tsetan shows perseverance to ensure the narrator’s safety, while he struggles with breathing and a persisting cold in the freezing high altitude. The Tibetan doctor’s unusual local medicine help the author with his recovery, while Norbu is willing to team up on their pilgrimage after a brief meeting with the narrator. All these characters show a sense of concern and desire to help visitors adapt to an unfamiliar environment.

Question 2.
The reasons why people willingly undergo the travails of difficult journeys.
Answer:
In this text, the narrator undertakes this difficult journey because he wishes to complete the Kailash kora, a difficult pilgrimage through several rocky mountain passes to the high altitude Mount Kailash. Both Darchen and he are academics, who decide to travel together for scholarly purposes. However, many other pilgrims undertake this difficult journey for spiritual growth. Other reasons that people may undergo such difficult journeys include a desire for such adventures or as tourists a genuine interest in visiting such historic sites.

Question 3.
The accounts of exotic places in legends and the reality.
Answer:
The narrator describes his experiences in the small Tibetan town Hor as very different from the accounts of earlier travellers that he has read. Accounts by a Japanese monk and a Swede visitor describe how they were both sentimentally overwhelmed by the sanctity of the lake. However the narrator describes Hor as a miserable place full of rocks and years of accumulated garbage. This indicates that portrayals in exotic accounts may starkly differ from personal experiences of places.

Silk Road Thinking about language

Question 1.
Notice the kind of English Tsetan uses while talking to the author. How do you think he picked it up?
Answer:
We notice the influence of Tsetan’s mother tongue Tibetan on his use of the English language. Phrases like “Not knowing, Sir” when queried about snowfall and “but no smoking” referring to the car’s petrol tank, indicate that he is relatively comfortable communicating in English and he prefers to use short sentences while speaking the language. As a driver who regularly takes foreign visitors all over Tibet, Tsetan may have learned English through his interactions , with these visitors.

Question 2.
What do the following utterances indicate?
i) “I told her, through Daniel…”
Answer:
This utterance indicate that since the narrator doesn’t speak Tibetan, Daniel translates his sentences from English to Tibetan so he can communicate with Lhamo, to tell her that he plans to complete the kora pilgrimage.

(ii) “It’s a cold, ” he said finally through Tsetan.
Answer:
The doctor, who speaks Tibetan, gets Tsetan to translate his words into English, to inform the narrator that he has a cold and will be giving him medicine to cure this.

Question 3.
Guess the meaning of the following words,
kora , drokba , kyang
In which language are these words found?
Answer:

  • Kora – A Tibetan meditation practice or Pilgrimage
  • Drokba – Tibetan Nomads who manage herds
  • Kyang – Wild asses found in Tibet

Silk Road Working with words

Question 1.
The narrative has many phrases to describe the scenic beauty of the mountainside like:
A flawless half-moon floated in a perfect blue sky.
Scan the text to locate other such picturesque phrases.
Answer:
Other picturesque phrases include:
Extended banks of cloud like long French loaves glowed pink
Sun emerged to splash the distant mountain tops with a rose-tinted blush
Snow-capped mountains gathering on the horizon
River was wide and mostly clogged with ice, brilliant white and glinting in the sunshine.
The trail hugged its bank, twisting with the meanders Big rocks daubed with patches of bright orange lichen.
It was marked by a large cairn of rocks festooned with white silk scarves and ragged prayer flags.
The plateau is pockmarked with salt flats and brackish lakes

Question 2.
Explain the use of the adjectives in the following phrases.

  • shaggy monsters – Tibetan mastiff dogs with lots of fur
  • brackish lakes – Water bodies with lots of salt
  • rickety table – Table that shook because its legs were not fastened well together
  • hairpin bend – A U-shaped bend along a road
  • rudimentary general stores – Basic stores found everywhere that sell most necessary provisions

Silk Road Noticing form

Question 1.
The account has only a few passive voice sentences. Locate them. In what way does the use of active voice contribute to the style of the narrative.
Answer:
What was the likelihood of that I asked.
By late afternoon we had reached.
That night, after my first full day’s course, I slept very soundly.
Once he saw that I was going to live Tsetan left me…
The pilgrimage trail was well-trodden…
The cafe had a single window beside which I’d taken up position…
Active voice is used to indicate that the subject is the person, place or thing that is responsible for the action. The use of the active voice in this narrative puts the reader in the position of the narrator. It makes us identify with his journey as the “I” in the narrative, and also makes us feel like we are travelling along with them through Tibet.

Question 2.
Notice this construction: Tsetan was eager to have them fixed. Write five sentences with a similar structure.
Answer:

  • I was hoping to have the windows repaired.
  • The man was impatiently waiting to have his teeth fixed.
  • The driver was going to have his license cancelled.
  • The kids were waiting to get their ice-cream cones refilled.
  • The teacher was longing to have her tenure extended.
Landscape of the Soul Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

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Landscape of the Soul Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Landscape Of The Soul Extra Question And Answer Class 11 Question 1.
Briefly narrate the story of the Emperor and the Chinese artist.
Answer:
A painter Wu Daozi, who lived in the eighth century was asked to paint a landscape by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong, to decorate a palace wall. The artist concealed his work behind a screen, so that only the Emperor would see it. For a long time, the Emperor admired the wonderful scene.

One day the painter showed him a cave at the foot of the mountain, and said that a spirit dwelt there. The painter clapped his hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. He then entered the cave and the entrance closed behind him. Since then nothing is known of the artist or the painting as the painting vanished off the wall.

Landscape Of The Soul Question And Answer Class 11 Question 2.
How did stories such as the one about Wu Daozi play an important role in China’s classical education?
Answer:
Such stories played a significant part in China’s classical education. They helped the master to guide his pupil in the right direction. They were not merely tales, but were deeply illuminating of the essence of art. The books of Confucius and Zhuangzi are full of such stories. They reveal that art was considered the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia.

Extra Questions Of Landscape Of Soul Class 11 Question 3.
Why did the artist agree to get his daughter married to the blacksmith?
Answer:
Initially the artist was against the blacksmith, Quinten Metsys, marrying his daughter. However, one day Quinten slyly sneaked into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest panel, that was so realistic that the master tried to swat it away. The artist was so impressed that he admitted Quinten as an apprentice into his studio and let him marry his beloved.

Landscape Of The Soul Extra Questions Class 11 Question 4.
What is the difference between the Chinese and European art?
Answer:
The Chinese and European art are different as the European art is trying to achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness in Europe, and the Chinese the essence of inner life and spirit in Asia. While the European wants you to look at the landscape through his eyes, the Chinese painter wants you to enter it from any point, then travel in it. He creates a path for your eyes to travel up and down, then back again, in a leisurely movement.

Landscape Of The Soul Important Question Class 11 Question 5.
How does shanshui express the Daoist view of the universe?
Answer:
Shanshui means ‘mountainwater.’ It expresses the Daoist view. The mountain is Yang and it stretches vertically towards Heaven. It is stable, warm, and dry in the sun, while the water is Yin. It is horizontal and resting on the earth, fluid, moist and cool. The interaction of Yin, the receiver, feminine aspect of universal energy, and Yang, active and masculine, is the fundamental belief of Daoism.

Landscape Of Soul Extra Questions Class 11 Question 6.
What is lacking in Shanshui?
Answer:
The third element, the Middle Void where their interaction takes place, is lacking in Shanshui. The Middle Void is indispensable. Hence nothing can happen without it. This is the reason why the white, unpainted space in Chinese landscape is important. This is also where Man finds a fundamental role, in that space between Heaven and Earth, he becomes the medium of communication between both poles of the universe.

Landscape Of The Soul Short Answer Type Questions Class 11 Question 7.
How is the pranayama compared to the Middle void?
Answer:
The Middle Void is vital as nothing can happen without it. This is the reason why the white, unpainted space in Chinese landscape is imperative. This is also where Man finds a fundamental role, in the yogic practice of pranayama we breathe in, retain and breathe out. The suspension of breath is the Void where meditation occurs.

Landscape Of The Soul Extra Question Class 11 Question 8.
How did the theory of ‘brut art’ put forward by Jean Dubuffet get credence?
Answer:
French painter Jean Dubuffet challenged the concept of ‘art brut’ in the 1940s. Before that the art of the untrained visionary was of minor interest. At about the same time ‘an untutored genius was creating paradise’. This was none other than Nek Chand, who cleared a little patch of jungle to make himself a garden sculpted with stone and recycled material known to the world today as the Rock Garden, at Chandigarh.

Landscape of the Soul Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

The Landscape Of The Soul Question Answer Class 11 Question 1.
Narrate the tale of the Chinese Emperor and the artist. What message does the story convey?
Answer:
Tang Emperor Xuanzong asked the painter Wu Daozi, to make a landscape to decorate a palace wall. The artist had hidden his work behind a screen, so only the Emperor would see it. The Emperor, for a long time, admired the wonderful scene, discovering forests, high mountains, waterfalls, clouds floating in an immense sky, men on hilly paths, birds in flight. One day the painter showed him a cave, at the foot of the mountain.

He said that a spirit lived there. Just then, the painter clapped his hands, and the entrance to the cave opened. The artist said that it was infinitely beautiful inside and he entered the cave. The entrance closed behind him. Since then nothing has been known of Wu Daozi.

The story underlines the message that the Emperor was only interested appreciating the outer appearance of the painting but the artist makes known to him the true meaning of his work. The Emperor admires the territory while the artist is filled with the ‘spirit’ within.

Landscape Of The Soul Question Answer Class 11 Question 2.
Narrate the anecdote that brings out that Europeans endeavoured to achieve ‘a perfect, illusionistic likeness’.
Answer:
In fifteenth century lived a blacksmith named Quinten Metsys who fell in love with a painter’s daughter. The father, being an artist, would not accept a son-in-law who was a blacksmith. So Quinten crept into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest board. It seemed so real that even the artist thought it was real and tried to swat it away.

It was then he realised what had happened. He immediately took Quinten as a trainee into his studio. Quinten then married his beloved and went on to become one of the most famous painters of his age.This story exemplifies what European form of art was trying to achieve. They wanted a perfect, illusionistic likeness.

Landscape Of The Soul Extra Que Ans Class 11 Question 3.
How do the Chinese expect the people to view the horizontal scroll? Why?
Answer:
Unlike European art, Chinese art is meant to be metaphorical. An artist in China would not like the onlooker to look at a particular landscape from a specific angle. The Chinese painter does not choose a specific viewpoint. One can enter his landscape from any point, and then travel in it. The artist creates a course for your eyes to journey up and down, then back again, at an unhurried pace.

This is even truer of the horizontal scroll. The action of slowly opening one section of the painting, then rolling it up to move on to the other, adds a dimension of time which is unknown in any other form of painting. It necessitates the active contribution of the viewer. It is the viewer who decides at what speed he will travel through the painting. The interaction is physical as well as mental. The Chinese painter wants you to enter his mind. The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and abstract.

Landscape Of The Soul Extra Question Answer Class 11 Question 4.
What was the revolutionary idea in art that was put forward by Jean Dubuffet? How did an Indian artist support his theory?
Answer:
Before the French painter Jean Dubuffet, challenged the concept of ‘art brut’ in the 1940s, people were not interested in the art of the untutored creative thinkers. It was he who defied this concept. As a consequence this ‘outsider art’ has steadily become the fastest growing area of interest in modem art worldwide. He felt that there are artists who have received no formal training, yet show talent and artistic insight. Their works are a motivating contrast to a lot of conventional ones.

At the time Dubuffet was advocating his theory, in India ‘an untutored genius was creating paradise’. Nek Chand made one of the biggest contributions by clearing a little patch of jungle to make himself a garden sculpted with stone and recycled material. This garden is known to the world today as the Rock Garden at Chandigarh.

Landscape Of The Soul Class 11 Extra Questions Question 5.
Nek Chand’s work is acclaimed as the work of a genius and is appreciated world over. Justify.
Answer:
Nek Chand’s work is acknowledged as India’s biggest contribution to outsider art. The fiftieth issue of Raw Vision, a UK-based magazine that initiated the outsider art publications, featured Nek Chand, and his Rock Garden sculpture ‘Women by the Waterfall’ on its anniversary issue’s cover. It reported how Nek Chand had used every thing from a tin to a sink to a broken down car to create a work of art that took him to the pinnacles of glory.

The Swiss Commission for UNESCO applauded his art as ‘an outstanding testimony of the difference a single man can make when he lives his dream’, and decided to honour him. They decided to put up an exhibition of his works. The five-month interactive show, ‘Realm of Nek Chand’, is to begin in October. It is to be held at leading museums in Switzerland, Belgium, France and Italy. However, the greatest honour for him is seeing people enjoy the creation.

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Ranga’s Marriage Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Snapshots

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Ranga’s Marriage Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Ranga’s Marriage Extra Questions Class 11 Question 1.
What does the narrator feel he could call his narration instead of ‘Ranga’s Marriage’?
Answer:
The narrator feels that the title could have been something like ‘Ranganatha Vivaha’ or ‘Ranganatha Vijaya’ because it is about one of the local lads of the village Rangappa called Ranga. The word ‘marriage’ is reminiscent of the western influence on this country boy, who had gone to Bangalore to study.

Rangas Marriage Extra Questions Class 11 Question 2.
What does the writer say about the Indians aping the West?
Answer:
The writer feels that Indians blindly follow the sahibs in England. Like a flock of sheep, they follow a single . one into the pit. He quotes the example of his village, Hosahalli, not finding a mention anywhere. He says when the English writers did not mention it, Indian geographers, too, did not ever refer to it.

Ranga’s Marriage Class 11 Extra Questions And Answers Question 3.
Why were the people of the village curious to see Ranga?
Answer:
The people of the village were curious to see Ranga because not many villagers were learned in English back then when the story takes place. Ranga was the first one to go to Bangalore for his education and his homecoming was celebrated and people flocked to witness the change, ten years of Bangalore, wrought in him.

Ranga’s Marriage Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 4.
What example does the writer give in order to prove that English words have become a part of our everyday vocabulary?
Answer:
The narrator brings out how English became a part of everyday vocabulary through this example. When an old woman brought a bundle of firewood to Rama Rao’s house, her son told her he did not have any ‘change’, and promised to pay later. The poor woman did not understand the English word ‘change’ and went away, puzzled.

Ranga’s Marriage Short Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 5.
What about Ranga impressed the narrator in the first meeting?
Answer:
Ranga noticed the narrator when the crowd had melted away. He came to the narrator and did a namaskara respectfully, saying, “I am all right, with your blessings.” His namaskara was traditional and respectful, unlike the modem practice. He bent low to touch the narrator’s feet.

Extra Questions Of Ranga’s Marriage Class 11 Question 6.
What kind of a bride was Ranga looking for? Why?
Answer:
Ranga wanted to marry a mature girl who would be able to talk lovingly. A very young girl was unlikely to understand him and could misconstrue his words, spoken in love. He cited the example of Dushayantha who had fallen in love with the mature Shakuntala. He felt, he could only marry a girl he admired.

Rangas Marriage Question Answer Class 11 Question 7.
Who was Ratna? Why was the narrator keen on getting her married to Ranga?
Answer:
Ratna was Rama Rao’s niece who had come to stay with him as her parents had died. She was from a big town, knew how to play the veena and the harmonium, and had a sweet voice. The writer considered her a . suitable match for Ranga.

Ranga’s Marriage Important Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 8.
How did the narrator arrange a meeting between Ratna and Ranga?
Answer:
The writer went to Rama Rao’s house and asked his wife to send Ratna to fetch the buttermilk that the narrator promised to send. When Ratna came, he told her to sit and requested her to sing a song. He then sent for Ranga. While she was singing, Ranga reached the door.

Ranga’s Marriage Question Answer Class 11 Question 9.
What was Ranga’s reaction? How did Ratna react to him?
Answer:
Ranga was taken in by the singing. He stopped at the threshold as he did not want the singing to stop, but was curious to see the singer. Carefully, he peeped in. The light coming into the room was blocked. Ratna looked up and seeing a stranger there suddenly stopped singing.

Ranga Marriage Question Answer Class 11 Question 10.
Explain: “The fellow said he would leave but did not make a move.”
Answer:
When Ratna stopped singing abruptly, Ranga said that it was his coming in that had stopped the singing. He expressed a desire to leave. He merely said it for the sake of saying, and he had no intention of going away. He was enamoured of the young girl.

Ranga’s Marriage Extra Question Answer Class 11 Question 11.
What information did the narrator give Ranga that disappointed him? Why do you think he did that?
Answer:
The narrator told Ranga that Ratna was married a year ago. He did this to help him realize his own feelings for the girl and not get carried away by Western ideas. The writer got the desired result.

Ranga Marriage Extra Questions Class 11 Question 12.
What was the narrator’s need to rope in the Shastri into his plan?
Answer:
Ranga was not going to admit the truth that he had fallen in love with Ratna had it not been for the Shastri. Ranga was made to feel that the Shastri was a genuine astrologer who had gauged the truth through his calculations. Hence, he admitted his true feelings.

Ranga’s Marriage Extra Questions And Answers Class 11  Question 13.
Explain: “There’s greater truth in that shastra than we imagine.”
Answer:
The Shastri said that the miserable plight of Ranga was on account of a girl, whose name was something found in the ocean such as Kamala, Pachchi or Ratna, forcing Ranga to admit to the truth. Ranga believed that the Shastri had calculated accurately, trusting the shastra to hold deeper truths.

Rangas Marriage Important Questions Class 11 Question 14.
What made the Shastri unhappy?
Answer:
When the narrator met the Shastri, he teased him for having repeated everything that was taught to him without giving rise to any suspicion. The Shastri did not like being teased. He said that what was told could have been found out from the shastras, and claimed to have developed on the provided hints.

Ranga Marriage Class 11 Extra Question Answer Question 15.
Ranga and Ratna were very fond of the narrator. Justify.
Answer:
Rangappa and Ratna had named their son Shyama after the narrator. They followed the English custom of naming the child after someone the parents were fond of.

Ranga’s Marriage Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Ranga’s Marriage Very Short Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 1.
The narrator pays a glowing tribute to his village, Hosahalli. What does he say?
Answer:
The narrator says it is a ‘pity’ if one has not heard of his village Hosahalli. He reasons that, there is no mention of it in any geography book because the sahibs in England, writing in English, did not know that such a place existed. He says the state of Mysore is to Bharatavarsha, what the sweet karigadabu is to a festive meal, then Hosahalli is to Mysore state what the filling is to the karigadabu.

He says that he is not the only one who speaks glowingly of Hosahalli but even the widely travelled doctor, Dr Gundabhatta agrees with him. He feels that some mango trees in their village have an extreme potency of sourness just as the leaves of the creeper make an excellent plate to serve the afternoon meal.

Question 2.
Discuss the reaction of the people towards Ranga.
Answer:
Ranga, the accountant’s son, was the first person from the village to be sent to Bangalore to study. Many people did not know English then. That was why Ranga’s homecoming was a great event. People rushed to his doorstep announcing that the accountant’s son had come. They wanted to go and have a look at Ranga. The crowd went and stood in the courtyard.

They were surprised to see that Ranga was the same as he had been six months ago when he had first left the village. An old lady, who was near him, ran her hand over his chest, looked into his eyes and said, since he still wore the sacred thread, it meant that he had not lost his caste. Once they realized that Ranga still had the same hands, legs, eyes and nose, they went away.

Question 3.
Describe the narrator’s ploy to get Ranga married.
Answer:
The narrator was determined to get Ranga married. He thought of Rama Rao’s niece, Ratna, would be the perfect bride for him. Next morning, he called Ratna to his place and requested her to sing. He also sent for Ranga, who became enamoured of her when he heard her sing. The narrator noticed Ranga’s interest but told him that Ratna had been married a year back. Ranga was visibly disappointed to hear this.

The next morning the narrator went to their Shastri and told him to keep everything ready to read the stars and also tutored him what to say. As planned, the Shastri pretended to make certain calculations and said that Ranga’s problem had something to do with a girl, whose name was something found in the ocean Kamala, Pachchi or Ratna. The narrator made Ranga admit his love for Ratna before he told him that she was not married.

Question 4.
Describe Ranga’s meeting with the Shastri.
Answer:
The narrator had tutored the Shastri as to what he should say. He, then, told Ranga to accompany him to see Shastri. As planned, the Shastri pretended to make certain calculations and said that Ranga’s problem had something to do with a girl. He added that the name of the girl was something found in the ocean such as Kamala (the lotus), Pachchi (the moss), or Ratna (the precious stone).

The narrator said that the girl in Rama Rao’s house was Ratna. He asked if there was any chance of their discussions bearing fruit. The Shastri was very positive and Ranga’s face revealed surprise and some happiness. The narrator said that the girl was married but there was a possibility of another suitable girl. Hearing this, Ranga was disappointed.

Online Education for The Laburnum Top Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

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The Laburnum Top Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

The Laburnum Top Extra Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 1.
Why is the poem named ‘The Laburnum Top’?
Answer:
The poem has been named ‘The Laburnum Top’ because the top of the Laburnum tree has been described in detail in the poem. It is on the top of the Laburnum tree that the nest of the goldfinch is located and where all the activity takes place when the goldfinch visits the nest.

Laburnum Top Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 2.
What is the significance of ‘yellow’ in the poem?
Answer:
The flowers of the Laburnum tree and its leaves (in autumn) both are yellow in colour. Apart from this, the goldfinch’s feathers are also yellow in colour. The poem highlights the high security that the mother bird (goldfinch) ensures for her babies and the colour yellow helps in camouflaging the babies. Hence they escape being noticed by any predator.

Laburnum Top Extra Questions Class 11 Question 3.
How is the tree transformed during the bird’s visit?
Answer:
After the goldfinch arrives on the tree, the silent and still Laburnum tree suddenly starts trembling and moving. The whole tree comes to life as the chicks of the goldfinch make a lot of noise as they chitter and trill on seeing their mother.

The Laburnum Top Extra Questions Class 11 Question 4.
To what is the movement of the goldfinch compared? What is the basis for the comparison?
Answer:
The movement of the goldfinch is compared to that of a lizard. The basis of the comparison is the sleek, alert and sudden movements of a lizard. The goldfinch makes similar kind of movements when it arrives on the Laburnum tree to avoid being noticed by any predator.

The Laburnum Top Extract Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 5.
‘Then sleek as a lizard and alert and abrupt, She enters the thickness’. Explain the given line.
Answer:
The lizard is a quick moving animal. It is also very alert and its movements are sudden. In the given line, the arrival of the goldfinch on the Laburnum tree is described. The poet describes its movements as alert and sudden just like that of a lizard. This is done to avoid getting the attention of the predators.

The Laburnum Top Important Questions Class 11 Question 6.
What is the engine of the machine? What is its fuel?
Answer:
The goldfinch has been called the engine of her family. Just as the engine starts up the machine, the goldfinch’s arrival in the nest has suddenly started the machine i.e. the young ones in the nest have started making noise. The fuel of the engine is the food that the goldfinch brings for her chicks.

Laburnum Top Extract Questions Class 11 Question 7.
How does the Laburnum ensure security for the nestlings?
Answer:
According to popular belief, the bark and the seeds of the Laburnum tree are poisonous. So, predators normally do not come near the tree. Apart from this, its yellow flowers and yellowing leaves in the autumn season complemented by the yellow coloured feathers of the goldfinch help in camouflaging the nestlings from the predators.

Laburnum Top Extra Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 8.
Explain the line, ‘And the Laburnum subsides to empty’.
Answer:
This is the last line of the poem. It describes that with the departure of the goldfinch from the Laburnum tree, it falls silent. The tree was noisy and lively when the goldfinch came to feed its chicks, but it reverts to its earlier self after its departure from the tree.

The Laburnum Top Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

The Laburnum Top Questions And Answers Learn Cbse Question 1.
The arrival of the goldfinch on the Laburnum top brings about a change in the poem. How do you interpret this change? Is change good or bad in life?
Answer:
At the start of the poem, the top of the Laburnum tree in the poem is silent and still. There is hardly any activity on it as the sunlight falls on it on a September afternoon. However, with the arrival of the goldfinch, it suddenly becomes a place of feverish activity. The silence of the place is broken by the twittering and chirruping of the chicks and the goldfinch.

I think that the change brought about by the arrival of the goldfinch on the Laburnum top is good, as it breaks the monotony. The tree becomes alive and lively with the movement of the goldfinch and the twitterings and chirrupings of the chicks.

Change can be good or bad in life depending on a situation. However, the fact is that change is the only constant in life. So, even if a change is bad, we have to accept it and move on in life.

The Laburnum Top Questions Class 11 Question 2.
What values do you learn from the goldfinch in the poem ‘The ‘Laburnum Top?
Answer:
The goldfinch has its nest on the top of the Laburnum tree in the poem, ‘The Laburnum Top’. Her chicks stay in the nest while she (the mother goldfinch) keeps going out at regular intervals to get food to feed her chicks. This shows her caring nature and highlights the values of motherly care and affection of a mother towards her offspring.

The other aspect of the goldfinch that is captured in the poem is its movement. She arrives at the Laburnum top in a sudden manner and is very much alert to her surroundings. The poet has compared her movement with the sleek movement of a lizard. However, there is a reason for her moving like this (in an alert and sudden manner). She is moving in this manner so as to avoid getting noticed by any predator. She does not want any predator to know that her chicks are resting in her nest on the Laburnum top as then the predators may kill them or harm them. The values of safety and security for her offspring is highlighted in this act of the goldfinch.

The Laburnum Top Extract based Questions and Answers

I. Read the extract given below and answer any two of the questions that follow.

The Laburnum top is silent, quite still In the afternoon yellow September sunlight,
A few leaves yellowing, all its seeds fallen.

Extra Questions Of Laburnum Top Class 11 Question 1.
What does ‘Laburnum top’ mean here?
(a) It means the top part of any tree
(b) It means the top part of the Laburnum tree
(c) It means the top part of a fictional tree
(d) It does not mean anything
Answer:
(b) It means the top part of the Laburnum tree

The Laburnum Top Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 2.
What has happened to the tree?
(a) The tree is being worshipped
(b) The tree has been cut down
(c) The leaves of the tree have turned purple and are falling down
(d) The leaves of the tree have turned yellow and its seeds falling down
Answer:
(d) The leaves of the tree have turned yellow and its seeds are falling down

Laburnum Top Important Questions Class 11 Question 3.
Find a word from the extract which is the antonym of ‘noisy’.
(a) Quiet
(b) Quite
(c) Hush
(d) Silent
Answer:
(d) Silent

II. Read the extract given below and answer any two of the questions that follow.

Then sleek as a lizard, and alert, and abrupt,
She enters the thickness, and a machine starts up
Of chitterings and a tremor of wings, and trilling
The whole tree trembles and thrills.

Extra Questions Of The Laburnum Top Class 11 Question 1.
Who is ‘she’ in the second line ? Where does she enter?
(a) She is the baby goldfinch who enters the thickness of the Laburnum tree
(b) ‘She’ is a squirrel who enters the thickness of the Laburnum tree
(c) ‘She’ is a lizard who enters the thickness of the Laburnum tree
(d) ‘She’ is the mother goldfinch who enters the thickenss of the Laburnum tree
Answer:
(d) ‘She’ is the mother goldfinch who enters the thickenss of the Laburnum tree

Laburnum Top Extract Based Questions Class 11 Question 2.
What does ‘machine’ refer to in the extract?
(a) If refers to the machine used to drill a hole in the tree
(b) It refers to the machine used to cut the tree
(c) It refers to the nest of the goldfinch where its young ones are staying
(d) It refers to the nest of the squirrel
Answer:
(c) It refers to the nest of the goldfinch where its young ones are staying

The Laburnum Top Extra Questions And Answers Learn Cbse Question 3.
Find a word from the extract which is the synonym of ‘entire’.
(a) Abrupt
(b) Hole
(c) Whole
(d) Tremor
Answer:
(c) Whole

III. Read the extract given below and answer any two of the questions that follow.

Then with eerie delicate whistle-chirrup whisperings She launches away, towards the infinite
And the Laburnum subsides to empty.

The Laburnum Top Extract Based Questions Class 11 Question 1.
What does ‘launches’mean in the extract?
(a) It means sleeping
(b) It means flying
(c) It means diving
(d) It means fluttering
Answer:
(b) It means flying

The Laburnum Top Class 11 Important Questions  Question 2.
What effect does the last line create?
(a) It creates the contrast between the liveliness of the tree and its silence
(b) It creates the contrast between the change of seasons
(c) It creates an opportunity to plant more Laburnum trees
(d) It creates the scene for the arrival of new bird species on the tree
Answer:
(a) It creates the contrast between the liveliness of the tree and its silence

Laburnum Top Class 11 Important Questions Question 3.
……….from the extract means the same as ‘strange’ and ‘mysterious’.
(a) Delicate
(b) Odd
(c) Infinite
(d) Eerie
Answer:
(d) Eerie

Letter to School Authorities Class 11 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics

Letter To Principal Class 11

This grammar section explains Online Education English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. Students can also read NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English to get good marks in CBSE Board Exams. https://ncertmcq.com/letter-to-school-authorities-class-11/

Online Education for Letter to School Authorities Class 11 Format, Examples, Samples, Topics

Letter To Principal Class 11 Question 1.
You are Vidya/Vidhan Sharma living at 63, B-Block, Greater Kailash, New Delhi. You came across the following advertisement:
Letter To Principal Class 11
Write an application to the Course Director, asking him to send you the information brochure and application form. You are particularly interested in Textile Designing.
Answer:

63 B Block
Greater Kailash
New Delhi 110048

17 July 20XX

The Course Director
International Institute of Fashion Technology
M 15 2nd Floor
M Block
GK Part-I
New Delhi 110048

Dear Sir

Subject: Course in textile designing

I came across your advertisement in the Times of India of 16th July, about the courses offered by your institute. I am interested in knowing more about the course in Textile Designing.

I have completed AISSE and now wish to join a professional course in Textile Designing. Kindly let me know if I am eligible for it. Further, please let me know the duration of the course and the fee.

I would also like to know the procedure for obtaining admission. I shall be grateful for an early response. Please send me the brochure and an application form.

Yours faithfully
Vidhan Sharma

Letter To Authorities Class 11 Question 2.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him to organise an excursion to Haridwar for an adventure holiday like white water rafting, rock climbing and mountaineering.
Answer:

K-257
Kartan Nagar
Delhi 1100XX

6 February 20XX

The Principal
Bhagirathi Public School
40 Feet Road
Kartar Nagar
Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir

Subject: Request to organise an excursion for an adventure holiday

On behalf of the students of class XI, I request you to kindly arrange an adventure holiday for us. As this is our last year in school, we would like to have a four-to-five days holiday in the Himalayas where we can go for white water rafting, rock climbing and mountaineering. We feel our March holidays, following our final examination, are ideal for such an excursion. The time between sessions can be utilised for this purpose.

I hope you will consider our request favourably.

Thanking you

Yours faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Letter To School Authorities Question 3.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him to make internet facilities available to students in the library.
Answer:

B-66, Shahid Nagar
Agra, U.P. XXXXXX
4 April 20XX

The Principal

Nav Siksha Niketan Senior Secondary School
Bhola Nath Nagar
Agra, U.P. XXXXXX

Dear Sir

Subject: Request for internet facilities for students in the library

On behalf of the entire students’ body of our school, I request you to please provide internet facilities in the library.

Due to dearth of internet facilities, we feel quite inadequate when we come in contact with students of other schools. This facility will improve the quality of our work in all areas. Our project presentations will be more meaningful and our debates and speeches well researched.

As you always put the students’ growth on top priority, please consider our request favourably.

Thanking you

Yours faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Letter To Principal Format Class 11 Question 4.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him for improvements in the school canteen. The hygienic conditions as well as the menu need to be looked into.
Answer:

222 A
Ram Nath Gali
Shahdara Delhi 1100XX

15 April 20XX

The Principal
English Grammar Senior Secondary School
Shahdara
Delhi 1100XX
Dear Sir

Subject: Request to improve the school canteen

On behalf of the entire student community, I request you to improve the school canteen.
The canteen needs to be improved in all areas. The menu it offers is extremely limited and boring. The staff is unable to cope with the rush during recess; therefore, a self-help counter would be of great help. Most important, the hygienic conditions in the kitchen need to be looked into. Regular treatment is essential to eliminate cockroaches and other insects. The owner/contractor should issue gloves and aprons to the staff to ensure cleanliness.

I hope you will consider our request favourably.

Thanking you

Yours faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Letter To School Authorities Format Question 5.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him for improvements in and updating of the school auditorium especially, the lights and sound systems which are old and outdated.
Answer:

22 Block C
Near Mother Diary
Saket
Delhi 1100XX
II February 20XX

The Principal
APJ School
Saket
New Delhi 1100XX
Dear Sir

Subject: Request for updating of the school auditorium

On behalf of the students’ community, I seek to draw your attention to the pitiable condition of the school auditorium.

The seating section is satisfactory, but the balcony needs some additional fans. It becomes very hot and stuffy during July/August and the audience gets restless.

The stage area requires changes. The sound system is obsolete and needs to be changed. Similarly, we have very limited lights on the stage. If we could have the updated innovations in lighting, it would improve our cultural programmes tremendously. Similarly, the greenrooms need to have better mirrors and lights and an additional changing room if possible in the girls’ section. With these improvements, our auditorium will be an asset to the school.

Thanking you

Yours faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Letter To School Authorities Class 11 Format Question 6.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him for permission to organise a special assembly for the parents and family members of a local army jawan who died in Srinagar combating terrorists.
Answer:

105, Block C
DLF Ankur Vihar
Ghaziabad 20XXXX

20 July 20XX

The Principal
Salwan Public School
Tronica City
Ghaziabad 20XXXX

Dear Sir

Subject: Permission for organising a programme to honour late Havildar Sujan Singh

We, the students, would like to organise a programme to honour the martyred Havildar Sujan Singh on the auspicious occasion of Independence Day. Please grant us permission for the same.

Sujan Singh hailed from our town and was a student of the Government Boys Senior Secondary School. His parents still live here. We would like to invite them as the chief guests. The purpose of the programme is to honour the memory of Havildar Sujan Singh and to help the students know about his bravery and selflessness in fighting terrorists in the remote Srinagar valley where he lost his life after killing the leader of the terrorist group.

We shall be grateful for your permission as well as guidance in making the programme a great success.

Thanking you

Yours faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Letter To The Principal Class 11 Question 7.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him for updating the library with encyclopaedia and other knowledge-related books.
Answer:

B-66, Mandawali
Delhi 1100XX

2 April 20XX

The Principal
AVB School
Patparganj
Delhi 1100XX

Dear Sir

Subject: Request for upgrading of the library

On behalf of the entire student community of our school I wish to draw four attention to the need to modernise and upgrade our library.

Our library is particularly deficient in encyclopaedia related to history and culture. The science encyclopaedia is outdated and old.

Our library needs to be furnished with knowledge-related up-to-date books to boost the awareness level of the students.

Thanking you,
Your faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Class 11 Letter To Principal Question 8.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him to arrange a visit of the students to the Commonwealth Games.
Answer:

A 66, Gali No. 10
New Rajendra Nagar
New Delhi 1100XX

2 August 20XX

The Principal
St. Thomas School
Connaught Place
New Delhi 1100XX
Dear Sir

Subject: Visit to Commonwealth/Natipnal/Zonal Games

We shall be grateful if you kindly organise a trip to witness Commonwealth/National games to be held in our city from October 3. We would particularly like to see the hockey matches that the Indian team will be playing.

Kindly consider our request favourably.
Thanking you

Yours faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Letter To School College Authorities Class 11 Question 9.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him to arrange a theatre workshop for students by inviting experts from the National School of Drama.
Answer:

225, Block A
Gomati Nagar
Lucknow 20XXXX

2 April 20XX

The Principal
Bal Bharati Public School
Lucknow 20XXXX
Dear Sir

Subject: Request for holding a theatre workshop

I request you to kindly arrange for a theatre workshop in our school for the students of classes IX to XII.

As you are aware the students of our school have multi-faceted talent, but they need proper training for polishing and refining them.

Some noted theatre personalities practise their craft in our city. They would be happy to guide the youngsters as well as make them aware of the latest trends in Indian and the world theatre.

We, students, shall be grateful if you arrange for a theatre workshop.

Thanking you
Yours faithfully
XYZ
(Head Boy)

Letter To Authority Class 11 Question 10.
As the Head Boy of your school, write a letter to the Principal requesting him to include a course on advertising and film making in the vocational studies curriculum.
Answer:

B-26, Ganesh Society
Main Highway Road
Ahmedabad XXXXXX

15 April 20XX

The Principal
Sardar Patel Senior Secondary School
Ahmedabad XXXXXX
Dear Sir

Subject: Request to add courses on advertising and film-making
I make this request on behalf of the students of classes XI and XII. We would be thankful if you could introduce courses on film-making and advertising in our vocational studies curriculum. Youngsters are attracted to films and ads. Formal training at this stage will help them choose their career after school.

Please give a serious thought to our request and oblige.

Thanking you
Yours faithfully XYZ
(Head Boy) .

Online Education for Sources of Business Finance Class 11 Important Extra Questions Business Studies Chapter 8

Here we are providing Online Education for Business Studies Class 11 Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 8 Sources of Business Finance. Business Studies Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.

Online Education for Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 8 Important Extra Questions Sources of Business Finance

Sources of Business Finance Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Explain the meaning of finance and its importance in business.
Answer:
Significance of Business Finance: Business is concerned with the production and distribution of goods and services for the satisfaction of the needs of society. For carrying out various activities, business requires money. Finance is the lifeblood of business.

No business firm can carry on its operations smoothly and successfully without the availability of the right amount of funds at the right cost and at the right time. In the absence of finance, the production and selling of goods and services are not possible.

The success of a business enterprise depends, to a great extent. On the manner in which it raises, employs, and disburses its funds. In business, finance is required
(a) for establishing an enterprise
(b) for purchase of fixed assets and current assets, i.e. for carrying on present operations
(c) for expansion, growth, and modernization of business.

In modern business, the significance of business finance has increased due to an increase in the scale of business, use of capital-intensive techniques, shortage of finance, and increase in competition.

Adequate finance provides the following benefits to a business concern:

  1. The firm can meet its liabilities in time. Prompt payment of debts helps in raising its credit-standing. As a result, the firm can easily borrow funds as and when necessary.
  2. The firm can take advantage of business opportunities For example, it can buy materials in bulk at a low price.
  3. The firm can carry on its business smoothly and without any interruptions.
  4. The firm can replace its plant and machinery in time, thereby improving the efficiency of its operations.
  5. The firm can face recession, trade cycles, and other crises more easily and confidently.
  6. The requirement for fixed and working capital increases with the growth and expansion of the business. At times, additional funds are required for upgrading the technology employed so that the cost of production or operations can be reduced.

Question 2.
Explain in brief the various types of business finance and their uses.
Answer:
Types of Business Finance and their uses:
On the basis of nature and purpose served finance used in a business is of the follow ing kinds –
1. Long-term Finance:
Long-term sources fulfill the financial requirement of an enterprise fora period exceeding 5 years. Long-term finance refers to the fundraised for a long period of time. Such finance is used for investment in fixed assets such as land, building, plants, machinery, furniture, fixtures, etc. Fixed assets are those assets that are required for permanent use and are not meant for sale. Long-term finance is used for meeting the permanent needs of businesses. It is used again and again to generate revenue.

Such finance cannot be taken out of the business without closing down the firm or without reducing the scale of operations. Long-term finance is raised from shareholders, debenture holders, financial institutions, and retained earnings. The amount of long-term funds required depends upon the nature and size of the business. For example, a factory requires more long-term funds than a shop.

Similarly, a large factory needs greater long term funds than a small factory. Long-term sources of finance include shares and debentures, long-term borrowings, and loans from financial institutions.

2. Medium-term Finance:
This type of finance is required for investment in permanent working capital and for repayment of assets. It is also used for modernization and expansion. It is raised for a period of more than one year but less than five years. Medium-term finance is raised from debenture holders, financial institutions, public deposits, and commercial banks.

3. Short-term Finance:
Short-term funds are those which are required for a period of not exceeding one year. It is used for meeting the short-term needs of the business. It is also known as working capital. Working capital is the capital required for meeting the day-to-day needs of the business, e.g. purchase of materials and payment of wages, salaries, rent, taxes, freight charges, etc. short-term finance is raised from public deposits, commercial banks, trade credit, factoring, customer advances, etc.

Short-term funds can be used over and over again from year to year. Seasonal businesses that must build inventories in anticipation of selling requirements often need short-term financing for the interim period between seasons. Wholesalers and manufacturers with a major portion of their assets tied up in inventories or receivables also require a large number of funds for a short period.

Question 3.
What is the term Trading on Equity? Explain with the help of an example.
Answer:
Trading on Equity:
Trading on equity is an arrangement under which the management raises funds by issuing securities that carry a fixed rate of interest or dividend which is less than the average earnings of the company to increase the return on equity shares. If a company can earn more than the rate of fixed dividend or interest, excess earnings will goto equity shareholders; and they would thereby earn higher earnings per share than they would have without the use of gearing of capital structure.

For instance, Mahindra company has an equity capital of Rs.40,00,000, and Kodak company has an equity capital of Rs. 16,00,000 and 15% debentures of Rs.24,00,000. Both have earnings of Rs. 10,00,000 which is 25% on the total capitalisation of Rs.40,00,000. Assuming the tax rate of 50% on corporate income, the shareholders of Kodak company will have the benefit of trading on equity. Their return is 20% compared to 12.5% in the case of Mahindra Company as shown in Table.
Business Studies Class 11 Important Questions Chapter 8 Sources of Business Finance 1

Question 4.
Differentiate between Equity Share and Preference Share
Answer:
Difference between Equity Share and Preference Share:

Basis Equity Share Preference Share
1. Preferential Right Payment of equity dividend is made after the payment of preference dividend. Payment of preference dividend is made before the payment of equity dividend. They have priority over equity shares.
2. Repayment of Capital at Winding-up Repayment of equity share capital is made after the repayment of prtf&n share capital. Repayment of preference share capital is made before the repayment of equity share capital. They have priority over the refund of capital.
3. Rate of Dividend The rate of equity dividend may vary from year to year depending upon the profits of the company. The rate of preference dividend is fixed by the terms of the issue.
4. Arrears of Dividend In the case of equity shares, arrears of dividend cannot accumulate. It fluctuates with profit. In the case of preference shares. arrears of dividend may accumulate if such shares are cumulative.
5. Convertibility Equity shares cannot be convertible. Preference shares may be convertible into equity shares.
6. Redeemability Equity shares are not redeemable during the lifetime of the company Preference shares are redeemable during the lifetime of the company or at a specific time mentioned.
7. Premium on Redemption They cannot carry a right to receive a premium on redemption. They may carry a right to receive a premium on redemption.
8. Voting Rights Equity shareholders enjoy voting rights ¡n the general meetings of shareholders. These shareholders have full voting rights. Preference shareholders do not have any voting rights except all the meetings of preference shareholders. Voting rights of preference shareholders are restricted.
9. Degree of Risk Sink and swim with the company. Relatively less risk.
10. Appeal to investors Attractive to bold and adventurous investors. Appeal to conservative and orthodox investors.

Question 5.
Differentiate between Shares .and Debentures.
Answer:
Difference between Share and Debentures:

Point of Distinction Shares Debentures
1. Nature Part of capital. owned funds of the company. Debt or loan, borrowed funds and is an acknowledgment of debt.
2. Status of Holders Owners of the company. Creditors of the company.
3. Right to return Dividends cannot be claimed as a matter of rights. Interest can be claimed as a matter of right.
4. Security No charge on assets or mortgage as security. Generally a charge on assets as security to mortgage.
5. Voting rights Full voting rights No voting rights and say in the management.
6. Redemption Not repayable during the lifetime of a company (except redeemable preference shares) Generally repayable after a specified period.
7. Order of repayment After all claims of creditors are settled Prior to all types of shareholders.
8. Frequency of return Uncertain and fluctuating depending on profits. Absolutely certain or fixed irrespective of profits.
9. Risk to holders The complete risk is borne by holders. Minimum risk in case of secured debentures.
10. Charge in accounts Dividend on shares ¡s a charge against profit and loss appropriation account Interest on debentures is a charge against profit and loss account.

Question 6.
Explain the term Lease-financing. Give in brief its merits and limitations.
Answer:
Lease-financing:
A lease is a contractual agreement in which one party i.e. the owner of an asset grants the other party the right to use the assist in return for a specific period for payment. The owner of the assets is called the lessor while the other party that uses the assets is known as the lessee.

Lease financing provides an important means of modernization and diversification to the firm. Such type of financing is more prevalent in the acquisition of assets like computers and electronic equipment which becomes obsolete quicker because of fast-changing technological developments.

Following are the merits of lease-financing:
(a) It enables the lessee to acquire the asset with a lower investment.
(b) It provides finance without diluting the ownership or control of the business.
(c) The lease agreement does not affect the debt raising capacity of an enterprise.
(d) The risk of obsolescence is born by the lesser. This allows greater flexibility to the lessee to replace the asset.

Limitations:
The limitations of lease-financing are as under –

  1. A lease arrangement may impose restrictions to allow the lessee to make any alteration or modification in the asset.
  2. It may result in higher payout obligation in case the equipment is not found useful and the lessee opts for premature termination of the lease agreement.
  3. The lessee never becomes the owner of the assets. It depriver him of the residual value of the assets.

Question 7.
Classify the sources of funds on the basis of ownership.
Answer:
On the basis of ownership the sources of fund are divided into two types:

  1. Owner’s capital,
  2. Borrowed capital.

Owner’s capital or Owner’s fund: The capital of the owner of the business falls under this category.

It is got from three resources:

  1. Equity shares,
  2. Preference shares and
  3. Retained earnings.

Features:

  1. Owner funds are treated as risk capital i.e., provision of loss, low profits, etc.
  2. Owned funds are the permanent source of capital.
  3. Owners fund different front management.
  4. There is no need for security for the owner’s fund.

Advantages:

  1. Owner’s capital forms the basis for raising loans.
  2. It is the permanent source of capital.
  3. This management is separate from ownership. Therefore professional managers can be employed to work efficiently.
  4. Capital forms the basis on which owner acquire their rights to control the activities of the company.
  5. In this type of capital, no security is required, the assets of the company are free to be used for raising loans.

Borrowed funds: Funds obtained from the parties, separate from the owner of an enterprise are known as borrowed funds:

  1. Borrowed funds can be raised for a specific period.
  2. There must be security for raising funds through debentures.
  3. A fixed charge is made on assets due to borrowing funds.
  4. Borrowed funds are payable after the specific period.
  5. There is much control on the company due to the non-interference of creditors.

Advantages:

  1. It does not affect the owner’s control over management.
  2. Interest is treated as an expense. Therefore the amount of tax liability is reduced.
  3. It provides flexibility to the capital structure. Finance may be raised when it is required and repaid when it is not required.

Limitations:

  1. Payment of interest and repayment of the loan cannot be avoided even if there is no profit.
  2. It requires securities to be offered against the loans.

Question 8.
What is Trade Credit? State its merits and limitations?
Answer:
Trade credit is the credit extended by one trader to another for the purchase of goods and services. It is used as short term financing. It is granted to those parties which have a sound financing position and goodwill. The volume and period of the credit depending upon various factors such as goodwill of the purchasing firm, the financial position of the seller, volume of purchases, past record of payment, and degree of competition in the market.

Merits:
The following are the merits of trade credit:

  1. It is a convenient and regular source of funds.
  2. It may be readily available in case the creditworthiness of the customers is known to the seller.
  3. It does not create any charge on the assets of the firm.
  4. It promotes the sales of an organization.
  5. It helps in increasing the stock in order to meet expected demand in the sales volume in near future.

Limitations:

  1. Easy availability may induce a firm to “indulge in overtrading.
  2. Only a limited amount of funds can be generated.
  3. It is a costly source of funds as compared to others.

Question 9.
Explain Commercial Banks and Financial Institutions as a source of business finance.
Answer:
Commercial Banks:
Commercial Banks are a very important source of finance. They provide funds for different purposes and for different periods. They provide loans to all firms and finance them by the way of cash credits, overdraft, purchase/selling, and the issue of letters of credit. The Interest rate depends upon the type of loan and the interest rate of an economy. The loan is repaid either in a lump sum or in installments. The borrower is required to provide some security or create a change on the assets of the firm before a loan is sanctioned by a commercial bank.

Merits:

  1. They provide timely finance as and when needed by the business.
  2. Information supplied to the bank by the firm is kept confidential, so the secrecy of the firm can be maintained.
  3. Not many formalities required like an issue of prospectus and underwriting for raising loans from banks.
  4. The loan from a bank is a flexible source of finance, a loan is taken as and when required and repaid in advance when funds are not needed.

Limitations:

  1. Funds available from the bank generally for a short and medium period.
  2. The procedure of obtaining funds from banks is slightly difficult because the bank makes a detailed investigation of the company affairs and may ask for the security of assets and personal securities.
  3. In some cases, difficult terms and conditions are imposed by the bank for the grant of loan which affects the smooth running of the business.

Financial institutions: For the development of industry’s’ and business center and state governments established various financial institutions to provide finance and assistance, They provide both owned capital and loan capital for the long and medium-term. In addition to providing financial assistance, these institutions also conduct market surveys and provide technical assistance and managerial services to people who run the enterprises.

This source of financing is considered suitable when large funds for a larger duration are required for the expansion, reorganization, and modernization of an enterprise.

Merits:

  1. They provide long-term finance.
  2. They also provide financial, managerial, and technical advice and consultancy to business enterprises.
  3. Raising a loan from this institution increases the goodwill of the borrowing company in the capital market.
  4. As repayment of the loan can be made in easy installments, it does not prove to be much of a burden on the business.
  5. The funds are made available even during periods of depressions.

Limitations:

  1. Raising loans from a financial institution is time-consuming and expensive because they follow too many formalities.
  2. Certain restrictions are imposed on the power of the borrowing company.

They may have their nominees in the Board of Directors of the borrowing company thereby restricting the powers of the company.

Question 10.
“Finance is the lifeblood of business.” Is this statement true? Explain.
Answer:
Yes, it is true that ‘Finance is the lifeblood of the business. No business firm can carry on its operation smoothly and successfully without the availability of the right amount of funds at the right cost and at the right time. In the absence of finance, the production and selling of goods and services are not possible.

In business, finance is required for:

  • establishing an enterprise
  • purchase of fixed and current assets
  • expansion, growth, and modernization of business.

In modem business, the significance of business finance has increased due to an increase in the scale of business, use of capital-intensive techniques, shortage of finance, and increase in competition.

Sources of Business Finance Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
What is equity share? Mention its merits and demerits as it is the source of raising permanent capital in the company.
Answer:
Equity (Ordinary) Shares: Equity shares is the most important source of raising long term capital by a company. Equity shares represent the ownership of a company and thus the capital raised by the issue of such shares is known as ownership capital or owner’s funds. Equity shares are those shares which do not carry any special or preferential rights in the payment of annual dividend or repayment of capital.

The rate of dividend on such shares is not fixed. Dividend on equity shares is paid out of the residual profits left after paying interest on debentures and dividend on preference shares.

Similarly, equity shareholders are paid at the time of winding up of the company after all debts and preference shareholders have been paid in full. They are entitled to receive what is left after all prior claims have been satisfied. Therefore, equity shareholders are the real risk-bearers. But they share in the increasing profits of the company. They enjoy full voting rights in the management and control of the company.

Thus, the distinctive characteristics of equity shares are as follows:

  1. The holders of equity shares are the main risk bearers. They provide risk capital because when the company fails and is, closed, equity shareholders may lose their entire investment.
  2. Equity shareholders are likely to enjoy higher returns and considerable increases in the value of their shares.
  3. Equity shareholders have a residual claim in the company. The income left after payment of interest to creditors and dividend to preference shareholders belongs to equity shareholders.
  4. Equity share capital improves the creditworthiness of the company and the confidence of the creditors. It is the basis on which loans can be raised.
  5. The voting rights of these shareholders provide them a right to participate in the management of the company.
  6. Equity shareholders have the right to elect directors. They can collectively ensure that the company is managed in their best interests.

Advantages:
As a source of finance, equity shares offer the following benefits –
1. Permanent Capital: Equity shareholders provide the permanent funds of a company. There is no obligation to return the money except at the time of winding up the company. As it stands last of claims, it provides a cushion for creditors in the event of winding up of a company.

2. No Obligation as to Dividend: Equity shares do not impose an obligation to pay a fixed dividend. Dividends are payable only if the
company has adequate profits. Equity shareholders stand by the company through thick and thin.

3. No Charge on Assets: Funds can be raised through equity shares without creating any charge on the assets of the company. For issuing equity shares, the company is not required to mortgage or pledge its assets. The assets remain free of charge for borrowing money in the future.

4. Source of Prestige: A company with substantial equity capital has a high credit-standing. Creditors readily lend money to it because they regard equity capital as a safety shield. It provides confidence to prospective loan providers.

5. Small Denomination The nominal or face value of an equity share is generally quite low, such as Rs. 10. Therefore, equity shares have a wide appeal. The company can mobilize huge funds from investors belonging to different income groups.

6. Suitable for adventurous investors: Equity shares are suitable for investors who are willing to assume the risk for higher returns. Equity shares are the ideal investment for bold and enterprising investors. They get handsome dividends and the value of their holdings appreciates during boon periods. In addition, they enjoy full voting power in the management of the company. They also have the pre-emptive right to buy new shares. The company has to first offer its new shares to the existing shareholders in proportion to their existing holdings.

Disadvantages/Limitations:
Equity shares suffer from the following limitations –

1. No Trading on Equity: If a company issues only equity shares, it cannot obtain the benefits of trading on equity.

2. Danger of Overcapitalisation: Equity share capital is not refundable during the lifetime of a company. A mistake in estimating financial requirements may, therefore, result in overcapitalization, particularly when the company’s earning capacity declines. Equity capital may remain idle and underutilized. The cost of equity shares is generally more as compared to the cost of raising funds through other sources.

3. Perpetuation of Control: Any new issue of equity shares must be offered first to the existing shareholders. As a result, there is a concentration of control in a few hands.

4. Takeover Bids: Equity shares have proportionate voting rights. Persons who seek to gain control over a company may indulge in undesirable practices, such as cornering of votes, the formation of groups, and abuse of proxy rights. Issue of additional equity shares dilutes the voting rights and earnings of existing shareholders.

5. Speculation: During boom periods, profits of a company and dividends on equity shares tend to increase. This leads to excessive speculation in the prices of equity shares. Investors who want steady income may not prefer equity shares as equity shares get fluctuating returns.

6. Unsound Dividend Policy: During boom periods proiltsTend to increase. The directors may decide to distribute higher dividends to win the cooperation of equity shareholders. They may overlook reserves for contingencies, replacements, etc.

7. Dividends Controlled by Directors: The rate of dividend is decided by the Board of Directors. Shareholders cannot demand higher dividends than those recommended by the Board. Therefore* investors may consider the equity shares unsafe and non-remunerative.

8. High Risk: Equity shareholders sink and swim with the company. During the depression, they get no dividend and the market value of their holdings falls drastically. The collateral arid resale value also declines. Equity shareholders lose heavily if the company fails and goes into liquidation. Therefore, equity shares do not appeal to the investors who want the safety of their investment and a regular and fixed return. More formalities and procedural delays are involved while raising funds through the issue of equity shares.

Question 2.
What are preference shares that mention their types, merits, and demerits?
Answer:
Preference shares: The preference shares are those which carry preferential rights at to the payment of dividend at a fixed rate and as to the repayment of capital.

Thus, preference shareholders enjoy the following two preferential rights over the equity shareholders:
1.They are entitled to receive a fixed rate of dividend out of the net profits of the company prior to the declaration of dividend on equity shares.

2. They get priority over the equity shareholders regarding the return of capital in case of winding up of the company. Preference shares resemble debentures as they bear a fixed rate of return.

Features of Preference Shares:
Besides the above two preferential rights (features), the preference shares may carry the following additional features –

  1. They don’t carry the voting rights as are enjoyed by the equity shareholders.
  2. If preference shares are cumulative and the dividend is not paid in a particular year, then the dividend will be carried forward to the next year.
  3. If preference shares are redeemable, they will be retired at the end of their term. Preference shares may be classified as follows:
  4. Cumulative and Non-cumulative Preference Shares: When dividends go on accumulating if they are not paid, preference shares are said to be cumulative. If in a particular year, they are not paid the dividend, they will be paid such arrears in the next year before any dividend can be distributed among the equity shareholders. But the dividend on non-cumulative shares does not accumulate if the dividend is not paid in any year. If the company is unable to pay dividends in a particular year, the shareholder’s right to the dividend in respect of that year is lost forever.
  5. Convertible and Non-convertible Preference Shares: If the preference shareholders are given a right to convert their shares into equity shares within a given period of time, such shares will be known as convertible preference shares. The preference shares which cannot be converted into equity shares are known as non-convertible preference shares.

3. Redeemable and Irredeemable Preference Shares: Redeemable preference shares are those which in accordance with the terms of their issue, will be repaid on or after a certain date. The preference shares which cannot be redeemed during the lifetime of the company are known as irredeemable preference shares. Such shares are refunded only at the time of winding up of the company.

4. Participating and Non-participating Shares:
In addition to the two basic preferential rights, the participating shares may carry either or both the following rights –
(a) a right to participate in the surplus profits left after paying a dividend to the equity shareholders; and
(b) a right to participate in the surplus assets left after the repayment of capital to the equity shareholders on the winding up of the company.

But non-participating shares don’t have these additional rights.

Merits of Preference Shares:
The issue of preference shares has the following benefits –

  1. The preference shares attract funds from those investors who prefer the safety of their investments and a fixed rate of return on their investments. They provide a reasonable steady income in the form of fixed-rate return and safety of the investment.
  2. The management can retain control over the company by issuing preference shares to outsiders because the preference shareholders have only restricted voting rights.
  3. Preference shareholders are entitled to a fixed rate of dividend which enables the equity shareholders to get the higher dividend. These are useful for those investors who want fixed rate a return with comparatively low risk.
  4. Preference shares do not impose a heavy burden on the company because they carry a fixed rate of dividend.
  5. By issuing preference shares, a company can raise finance for the long-term without creating any charge over its assets.

Demerits of Preference Shares:
There are certain limitations of raising funds by issuing preference shares. These include –

  1. The investors may not like preference shares as they have restricted voting rights only. Preference shares are not suitable for those investors who are willing to take risks and interested in higher returns.
  2. Because of the issue of the preference shares, the rights of equity shareholders over the assets of the company are diluted.
  3. The issue of these shares restricts the flexibility of the company in certain cases.
  4. The existence of preference shares may affect the creditworthiness of the company.
  5. As the dividend on these shares is to be paid only when the company earns a profit. There is no assured return for the investors. Thus, these shares may not be very attractive to investors.
  6. The dividend paid is not deductible from profits as an expense. Thus, there are no tax savings as in the case of interest on loans.

Question 3.
Define debenture as a source of borrowed capital, its important features, and types of debentures issued by a company.
Answer:
Debentures/Bonds:
Debentures are an important instrument for raising long term debt capital. A company can raise funds through the issue of debentures, which bear a fixed rate of interest. Debentures constitute the borrowed funds of a company. They are known as creditorship securities because debenture holders are the creditors of a company. Debenture capital may, therefore, be called debt capital.

A debenture is a document or certificate issued by a company under its seal as an acknowledgment of its debt. It is also an undertaking to repay the specified sum with interest to its holder. Holders of debentures are called debenture holders. A company can issue different types of debentures. Issue of zero interest debenture (LID) which does not carry an expected rate of interest has also become popular in recent years.

Characteristics:
The main features of debentures are as follows –

  1. Debentures represent borrowed funds.
  2. Interest on debentures is paid at d fixed-rate at specified intervals,
  3. Interest is payable every year irrespective of whether there are profits or not. ,
  4. Debentures generally carry no voting rights financing through debentures do not dilute the control of equity’ shareholders.
  5. Debentures may involve a charge on the assets of the company.
  6. If interest and the borrowed sum is not paid to debenture holders in time, they can take legal action (including winding-up) against the company.
  7. Debentures are generally repayable after a specified period of time.

Types Of Debentures:
Debentures can be of the following kinds –
1. Naked or Unsecured Debentures: Such debentures are unsecured and do not carry a charge on the assets of the company. They are mere promises to pay without any security. No property is mortgaged or pledged with the holders of such debentures. In case of default in payment by the company, they can only file a suit for recovery of money. Holders of these debentures are treated as ordinary creditors.

2. Secured or Mortgage Debentures: Such debentures carry a fixed or floating charge on the assets of the company. A mortgage deed is executed by the company describing the terms and conditions of the issue. In case of default by the company, the debenture holders can recover money from the mortgaged property. A fixed charge is created on some definite and existing assets of the company.

The company cannot use these assets without the consent of the debenture holders. On the other hand, a floating charge can be created on both existing and future assets. The company can deal in such assets in the usual course of business. The charge goes on shifting from asset to asset and becomes fixed when the company goes into liquidation
Business Studies Class 11 Important Questions Chapter 8 Sources of Business Finance 2

or stops business or makes default in repayment. Any charge created by a company in favor of debenture holders must be registered with the Registrar of Companies within thirty days of its creation.

3. Redeemable Debentures: These debentures are repayable after a predetermined period during the lifetime of the company. These can be repaid on the specified date on demand by the debenture holders or on a notice of redemption by the company. In case of such debentures, the company reserves the right of paying off the principal on or after a particular date. These are also known as perpetual debentures.

4. Convertible Debentures: Such debentures carry an option to their holders to convert their holdings into equity shares after a specified period. The debenture holders can become shareholders. These debentures are more attractive for investors.

5. Non-convertible Debentures: The holders of such debentures have no right to get them converted into shares. They always remain creditors of the company. In recent years, the practice of issuing debentures that are partially convertible into equity shares have gained momentum.

6. Registered Debentures: The names of the holders of such debentures are recorded in the company’s books. Interest and the principal sum are paid only to the registered holders. Such debentures can be transferred only by a transfer deed and not by delivery alone.

7. Bearer Debentures: Bearer debentures are such which can be transferred by mere delivery’ from the bearer of the debenture without any formal notice by the company. The company keeps no record of such debentures.

Question 4.
Foreign Currency convertible bonds (FCCBS) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the investment instruments in international financing. Explain in brief the merits and demerits of these instruments of investments.
Answer:
Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCBs):
Foreign currency convertible bonds are equity-linked debt securities that are to be converted into equity shares or depository receipts after a specified period. Thus, a holder of FCCB has the option of either converting them into equity shares at a predetermined price or exchange rate or retaining the bonds. The FCCB’s are issued in a foreign currency and carry a fixed interest rate which is lower than the rate of any other similar non-convertible debt instrument.

FCCBs have the following advantages and disadvantages –

Advantages:

  1. The convertible bond gives the investor the option to convert the bond into equity shares at a price or redeem the bond at the end of a specified period, usually three years.
  2. The investor is assured a minimum fixed interest-earning which is lower than the rate of any other similar instrument.
  3. FCCBs are easily convertible and, therefore, offer liquidity.
  4. Companies prefer FCCBs as a dilution of equity is delayed. It allows the company to avoid any current dilution in earnings per pure that a further issue of equity shares would cause.
  5. FCCB can be freely traded and the issuing company has no control Over the transfer mechanism and is not aware of the ultimate beneficiary.

Disadvantages:

  1. Interest on bonds is payable in foreign currency which involves an exchange risk. Companies with low debt-equity ratios and large forex earnings potential only opt for FCCBs.
  2. FCCBs involve the creation of more debt and forex outgo in the form of interests.
  3. If the investors do not convert the bonds into equity shares there is a burden of repayment.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment (FDI) denotes direct investment in the equity shares, debentures, or bonds of Indian companies by foreign investors. FDI is channelized in the form of direct foreign contribution to the equity capital of the company and is all into domestic equity invested by the Indian shareholders of the companies.

Foreign Direct Investment refers to the investment made by a company in manufacturing and/or marketing facilities in a foreign country. The investment made by Enron in a power plant in India is an example of foreign direct investment. The investing foreign company is called the ‘Parent Company’ and the investment made is known as an affiliate’.

FDI includes:

  1. investment in setting up a new subsidiary or branch in a foreign country,
  2. expansion of overseas subsidiary or branch and
  3. acquisition of an overseas enterprise. The flow of foreign direct investment in India has been increasing steadily since 1991 due to the policy of economic liberalization and globalization. Several MNCs have made a substantial investment in their operations in India.

Foreign direct investment has costs and benefits to the home country (the country of origin of the investor company, e.g. USA in the case of Enron) as well as the host country (the foreign country in which FDI is made, e.g. India). FDI can be routed through GDRs and ADR’s. It is regulated by Government policy as regards FDI.

Benefits to Home Country:

  1. Trade barriers like tariffs and quotas can be overcome through FDI.
  2. The company can export its competitive strengths such as organization and management through FDI.
  3. FDI increases business activity in the home country through exports of technology, machinery, and equipment.
  4. The increased industrial activity in the home country enhances employment opportunities.
  5. The inflow of foreign currency in the form of dividends, interest, etc. improves the balance of payment position of the home country. For example, Nissan Motor Company repatriated profits to Japan from its FDA in the UK.
  6. The firms can learn skills from their exposure to foreign countries. These skills can be transferred to the industry in the home country.

Costs to the Home Country:

  1. Industry and employment position in the home country may suffer when the firms enter foreign markets. For example, the entry of US Textiles in Central America caused retrenchment in LISA.
  2. The current account position of the home country suffers because FDI is a substitute for direct exports.

Benefits to the Host Country:

  1. FDI enlarges business activity in the host country through the establishment of new industries and the development of ancillary industries.
  2. Employment opportunities in the host country are enhanced.
  3. The host country receives scarce resources such as foreign capital, technology, machinery, equipment, organization, and management. Transfer of these resources facilitates economic and social development in the host country. The government of India has been encouraging FDI to develop the Indian industry, infrastructure, and service sectors.
  4. FDI improves the foreign exchange resources and balance of payments position of the host country. It provides for the production of goods and services domestically. This in turn reduces the imports of the host country. Further, the foreign companies export.

Question 5.
What are the main factors affecting the choice of the source of funds?
Answer:
Every business enterprise has different needs for finance. Some need long-term finance or some need for a short time. Some want a large sum of money and some want a small sum of money. Short term borrowing offers the benefit of reduced cost due to reduction of idle capital, but long term borrowings are considered a necessity on many grounds. Every source of finance has its own limitation, therefore it is advisable to use a combination of sources, instead of relying only on a single source.

The following factors affect the choice of this combination, making it a very complex decision for the business –
1. Cost: Cost of procurement of funds and cost of utilizing the funds, both costs should be taken into account while deciding about the source of fund.

2. Risk profile: Businesses should evaluate each of the sources of finance in terms of the risk involved.

3. Purpose and Time Period: Business should plan according to the time period for which the funds are required. Short-term finance can be arranged through borrowing funds at a low rate of interest through trade credit, commercial paper, etc. for long-term finance, issue of share and debentures are more suitable. The purpose for which funds are required needs to be considered so that the source is matched with the use.

4. Financial strength and stability of operations: The financial strength of a business is very important in deciding the source of funds. The business should be in a sound financial position and has a stability of return, so as to be able to repay the loan.

5. Control: A particular source of funds may affect the control and power of the owner on the management of a firm. A business firm should choose a source keeping in mind the extent to which they are willing to share their control over the business.

6. Form of organization and legal status: The form of organization and its legal status influences the choice of a source for raising money. For example, sole tradership cannot borrow funds by issuing shares to the public. Only joint-stock companies raise funds like this.

7. Tax benefits: Various sources of funds may also weigh in terms of their benefits. For example, while the dividend on preference share is not tax-deductible, interest paid on debenture and loan is tax-deductible.

8. Effects on creditworthiness: The dependence of a business on certain sources may affect its creditworthiness in the market. For example, the issue of secured debentures may affect: the interest of unsecured creditors, it may adversely affect their willingness to extend further loans to the firm.

9. Flexibility and ease: Restrictive provisions, detailed investigation, and documentation in case of borrowings from banks and financial institutions, for example, maybe reasons that a business organization may not opt for it if other options are readily available.

Online Education Business Studies Class 11 Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise BST

Online Education CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Chapter Wise Important Questions and Answers 2020: Here we are providing CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 11 Business Studies Chapter Wise Pdf download of Part 1 Foundations of Business and Part 2 Corporate Organisation, Finance and Trade in Hindi and English Medium. Students can get Business Studies Class 11 NCERT Solutions, Business Studies Class 11 Important Extra Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

Online Education for CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter Wise Pdf

Business Studies BST Class 11 Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise Pdf Part 1 Foundations of Business

Important Questions of Business Studies BST Class 11 Part 2 Corporate Organisation, Finance and Trade

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Online Education for Climate Class 11 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 4

Here we are providing Online Education for Class 11 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 4 Climate. Important Questions for Class 11 Geography are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.

Online Education Important Questions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 4 Climate

Climate Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Name the upper-level velocity winds blowing up to a height of 12 to 16 km. within the troposphere.
Answer:
Jet streams.

Question 2.
Name the most common form of tropical storms.
Answer:
Thunderstorms.

Question 3.
What is the local name of thunderstorms in West Bengal?
Answer:
Kalbaishakhi.

Question 4.
The average annual rainfall in India.
Answer:
125 cm.

Question 5.
Which is the coldest place in India?
Answer:
The coldest place in India is Drass(Kargil). Here the temperature drops upto-45°C.

Question 6.
Name the hottest place in India.
Answer:
The Barmer (50°C) is the hottest place in Rajasthan.

Question 7.
Name the coastal states affected by tropical cyclones.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa.

Question 8.
What causes winter rainfall in south-east coast?
Answer:
North-east monsoon causes winter rainfall in south-east coast.

Question 9.
In which part of India retreating monsoon causes rainfall?
Answer:
Over the Coromandel coast.

Question 10.
What is October heat?
Answer:
The oppressive weather due to high temperature and high humidity is known as October heat.

Question 11.
What is the local name of a thunderstorm in Assam and Bengal?
Answer:
Assam-Bordoi chilla, Bengal – Kalbaishakhi.

Question 12.
What type of climate is found in India?
Answer:
Tropical monsoon type climate.

Question 13.
Name the two factors which affect the Indian monsoon.
Answer:
Pressure difference and the jet stream.

Question 14.
Name two main seasons of the Indian climate.
Answer:

  1. South-west monsoon season.
  2. North-east monsoon season.

Question 15.
Where do you find the polar type of climate in India?
Answer:
In Jammu and Kashmir.

Question 16.
Name a long spell of abnormally hot weather.
Answer:
Heatwave.

Question 17.
Which are the two places which receive the highest rainfall in India?
Answer:
Mawsynram and Cherrapunji.

Question 18.
What are the two factors which are considered to be decisive in all the schemes of climatic classification?
Answer:
Temperature, rainfall.

Question 19.
The criterion of classification on the basis of Thornthwaite’s scheme.
Answer:
The Thomthwaite’s classification is based on the criterion of moisture index.

Question 20.
From which part of the India monsoon enters?
Answer:

  1. the Arabian Sea,
  2. The Bay of Bengal.

Question 21.
What is ITCZ?
Answer:
The ITCZ means Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone.

Question 22.
Which major tropic India lies across?
Answer:
Tropic of Cancer (23!/2°N latitude).

Question 23.
When there is cold weather in India, in which part the sun shines vertically?
Answer:
The sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Caricom (23 1/2°S).

Question 24.
When does the south-west monsoon start retreating?
Answer:
At the end of September.

Question 25.
What is the base of Koeppen’s scheme of climatic classification?
Answer:
Koeppen’s classification is based on monthly values of temperature and precipitation.

Climate Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Identify the four seasons based on Indian meteorology.
Answer:
In India the year is divided into four seasons based on Indian meteorology.

  1. The cold weather season – begins from December to February.
  2. The hot weather season – begins from March to May.
  3. The south-west monsoon season – begins from June to September.
  4. Theretreatingmonsoon season-beginsfromOctobertoNovember.

Question 2.
What are the coldest parts of India?
Answer:
The coldest parts of India are the trans-Himalayan regions. Jammu Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are the coldest states of India. The minimum temperature drops up to -40°C at Drass. These regions get snowfall during winter and temperature remains below freezing point.

Question 3.
What do you mean by ‘breaks’ in monsoon?
Answer:
When the highly charged winds blow in south-west direction on the west coast, it advances rapidly over the west coast. The rain begins suddenly in the first week of June. The sudden onset of rain is termed as monsoon burst. The rainfall is heavily accompanied by thunder and lightning and appears as if a balloon of water has been burst. The sudden onset of monsoon is known as burst or breaking of monsoon.

Question 4.
What are the characteristics of western disturbances of the Indian climate?
Answer:

  1. The cyclones developed near the Mediterranean Sea are termed as western disturbances.
  2. They move towards India through Iran and Pakistan.
  3. They come under the influence of westerly jet stream which. brings them to the northern part of India in the winter season.
  4. They cause rain in the north-west part of the plain of India.

Question 5.
What do you mean by ‘Loo’?
Answer:
‘Loo’ is a hot and dry wind which blows from the west in the months of May and June in the northern part of India. It causes an increase in day temperature between 45°C and 50°C. It causes a harmful effect on the human body.

Question 6.
Name the four months in which India receives high rainfall and why.
Answer:
India receives the bulk of rainfall in the months of June, July, August and September known as the rainy season.

It is because of the south-west monsoon winds, which are onshore during this period and easterly jet streams stress the tropical cyclone to India which causes heavy rainfall.

Question 7.
Mention the formula used for calculation of the variability of rainfall.
Answer:
The variability of rainfall is given by the formula Standard Deviation
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Climate im-1
where C is known as the coefficient of variation.

Question 8.
Why Tamil Nadu gets more rain in winter than in summer?
Answer:
Because Tamil Nadu lies on the Coromandel Coast on the eastern coastal plain. In summer, Tamil Nadu remains dry. But in winter, north-east monsoon picks up moisture and crosses the Bay of Bengal. These retreating monsoons are onshore winds causing rainfall in this area.

Question 9.
Why Mawsynram and Cherrapunji get very high rainfall?
Answer:
Mawsynram receives the highest amount of rainfall in the world in the rainy season because it is surrounded by the North-east hills of India, mainly Khasi, Garo, Jaintia in Meghalaya plateau is funnel-shaped. The Bay of Bengal branch of the south-west monsoon is enclosed by these hills resulting in the heaviest amount of rains.

Question 10.
Give the main characteristics of the monsoons rains.
Answer:

  1. The beginning of the rains is sometimes delayed over the whole or a part of the country.
  2. There are prolonged breaks of rains in July or August.
  3. Sometimes the rain ends earlier than usual time causing great damage to standing crops.
  4. The summer rainfall comes in heavy, leading to soil erosion.

Question 11.
What do you understand by ‘Mango showers’?
Answer:
‘Mango showers’ are actually premonsoon showers experienced towards the summer monsoon. It is common in Kerala and coastal areas of Karnataka in March and April. It helps in the ripening of mangoes. Therefore, locally it is known as Mango-showers.

Question 12.
What is the average amount of rainfall over the plains of India?
Answer:
The plain is divided into three zones to study the average rainfall.

  1. TheplainsofBihar, BengalandeastemU.P.-rainfall is 100-200cm.
  2. The plains of central and western U.P. – rainfall is 60-100 cm.
  3. Plains of Haryana, Punjab – rainfall is 40-60 cm. annually.

Climate Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
What is the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)? How does it attract south monsoon? What are the important factors which influence the mechanism of Indian weather?
Answer:
ITCZ is the zone near the equator from where the north-east trade winds and the south-east trade winds meet each other. It changes its position with the effect of the vertical rays of the sun. It is near the Tropic of Cancer in the north in summer season and near the Tropic of Capricorn in the south in the winter season at about 25°N, as a result of which the south-east trade winds cross over the equator and enter in India as the south-west monsoon.

Factors influencing the mechanism of Indian weather-

  1. Surface distribution of pressure and winds include monsoon, location of low and high pressure.
  2. Upper air circulation which includes global weather conditions like air masses and the jet stream.
  3. Atmospheric disturbances like western cyclones and tropical cyclones cause rainfall.
    These are the factors which affect the Indian weather.

Question 2.
Rainfall in India is orographic in nature. Describe the distribution of rainfall and the effect of relief on its distribution.
Answer:
The orographic nature of rainfall plays an important role in the distribution of rainfall in India. The rainfall is determined by the situation of the mountains. In India, it is called relief rainfall. It affects the distribution of rainfall in the following manner:

  1. Western-coastal plains receive heavy rainfall due to the Western Ghats, more than 300 cm. but Deccan plateau that lies in the rain shadow area receives only 60 cm. rainfall.
  2. Low rainfall in the rain shadow area of the Western Ghats (less than 60 cm.).
  3. Due to funnel-shaped hills, heavy rainfall in Meghalaya (more than 1000 cm.).
  4. Low rainfall in Rajasthan due to the direction of the Aravali range. It lies parallel to the south-west monsoon winds. So, Rajasthan remains dry.
  5. Effect of Himalayan ranges on the direction of the monsoon. It does not allow the winds to cross. Hence the Ganga plain receives rainfall but it decreases westwards.

Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Climate 2
Fig. 4.8: India: Seasonal Rainfall (June-September)
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 4 Climate 3
Fig. 4.9: India: Normal Dates of Onset of the Southwest Monsoon

Question 3.
Divide India into different climatic regions on the basis of Thornthwaite’s scheme of classification of the climatic region.
Answer:

Question 4.
(a) What is EI-Nino? How is it related to Indian monsoon?
Answer:
El-Nino is used for forecasting long-range of monsoon rainfall. The system involves the ocean and atmospheric phenomena with the appearance of warm winds off the coast of Peru in the Eastern Pacific which affect the weather. EI-Nino is a complex weather system. It appears once every 5 to 10 years bringing drought, floods and other weather extremes to different parts of the world.

(b) Define ‘drought’ and its various types.
Answer:
Drought is a condition in which the amount of water needed for evapotranspiration exceeds the amount of water available for precipitation and soil.

Droughts are of three types:

  1. permanent,
  2. seasonal,
  3. contingent.

Permanent drought is characterised by the arid climate in which vegetation is sparse and hardy, fully adapted to water shortage.

Seasonal drought is found in dry and rainy seasons. Most of the parts of India suffer from this kind of drought.

Contingent drought is irregular with variable rainfall and occurs in any season but frequently in sub-humid climates.

Question 5.
What is global warming? Give reasons.
Answer:
The climate of the world has changed in the past and is changing at present. Several natural and artificial factors are responsible for this change. Due to global warming, the polar ice caps and mountain glaciers would melt and the amount of water in oceans would increase.

There are following reasons for global warming:

  1. The temperature of the world is increasing nowadays.
  2. Carbon dioxide is the major source of global warming. This gas is released to the atmosphere by burning of fossil fuel.
  3. Other gases like methane, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone and nitrous oxide which are present in much smaller concentrations in the atmosphere, together with carbon dioxide are known as greenhouse gases. These gases are contributing to global warming.
  4. Rapid industrialization and technological changes, the revolution in agriculture and transport sectors has resulted in large supplies of carbon dioxide and methane which cause global warming.