Online Education NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 6 The Browning Version

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Online Education The Browning Version NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 6

The Browning Version NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

The Browning Version Understanding the text

Question 1.
Comment on the attitude shown by Taplow towards Crocker-Harris.
Answer:
Taplow has very more bitter feelings about his teacher Crocker-Harris. He is a student in the lower fifth grade and feels that he would specialise next term if he got his remove, of which he is uncertain as Mr Crocker-Harris doesn’t tell the students the results like the other teachers. As a rule, the class results should only be announced by the headmaster on the last day of term but Taplow feels that none other than Mr Crocker-Harris waits to inform students of their result. He is not interested in the Classical literature that is taught by Mr Crocker-Harris.

He feels science is more interesting than studying Classics such as The Agamemnon, which he calls “muck”. Moreover, he does not like the way it is taught to them. The Agamemnon had a lot of Greek words and Mr Crocker-Harris punished them for not getting them right.

Taplow feels more bitter as he had been given extra work to do for missing a day of school the previous week when he was ill. It was the last day of school and he wished to play golf instead. It was just on the previous day that Mr Crocker- Harris had told Taplow that he had got what he deserved. Taplow feels that Mr Harris might have given him lesser marks to make him do extra work. He adds that Mr Harris is “hardly human”. He also imitates his teacher.

When Frank suggests that Taplow could go and play golf, Taplow is shocked as nobody takes that kind of liberty with Mr Crocker-Harris. Taplow calls Mr Crocker-Harris, “the Crock”, and says that he is worse than a sadist. If he were a sadist, he wouldn’t be as frightening because he would then show he had some feelings. His inside, feels Taplow, is like a “shrivelled nut” and he seems to hate people who like him.

However, Taplow admits that despite everything Mr Crocker-Harris does, he still likes him. Although, he says that Mr Crocker-Harris feels uncomfortable about people liking him. He says once in class Mr Crocker-Harris made one of his classical jokes, and nobody laughed because nobody understood it. However Taplow knew that it was meant to be funny, so he laughed. Mr Crocker-Harris said that he was pleased with Taplow’s knowledge of Latin and wanted him to explain the joke to the rest of the class.

Question 2.
Does Frank seem to encourage Taplow’s comments on Crocker-Harris?
Answer:
Taplow comes to meet Mr Crocker-Harris when he meets Frank. From his conversation with Taplow, Frank realises that the boy does not like Mr Crocker-Harris. Frank then confirms with Taplow, “You sound a little bitter, Taplow.” He then pretends to console him by reasoning that he would get his remove the next day for taking on extra work. Taplow vents his dislike for Mr Harris and says that he is “hardly human”.

But after saying so, he apologises to Frank for talking too much. Frank pretends to be unhappy but asks Taplow to “repeat” what Mr Harris had said to him. Taplow imitates him. Frank pretends to look strict and asks him to be.quiet. He then asks Taplow at what time he was supposed to meet Mr Crocker-Harris. He then tells Taplow that Mr Crocker-Harris was already ten minutes late and suggests that Taplow could go and play golf.

Taplow is shocked and expresses his apprehension if Mr Crocker-Harris should know. Frank envies the effect Mr Crocker-Harris seems to have on boys in the class; they seem to be scared to death of him. Taplow confesses that Mr Crocker-Harris, unlike any other person, does not care for being liked. Frank attempts to instigate Taplow by deriding students for using the teacher’s need to be liked to their own advantage. Taplow remarks that a few teachers were sadists, and Mr Crocker-Harris was worse because he had no feelings.

When Taplow recounts the episode when he had laughed at Mr Crocker-Harris’s jokes, and Mr Crocker-Harris wanted ‘ him to explain it to the rest of the class, but Frank just laughs at that. He, thus, seems to enjoy the low opinion Taplow has of Mr Crocker-Harris.

Question 3.
What do you gather about Crocker-Harris from the play?
Answer:
Mr Crocker-Harris is an old Classics teacher at a British public school, where he’s been teaching for many years. He apparently wants the children to work hard at their lessons and it is for this reason that he has called Taplow to his office. Unfortunately, students do not like him and neither do they like his teaching methods. Taplow feels science is more interesting than studying Classics such as The Agamemnon, which he calls “muck”.

Moreover, he does not like the way it is taught to them. It has a lot of Greek words and Mr Crocker-Harris punishes them for not getting them right. Taplow feels Mr Harris might have given him lesser marks to make him do extra work. He adds that Mr Harris is “hardly human”. Thus underlining that Mr Harris has lost the student’s trust and respect.

He is a fastidious and a rule-bound person who is the only one who follows the rule of letting the headmaster announce the results on the last day of term.Taplow imitates Mr Crocker-Harris but all the same is frightened of letting Mr Harris know. The students seem to be scared to death of him. Calling Mr Crocker-Harris, the Crock, Taplow says that he is worse than a sadist as he shows no feelings.

He feels uncomfortable about people liking him. Mr Harris does not seem to respond to students who try to warm up to him. When Taplow laughed at his joke, Mr Crocker-Harris had wanted him to explain it to the rest of the class. The poor man is an unfortunate teacher.

The Browning Version Talking about the text

Discuss with your partners

Question 1.
Talking about teachers among friends.
(Answers will vary)

Question 2.
The manner you adopt when you talk about a teacher to other teachers.
(Answers will vary)

Question 3.
Reading plays is more interesting than studying science.
(Answers will vary)

The Browning Version Working with words

Question 1.
A sadist is a person who gets pleasure out of giving pain to others. Given below are some dictionary definitions of certain kinds of persons. Find out the words that fit these descriptions.
Answer:

  • A person who considers it very important that things should be correct or genuine, for example, in the use of language or in the arts: Perfectionist/Purist
  • A person who believes that war and violence are wrong and will not fight in a war: Pacifist
  • A person who believes that nothing really exists: Nihilist
  • A person who is always hopeful and expects the best in all things: Optimist
  • A person who follows generally accepted norms of behaviour: Conformist
  • A person who believes that material possessions are all that matter in life: Materialist
We’re Not Afraid to Die… If We Can All Be Together Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

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Online Education for We’re Not Afraid to Die… If We Can All Be Together Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

We’re Not Afraid to Die… If We Can All Be Together Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

We Are Not Afraid To Die If We Are Together Extra Questions Question 1.
Who was the narrator? What adventurous task did he take on?
Answer:
The narrator was a thirty-seven-year-old businessman, who along with his family, set from Plymouth, England, on a round-the-world voyage like Captain James Cook had done 200 years earlier in a 30-ton wooden-hulled boat.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Extra Questions Question 2.
How did they prepare for this onerous task?
Answer:
For sixteen years, they spent all their leisure time improving their seafaring skills in British waters. They bought a boat, Wavewalker, a 23-metre, 30-ton wooden-hulled vessel that had been professionally built. They spent months fitting it out and testing it in the roughest weather that they could find.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Question Answer Question 3.
How many people were there in the boat?
Answer:
The four of them the narrator, his wife Mary, son Jonathan, and daughter Suzanne sailed for 105,000 kilometres to the west coast of Africa to Cape Town. They took on two crewmen with them an American, Larry Vigil, and a Swiss, Herb Seigler, before settling sail on the southern Indian Ocean.

We’re Not Afraid To Die Extra Questions Question 4.
What was the first indicator of rough weather?
Answer:
On their second day out of Cape Town, they encountered strong winds. For the next few weeks, the gales blew continuously. The gales did not worry the narrator but the sizes of the waves were disturbing.

Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 2 Extra Questions And Answers Question 5.
What ordeal awaited them on 2 January?
Answer:
After they celebrated Christmas, the weather changed for the worse. On the early morning of 2 January, the waves became huge. As the ship rose to the top of each wave, they could see the vast sea rolling towards them. The wind seemed to be howling.

Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 2 Extra Questions Question 6.
What measures did they take to counter this ordeal?
Answer:
They dropped the storm jib and lashed a heavy mooring rope in a loop across the stem to slow the boat, and then double-lashed everything, went through their life-raft drill, attached lifelines, put on oilskins and life jackets.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Question And Answers In Short Question 7.
What happened on the evening of 2 January?
Answer:
On the evening of 2 January there was a lull before the storm. As the sky grew dark, they heard a growing roar, and saw a massive cloud rising at the rear of the ship. To their dismay, it was a huge wave, almost twice the height of other waves, with a fearsome breaking top.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Important Questions Question 8.
What happened when they tried to ride over the wave?
Answer:
When they tried to ride over the wave, there was a loud blast that shook the deck. Water gushed over the ship, the narrator’s head hit the wheel and he was thrown overboard into the water. He accepted his impending death, and while he was losing consciousness, he felt peaceful.

Important Questions Of We’re Not Afraid To Die Question 9.
How did the narrator get back to the ship after having been thrown into the sea?
Answer:
After the narrator felt he was losing consciousness, his head suddenly popped out of the water. A few metres away, he saw Wavewalker, nearly overturned. Then, a wave threw it upright. He grabbed the guardrails and sailed through the air into Wavewalker’s main boom. The waves tossed him onto the deck like a rag doll.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Class 11 Important Questions Question 10.
How did they manage to throw out water from the ship?
Answer:
With the narrator’s wife, Mary, at the wheel, the narrator half-swam, half-crawled into the children’s cabin, where he found a hammer, screws and canvas, and struggled back on deck. He secured waterproof hatch covers across the wide-open holes. With Herb and Larry’s assistance, he managed to throw out the water.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Extract Based Questions Question 11.
What were the difficulties that they faced that night?
Answer:
The night was bitterly cold, and they were pumping water out of the ship, steering the ship and working the radio. Moreover, they were getting no replies to their calls for help, as they were in a remote comer of the world.

We’re Not Afraid To Die Class 11 Extra Questions Question 12.
What injuries did Sue sustain? What does it reveal about her?
Answer:
Sue had bumped her head and there was a big bump above her eyes. She had two black eyes, and a deep cut on her arm. She showed remarkable maturity for a seven-year-old when she said that she didn’t want to worry them when her father was trying to save all of them.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Short Question Answer Question 13.
After the water level receded, what was their next concern? What did they decide to do?
Answer:
Having survived fifteen hours since the wave hit, the narrator checked the charts and calculated that there were two small islands a few hundred kilometres to the east. One of them was lie Amsterdam. Knowing Wavewalker would not hold for much longer, they aimed to reach the island.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Class 11 Extra Questions Question 14.
“But our respite was short-lived.” Why does the narrator say so?
Answer:
By 4 January, they ate their first meal in almost two days after pumping out most of the water. But their breather was short-lived. Soon after, black clouds gathered and the wind rose to 40 knots; the sea kept getting higher. The weather deteriorated and by dawn on 5 January, the situation turned hopeless, again.

We Are Not Afraid To Die Question Answer Extra Question 15.
What did Jon say that left the narrator speechless?
Answer:
When the narrator tried to comfort and reassure the children, Jon said that they were not afraid of dying if all four of them could be together. The narrator could find no words to respond, but he left the children’s cabin determined to fight the sea with everything he had.

Question 16.
What action did the narrator take, after having decided to fight the sea?
Answer:
To protect the weakened starboard side, he decided to heave to with the undamaged port hull facing the oncoming waves, using an improvised sea anchor of heavy nylon rope and two 22-litre plastic barrels of paraffin.

Question 17.
How did the narrator make his calculations to find out their position on 6 January?
Answer:
The Wavewalker rode out the storm and by the morning of 6 January, the narrator worked on wind speeds, changes of course, drift and current in an effort to calculate their position.

Question 18.
What instruction did the narrator give Larry? What did he expect?
Answer:
At about 2 p.m., the narrator asked Larry to steer a course of 185 degrees and said that if they were lucky, they would see the island at about 5 p.m. He was not optimistic himself so he went below, climbed on his bunk and slept off.

Question 19.
Why did the narrator feel that he was not the best captain? What was the surprise in store for him?
Answer:
When Jon called him the best daddy in the whole world and the best captain, the narrator was dejected for not being able to locate the island, so he refuted the statement. The truth was that the island was just in front of them.

Question 20.
Why did the narrator feel that it was the most beautiful island?
Answer:
The narrator saw lie Amsterdam. It was an unwelcoming piece of volcanic rock, with little vegetation, but to them it was the most beautiful island in the world because it held for them the hope of their survival.

We’re Not Afraid to Die… If We Can All Be Together Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
The narrator and his wife had longed to sail. What did they do to accomplish their dream?
Answer:
The narrator and his wife had always dreamt of sailing. They wanted to do a round-the-world voyage like Captain James Cook had done 200 years earlier. For sixteen years they spent all their leisure time improving their seafaring skills in the British waters. They took a boat, Wavewalker, that was 23 metres, and weighed 30 ton. It had been professionally built and they spent months fitting it out and testing it in the roughest weather that they could find. Finally, in July 1976, the family set out to sail from Plymouth, England.

Question 2.
What were the troubles that they faced on the morning of 2 January? How did they counter nature’s wrath?
Answer:
When they reached the southern Indian Ocean, one of the world’s roughest seas, they began to encounter strong winds. Apart from the gales, the size of the waves was alarming. It was as high as the main mast. Things became worse on 2 January when the waves became huge. The ship rose to the top of each wave and they could see endless waves approaching them, and the screaming of the wind seemed horrifying to them. To slow the boat down, they dropped the storm jib and lashed a heavy mooring rope in a loop across the stem. Then they double-lashed everything, went through their life-raft drill, attached lifelines, donned oilskins and life jackets.

Question 3.
“The first indication of impending disaster came at about 6 p.m.” What was the warning? What was the disaster that followed?
Answer:
The first warning of the approaching disaster was the threatening stillness. The wind dropped, and the sky grew dark. Then with a roar, an enormous cloud seemed to come after the ship. It turned out to be a vertical wave, almost twice the height of the other waves, and had fearsome breaking crests. When they tried to move over it, a monstrous explosion shook the deck. Water broke over the ship, and the narrator’s head hit against the wheel and he was thrown into the sea. The narrator accepted his impending death, and felt he was losing consciousness. But soon, he was tossed back into the ship like a ‘rag doll’.

Question 4.
How did they deal with the water that had gushed into the ship?
Answer:
As Mary took control of the wheel, the narrator made his way towards the hatch. Larry and Herb were pumping out water frantically. He saw broken timbers hanging, the starboard side bulged inwards; clothes, crockery, charts, tin and toys sloshed about in deep water. So he struggled into the children’s cabin, found a hammer, screws and canvas, and laboured back on deck. He managed to stretch the canvas and secure waterproof hatch covers across the gaping holes.

Some water continued to stream below, but most of it was now being deflected over the side. The problems cropped up when the hand pumps started to block up with the fragments floating around the cabins and the electric pump short-circuited. The water level rose ominously. On the deck he missed the two spare hand pumps, forestay sail, jib, dinghies and the main anchor, which were pitched overboard. He found another electric pump and connected it to an out-pipe, and this worked.

Question 5.
Why were they desperate to look for an island? How did they manage?
Answer:
After having survived for fifteen hours since the wave hit, they knew that Wavewalker could not hold together long enough for them to reach Australia. The narrator checked the charts and calculated that there were two small islands a few hundred kilometres to the east. One of them, lie Amsterdam, was a French scientific base. But the waves had put the auxiliary engine out of action. To make matters worse, the weather continued to worsen. The wind finally eased, and the ship rode out the storm by the morning of 6 January.

The narrator deliberated on wind speeds, changes of course, drift and current in an effort to calculate their position. What he could determine was that they were somewhere in 150,000 kilometres of ocean looking for a 65 kilometre-wide island. About 2 p.m., he asked Larry to steer a course of 185 degrees. He expected to see the island at about 5 p.m., and eventually reached it by 6 p.m.

Question 6.
The children braved the situation more maturely than their years. Discuss.
Answer:
The children, certainly braved the situation more maturely than their years. Sue had her head hit and swollen, worryingly. She had two huge black eyes, and a deep cut on her arm. She did not make much of her injuries because she did not want to worry her father when he was trying to save them. Jon, the narrator’s six-year- old son, assured him that they were not afraid of dying if the family could all be together.

When Sue’s head injury worsened with her blackened eyes narrowed to slits, she held on to her spirit and gave the narrator a card with drawn caricatures of Mary and him with the words: ‘Here are some funny people. Did they make you laugh? I laughed a lot as well. ’ The underlying message of love and positive hope overwhelmed the narrator. He was touched with the thoughtfulness of a seven-year-old girl, who did not want her parents to worry about a head injury, and that of the boy who was not afraid to die.

The Tale of Melon City Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Snapshots

Online Education The Tale of Melon City Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Snapshots

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The Tale of Melon City Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

The Tale Of Melon City Extra Questions Class 11 Question 1.
What do the words ‘just and placid’ imply?
Answer
The phrase implied that the king was fair and mild. The king, ‘a great believer injustice’ ensured justice was meted out to his subjects. He was also mild mannered and rarely showed any displeasure and even if he did frown, he quickly wiped the frown off his face.

The Tale Of Melon City Question Answer Class 11 Question 2.
Where did the king want the arch constructed? Why?
Answer
The king wanted an arch to be erected which extended over the major main road. He felt, the road would edify the spectators it would improve the morals and knowledge of the onlookers there.

The Tale Of Melon City Class 11 Extra Questions Question 3.
What happened to the king as he rode down the road?
Answer
After the arch was built, the king rode through the street. He wanted to edify the spectators there. But as he was crossing below the arch, his crown fell off as the arch was built too low. This angered the king.

The Tale Of Melon City Class 11 Question Answer Question 4.
What order did the king give when his crown was knocked off his head?
Answer
The king was angry because his crown was knocked off his head as he tried to ride under the arch. He ordered the chief of the builders, responsible for building the arch, to be hanged.

Tale Of Melon City Questions And Answers Class 11 Question 5.
How did the chief of the builders escape hanging?
Answer
When the chief of the builders was led away to be hanged, he pleaded innocence. He claimed that it was the fault of the workers that the arch was built so low. He escaped hanging as the ‘just and placid’ king could not bear to punish an innocent man.

Tale Of Melon City Extra Questions Class 11 Question 6.
Why were the workmen to be hanged? How did they escape hanging?
Answer
The king ordered the workmen to be put to death as they were painted responsible, for building the low arch, by the chief of the builders. The workmen protested that they were not the ones at fault and blamed the masons who had made bricks of the wrong size. They, too, escaped death by hanging.

Tale Of Melon City Question Answer Class 11 Question 7.
Whom did the architect lay the blame on?
Answer
The masons blamed the architect for the poor design of the arch. The architect, in turn, passed on the blame to the king who had made certain changes in the architectural plans of the arch.

The Tale Of Melon City Questions Class 11 Question 8.
How did the king react to the architect’s accusation? Why did he react that way?
Answer
When the king heard the architect’s accusation, he was so angry that he almost lost his ability to reason. Since, he was righteous and tolerant, he admitted that this was a difficult situation. The king solicited advice and called for the wisest man in the country for counsel.

The Tale Of Melon City Class 11 Questions And Answers Question 9.
How was the wise man brought to court? What advice did he offer?
Answer
The wisest man was found and carried to the royal court, as he could neither walk nor see. He was an old and experienced man. He said in a trembling, feeble voice that the offender must be penalized. He condemned the arch, guilty, for throwing the crown off the king’s head.

The Tale Of The Melon City Question Answer Class 11 Question 10.
The arch was not punished in the end. Why?
Answer
The wise man declared that it was the arch that had thrown the crown off, and it must be hanged. A councillor objected to the arch being hanged; he called it a disgrace to hang something that had touched the honourable head of the king. The king agreed with the councillor and the arch was spared.

The Tale Of A Melon City Question Answer Class 11 Question 11.
What circumstances led to the execution of the king?
Answer
The crowd grew restless, tired to see the offenders escape death, by hanging. The king grew fearful of their agitation and decided that someone must be hanged. All the people were measured, one by one, along the noose, to see who fit it. They found that only the king reached the noose, leading to his execution.

The Tale Of Melon City Question Answers Class 11 Question 12.
What was the result of the king’s execution? How was the problem resolved?
Answer
After the king’s execution, the ministers realized they had to find a new king. They perplexed over the problem and sent out messengers to make known that the next person to cross the city gate would decide the ruler of the kingdom.

Tale Of Melon City Class 11 Question 13.
How did the melon become king?
Answer
The next man who crossed the city gate, entrusted to choose a ruler for the kingdom, was a fool. He liked melons and named a melon as the king. The ministers crowned a melon and accepted it as their king. They carried the melon to the throne and respectfully placed it on it.

Question 14.
How did the people of the kingdom react to their melon king?
Answer
The people of the kingdom were content with their melon king. They found no reason to criticize him as long as he left them in ‘Peace and Liberty’. In that kingdom, the philosophy of Taissez faire’ (refusal to interfere) . seemed to be well established.

The Tale of Melon City Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
How did the ‘just and placid king’ get executed?
Answer
The arch, commissioned by the king, was built low that knocked off the king’s crown as he was crossing below the arch. He sentenced the chief of builders to death for causing him the dishonour, who passed on the blame to the workers. The workmen blamed the masons and the masons, in turn, blamed the architect. The architect reminded the king that he had made certain changes in the plans himself when they were shown to him.

The king was infuriated to hear that. Being righteous and tolerant, he called for the wisest man in the country, for counsel, who advised the king to hang the arch as it was the real offender who had thrown the crown off. A councillor objected to this ruling and declared it a disgrace to hang something that touched the honourable head.
The crowd, gathered for the hanging, became restless. The king apprehended their mood and ruled for someone to be hanged immediately. The noose, hung high, fitted the king alone and he was hung as per the royal ruling.

The Address Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Snapshots

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Online Education for The Address Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Snapshots

The Address Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

The Address Class 11 Extra Questions And Answers Question 1.
Where had the narrator come? Why was she back?
Answer:
The narrator is a Dutch Jew, who had to leave Holland during the Second World War. She had left along with her mother for safety. Now she was back to where her past ‘things’ lay. She wanted to see and touch her belongings in order to relive those memories.

The Address Extra Questions Class 11 Question 2.
Whom did the narrator desire to meet in Holland? Why?
Answer:
The narrator was told by her mother to remember ‘Number 46 Marconi Street’, where Mrs Dorling lived; she had insisted on keeping their things safely till the war was over. After the war, the narrator was curious about their possessions that were still at that address and she went to meet Mrs Dorling.

The Address Class 11 Questions And Answers Question 3.
What kind of a welcome did the narrator get from Mrs Dorling?
Answer:
Mrs Dorling was cold and indifferent and evidently displeased to see the author. In fact, she tried to prevent her from entering by blocking her entrance. Later, she said it was not convenient for her to talk to the narrator at that point of time and refused to meet her.

Extra Questions Of The Address Class 11 Question 4.
When did the narrator first learn about the existence of Mrs Dorling?
Answer:
The narrator recalled the time when she was home during the first half of the War. She had noticed that various things were missing. Her mother then told her about Mrs Dorling, an old acquaintance who renewed their contact, and came regularly, each time, carrying away some of their things.

The Address Important Questions Class 11 Question 5.
What was the narrator’s mother’s opinion about Mrs Dorling?
Answer:
The narrator’s mother considered Mrs Dorling a very benevolent lady, who strived to ‘save’ their ‘nice things’ by carrying some of them away, each time she visited. The narrator’s mother was unable to see through the lady who wished to cheat her out of her valuables, instead she felt grateful to Mrs Dorling.

The Address Class 11 Important Questions Question 6.
What did the narrator recall about her first meeting with Mrs Dorling?
Answer:
The narrator saw Mrs Dorling for the first time on the morning after the day she came to know about her. Coming downstairs, the narrator saw her mother about to see someone out. It was a woman, dressed in a brown coat and a shapeless hat, with a broad back; she nodded and picked up the suitcase.

The Address Short Questions And Answers Question 7.
Why did the narrator return to Marconi Street after a long time?
Answer:
The narrator returned to Marconi Street after a long time because in the beginning, after the Liberation, she was not interested in all that stored stuff. She had lost her mother and was also afraid of being confronted with things that remained as a painful reminder to their past.

The Address Question Answer Class 11 Question 8.
How did the narrator decide to go back to the ‘things’?
Answer:
Gradually, when everything became normal again the bread was of a lighter colour and she had a bed to sleep in, securely, and the surroundings became familiar again the narrator was curious about all the possessions that must still be at that address that her mother had talked about and went there to relive her memories.

The Address Class 11 Short Questions And Answers Question 9.
Explain: “I stopped, horrified. I was in a room I knew and did not know.”
Answer:
When the narrator went to Mrs Dorling’s house the second time, a girl of about fifteen let her in. She saw familiar things but arranged differently that lent unfamiliarity to the surroundings. She found herself surrounded by things that she had wanted to see again but which really oppressed her in that strange atmosphere.

Class 11 English Snapshot Chapter 2 Extra Question Answer Question 10.
Why did the narrator not want to remember the place?
Answer:
The narrator had primarily returned for the sake of memories that were linked to the things that had once belonged to her mother. However, she realized, the objects linked in her memory with the familiar life that she had once lived lost their value as they had been removed and put in strange surroundings.

The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

The Address Question Answers Class 11 Question 1.
Describe the narrator’s first post-War meeting with Mrs Dorling.
Answer:
When the narrator knocked at Mrs Dorling’s door and introduced herself as Mrs S’s daughter, Mrs Dorling showed no sign of recognition. She held the door in a way making clear that the narrator was not welcome. For sometime, she stared quietly at the narrator at which she felt that it was not the person that she had been looking for. When Mrs Dorling let her in, the narrator noticed her wearing her mother’s green knitted cardigan.

The lady saw her looking at the cardigan and hid herself partially behind the door. When the narrator mentioned her mother, she said that she had thought that none of the people who had left had come back. The lady expressed regret at her inability to do anything for her but the narrator insisted on talking to her having come all the way for it. However, the lady refused to talk to her, claiming it was not a convenient time; the narrator had no option but to leave.

Extra Questions Of The Address Class 11 Question 2.
Contrast the character of the narrator’s mother and Mrs Dorling.
Answer:
The narrator’s mother was a trusting woman. She told her daughter about Mrs Dorling, an old acquaintance, who had suddenly turned up and renewed their contact and since then had been a regular visitor. The mother did not doubt her kindness and was obliged that she insisted on taking all her nice things with her to save them. The mother was worried about Mrs Dorling getting a crick in her back from carrying the crockery and lugging the large vases. When the narrator showed her scepticism, she was annoyed.

On the other hand, Mrs Dorling was an opportunist. She renewed her contact primarily to take the antique things the narrator’s mother owned. When the narrator came back after years, she made her feel unwelcome as she did not wish to part with the things that had belonged to the narrator’s mother. She was rude and brusque with the narrator and did not allow her to enter the house.

Address Extra Questions Class 11 Question 3.
Describe the narrator’s second visit to Mrs Dorling’s place.
Answer:
On her second visit, a girl of about fifteen led the narrator in and she noticed an old-fashioned iron Hanukkah candle-holder that belonged to them. In the living room, the sight was dismal. The room had a strange, stressful effect the atmosphere, the tasteless way everything was arranged, the ugly furniture or the muggy smell that hung there. She noticed the woollen tablecloth and recalled the bum mark on it that had never been repaired.

When the girl put cups on the tea table and poured tea from a white pot with a gold border on the lid and the pewter plate these things clouded her mind with strange emotions. The narrator noticed various things that brought back memories of the past. The narrator rushed out for her train as the girl went to get their cutlery. As the narrator walked out, she heard jingling of spoons and forks.

Online Education NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Snapshots Chapter 4 Albert Einstein at School

Here we are providing Online Education NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Snapshots Chapter 4 Albert Einstein at School. Students can get Class 11 English Albert Einstein at School NCERT Solutions, Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

Online Education Albert Einstein at School NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Snapshots Chapter 4

Albert Einstein at School NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you understand of Einstein’s nature from his conversations with his history teacher, his mathematics teacher and the head teacher?
Answer:
Albert Einstein was an intelligent student but was not good at rote learning of dates and facts in history. However, only his mathematics teacher acknowledged his brilliance. Young Albert Einstein hated learning dates and facts by heart. This forever displeased Mr Braun, his history teacher.

Einstein explained his desire to know the reason a battle is fought, rather than remember its date. Mr Braun taunted him by calling his views the “Einstein theory of education” and punished him by detaining him for an extra period at school.

Albert’s brilliance was recognised by his mathematics teacher, Mr Koch, who accepted Einstein’s superiority of knowledge over his own. He gave Einstein a “glowing reference” to aid him continue his higher education. However, his principal clearly did not recognise his merit and expelled him from school. He accused Einstein of disrupting the class and of not making an effort to learn.

Question 2.
The school system often curbs individual talents. Discuss.
Answer:
Hint
1. If no

  • It often advances by giving opportunities in co-curricular and extra-curricular activities
  • Different options for different aptitudes
  • Offers subject choices/options that help develop the talent a student may not know she/he possesses
  • Encourages interaction

2. If yes

  • Examination system thrust on learning
  • Teacher student ratio often does not permit individual attention
  • Time bound classes/specific syllabi permits adherence to standard procedures
  • Facilities to cater to individual choices may not be permissible due to lack of resources

Question 3.
How do you distinguish between information gathering and insight formation?
Answer:
Gathering information: Gathering information, generally means, sorting out facts that are relevant to your work. It is usually a passive process and involves a lower level of understanding. It is more of a mechanical process based on the memorisation of facts.

Insight formation: This is a more complex process by which the actual learning occurs. The learner assimilates facts, and based on the acquired knowledge, is able to develop a better understanding of herself/himself, her/his world, and the people in her/his life. Insight formation comprises three ‘primary processes’:

  • information reception or perception,
  • encoding or interpretation, and
  • recall and use.

 

Online Education Clauses Exercises for Class 11 CBSE With Answers

Clauses Class 11

This grammar section explains Online Education English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. Students can also read NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English to get good marks in CBSE Board Exams. https://ncertmcq.com/clauses-class-11/

Online Education Clauses Exercises for Class 11 CBSE With Answers

Clause Exercise For Class 11

♦ Structure of Sentences:

According to their grammatical structure, sentences can be classified into three types:

  1. Simple sentence
  2. Compound sentence
  3. Complex sentence

1. A Simple Sentence has only one clause, i.e., one subject and one predicate, e.g.
The students are learning grammar.
2. A Compound Sentence has two or more main clauses joined together by coordinating conjunctions like and, but, yet, still, so and so, therefore, for, now, otherwise, either ………….. or, neither ………….., nor, not only …………….. but also, e.g.
(i) The child ran fast and won the race.
(ii) Hari works hard and therefore stands first.
3. A Complex Sentence has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses, e.g.
I read the book which I had bought from the Book Fair.

♦ Subordinate Clauses are of three kinds:

  • Noun Clause
  • Adjective Clause
  • Adverb Clause

1. Noun Clause:

The Noun Clause does the work of a noun in the sentence. It is introduced by the following connectives:

Pronouns: who, what, which, whom, whose
Example:

  • I know who he is.

Adverbs: when, where, why, how
Examples:

  • I asked him if he knew where the post office was.
  • I don’t know why he does not study.

Conjunctions: that, whether, if
Examples:

  • I think that Raghu is a liar.
  • I asked her whether she wanted a book to read.

Clauses Mcq Class 11

2. Adjective Clause:

Adjective Clauses describe a noun or a pronoun in the main clause or in another subordinate clause.
Adjective clauses are also known as relative clauses as they are usually introduced by relative pronouns like ‘who’, ‘whom’, ‘whose’, ‘which’, ‘that’, e.g.
The house which has large glass windows was burgled yesterday.
The adjective clause describes the noun ‘house’ in the main clause.
I know the boy who won the national championship.
The adjective clause describes the noun ‘boy’ in the main clause.
He who laughs last laughs the best.
The adjective clause describes the pronoun ‘He’ in the main clause.

Clause Class 11

3. Adverb Clause:

The adverb clause functions as an adverb, i.e. it modifies verbs. Therefore, an adverb clause may appear anywhere in a sentence. It tells us why, where, under what conditions, or to what degree the action occurred or the situation existed. Unlike adjective clauses, they frequently change their position within the sentence. Example: When the timer rings, we know the cake is done.

OR

We know the cake is done when the timer rings.
Adverb Clauses may be classified as Adverb Clauses of Condition, Time, Place, Reason, Manner, Purpose, etc.

Question 1.
Vipul and Mahesh are discussing their plans for the summer vacation. Complete their dialogue in an appropriate manner. Write your answers in the space provided. The first one has been done for you as an example.
Answer:

How are you going to spend your summer vacation?
I haven’t thought about it yet.
How do you like the idea (a) ………………… (Shimla)?
That’s nice, (b) ………………. (but).
I’ll come to your house today (c) ………………. (and).

  • Mahesh: Oh! that’ll be fine.
  • Vipul: (d) in the evening?
  • Mahesh: Yes, I don’t think he is going out tonight.
  • Vipul: OK. I’ll certainly come and meet him.

Answer:

(a) that we should go to Simla?
(b) but I will have to take my father’s permission.
(c) and request him to allow you to go to Simla.
(d) Should I come

Question 2.
Complete the sentences given below using subordinate clauses.

  1. My eyes have become red
  2. You should use sunglasses
  3. I always wash my eyes
  4. One should not use eyecare products
  5. I hope

Answer:

  1. because I have caught some eye infection.
  2. if you cannot tolerate glare.
  3. when they become red.
  4. which have not been produced by a reputable company.
  5. your eyes are free of infection soon.

Question 3.
Complete the dialogue using subordinate clauses.

  1. Customer: Will you tell me …………..?
  2. Shopkeeper: The price of this watch ……………….. is 900.
  3. Customer: I want to know ………………..
  4. Shopkeeper: Yes sir, the guarantee is of one year ……………..
  5. Customer: Of course, no one …………….. will damage it purposely.

Answer:

  1. what this watch costs?
  2. which/that you are looking at
  3. if it carries a guarantee.
  4. if it is not damaged carelessly.
  5. who buys it

Question 4.
Complete the letter given below with suitable clauses.
Dear son,
I am well. Hope you are taking good care of yourself. You must lock the doors properly at night (a) ……………..
You are alone (b) ……………… There is no need to be afraid (c) ………………. I shall come back (d) …………….. I miss you (e) ………………..

Yours affectionately
Dad

Answer:
(a) because there have been some thefts in the neighbourhood
(b) and so you must be careful
(c) because you can depend on our neighbours for help
(d) when the work in hand is finished.
(e) and am looking forward to being with you.

Question 5.
Chiki and Miks are planning to visit Kurukshetra during Vacation. Complete the dialogue between them using the given clauses.
(i) how are we going
(ii) what are we carrying?
(til) when I was a child
Chiki: I’m really excited about the trip.
Miki: Let’s decide what we are going to require for the journey.

(a) Miki: I have been to this place long back
(b) Chiki: Tell me by car or by train?
(c) Miki: We’ll be going by train. Have you decided
(d) Chiki: I’m not very good at packing. Do you know how to pack the rucksacks?
Answer:
(a) When I was a child
(b) how are we going
(c) what we are carrying?

Question 6.
Fill in the blanks in the following conversation with meaningful clauses.

Sheela: Tomorrow is my birthday. I want to prepare a cake myself. Please tell me (a) …………………………………….
Radha: I can make many types of cakes. Tell me (b) ……………………..
Sheela: I am very fond of chocolates and want to prepare a chocolate cake.
Radha: Please let me know (c) …………….. so that I can come and help you.
Sheela: Oh! Thank you.
Answer:

(a) how I should start
(b) what you want to make
(c) when you wish to make the cake

Question 7.
Fill in the blanks with suitable clauses.

  1. He ran so fast …………………
  2. You should act ………………
  3. He is the boy …………………

Answer:

  1. that he became breathless
  2. as you feel right
  3. who deserves admiration.

Question 8.
Complete the dialogue using the clauses given in the box.

if you want; what you require for packing; how I should pack it nicely

Chiki: Have you bought a birthday gift for Pooja?
Miki: Yes, but I don’t know (a) ……………………
Chiki: I can help you (b) ………………….
Miki: That’s really nice of you. Tell me (c) ………………..

(a) how I should pack it nicely
(b) if you want
(c) what you require for packing

Question 9.
Complete the following using clauses given in the box.

which make housing difficult for the poor; that the poor suffer the most; how it should cut down the cost of housing,

The finding of a housing study shows (a) ………………… The lack of resources, rising cost of material, and of land are the problems (b) ………………. The government’s worry is (c) ……………… so that the poor can buy houses.
Answer:

(a) that the poor suffer the most
(b) which make housing difficult for the poor
(c) how it should cut down the cost of housing.

Question 10.
Complete the following letter using appropriate clauses to fill in the blanks.
Answer:

Dear Sonia
How are you? I haven’t heard from you (a) ………………… I wanted to send you the books (b) ………………. We are all eagerly waiting to catch a glimpse of the man (c) ………………… Do send a quick reply.

Yours affectionately
Raina

Answer:
(a) or received any communication
(b) that you wanted
(c) who wrote them

Question 11.
Combine the following sets of sentences using clauses.

  1. You have met Ashok. He is my friend’s brother.
  2. A laser is a new device. It makes the light shine in a red beam.

Answer:

  1. You have met Ashok who is my friend’s brother.
  2. A laser is a new device which makes the light shine in a red beam.

Question 12.
Complete the sentences using a noun clause with the words given in brackets.

  1. The Principal announced that …………….. (holiday after the Annual day).
  2. Everybody cheered and felt that …………….. (good idea).
  3. ………… the day after the Annual Day would be a holiday.
  4. ……….. it was a good idea.

Question 13.
Given below are some sets of simple sentences. Combine each set into a complex sentence by using one of the sentences in each set into an adjective clause.

  1. The dog has been shot dead. It went mad.
  2. The lady brought to the party the little box. She was very fond of it.
  3. She is a girl. I wanted to meet her.

Answer:

  1. The dog that went mad has been shot dead.
  2. The lady brought to the party the little box that she was very fond of.
  3. She is the girl whom I wanted to meet.

Online Education Important Questions for Class 11 Biology Chapter Wise with Answers

Online Education Important Questions for Class 11 Biology Chapter Wise with Answers Pdf Download 2020-21: Here we are providing CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 11 Biology Chapter Wise State Board Pdf download in Hindi and English Medium. Students can get Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions, Biology Class 11 Important Extra Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.

Online Education for CBSE Class 11th Biology Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter Wise Pdf

  1. The Living World Biology Class 11 Important Questions
  2. Biological Classification Class 11 Biology Important Questions
  3. Plant Kingdom Class 11 Biology Chapter Wise Questions
  4. Animal Kingdom Question Bank Biology Class XI
  5. Morphology of Flowering Plants Biology Important Questions
  6. Anatomy of Flowering Plants Class 11 Important Questions
  7. Structural Organisation in Animals Important Questions
  8. Cell: The Unit of Life Class 11 Important Questions
  9. Biomolecules 11th Std Biology Important Questions
  10. Cell Cycle and Cell Division Class 11 Important Questions
  11. Transport in Plants Class 11 Important Questions
  12. Mineral Nutrition Class 11 NCERT Biology Important Questions
  13. Photosynthesis in Higher Plants Class 11 Important Questions
  14. Respiration in Plants Biology Important Questions for Class 11
  15. Plant Growth and Development Class 11 Important Questions
  16. Digestion and Absorption Biology Questions and Answers for Class 11
  17. Breathing and Exchange of Gases Class 11 Important Questions
  18. Body Fluids and Circulation Class 11 Important Questions
  19. Excretory Products and their Elimination Class 11 Important Questions
  20. Locomotion and Movement Class 11 Important Questions
  21. Neural Control and Coordination Class 11 Important Questions
  22. Chemical Coordination and Integration Class 11 Important Questions

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Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

Online Education for Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

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Online Education for The Portrait of a Lady Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

The Portrait of a Lady Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Discovering Tut Important Questions Class 11 Question  1.
What generated the interest of the world in King Tut?
Answer:
King Tut was just a teenager when he died. He was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries. Since the discovery of his tomb in 1922, the modem world wondered about what happened to him and wondered if he could have been murdered.

Discovering Tut Extra Questions Class 11 Question 2.
How did nature seem to echo the unnatural happening?
Answer:
As King Tut was taken from his resting place in the ancient Egyptian cemetery, dark-bellied clouds that had scudded across the desert sky all day, veiled the stars in grey. It seemed that the wind was angry and had roused the dust devils.

Discovering Tut The Saga Continues Extra Questions Class 11 Question 3.
Why did the tourists throng to see Tut’s tomb? What was their reaction?
Answer:
The tourists came to pay their respects to King Tut. They admired the murals and Tut’s gilded face on his mummy-shaped outer coffin. They read from the guidebooks in whisper, or stood silently, pondering over Tut’s untimely death, dreading, lest the pharaoh’s curse befall those who disturbed him.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Extra Questions Class 11 Question 4.
Who was Howard Carter? What did he find?
Answer:
Howard Carter was the British archaeologist who in 1922 discovered Tut’s tomb after years of unsuccessful search. He discovered the richest royal collection ever found that included stunning artifacts in gold that caused a sensation.

Discovering Tut Question Answers Class 11 Question 5.
Tut was buried in March-April. How did Carter conclude this?
Answer:
On opening a coffin, Carter found a shroud decorated with garlands of willow and olive leaves, wild celery, lotus petals and cornflowers. Since these flowers grow in March or April, Carter concluded that the burial was in these months.

Discovering Tut The Saga Continues Question And Answer Class 11 Question 6.
“When he finally reached the mummy, though, he ran into trouble.” Why was it so?
Answer:
When Carter tried to raise the mummy out of the coffin, he could not. The ritual resins had hardened, cementing Tut’s body to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. No amount of force could pull it out.

Discovering Tut The Saga Continues Question Answer Class 11 Question 7.
How did he decide to detach the mummy? Why?
Answer:
First Carter tried to loosen the resins with the heat of the sun. For several hours, he put the mummy outside in blazing sunshine that heated it to 149 degrees Fahrenheit but it was in vain. Then he decided to carve it out from beneath the limbs and trunk as there was no other way of raising the king’s remains.

Discovering Tut The Saga Continues Important Questions Class 11 Question 8.
What were the treasures found in the coffin? Why were they put there?
Answer:
King Tut’s coffin contained precious collars, inlaid necklaces and bracelets, rings, amulets, a ceremonial apron, sandals, sheaths for his fingers and toes, and his inner coffin and mask, all of which were made of pure gold. The royals, in King Tut’s time, hoped to take their riches along with them for their next life.

Important Question Of Discovering Tut Class 11 Question 9.
How has the viewpoint of archaeologists changed with the passage of time?
Answer:
The archaeologists, earlier, focussed on the treasures that the tomb would yield. The centre of attention, now, is more on the fascinating details of life and intriguing mysteries of death. Moreover, now they use more sophisticated tools, including medical technology.

Question 10.
What was the interesting fact about Tut that was brought to light in the late sixties?
Answer:
In 1968, more than forty years after Carter’s discovery, an anatomy professor X-rayed the mummy and revealed a startling fact: beneath the resin that caked his chest, his breast-bone and front ribs were missing.

Question 11.
Why was King Tut’s death a big event?
Answer:
King Tut’s demise was a big event as he was the last of his lineage and his funeral sounded the death rattle of a dynasty. Moreover, he died at the very young age of about eighteen.

Question 12.
What is known about Tut’s predecessor Amenhotep IV?
Answer:
Amenhotep IV, during his reign, promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun disk, and changed his own name to Akhenaten, or ‘servant of the Aten’, and moved the religious capital to the new city of Akhetaten. He outraged the country by attacking Amun, a major god, smashing his images and closing his temples.

Question 13.
What made a guard remark, ‘curse of the pharaoh’?
Answer:
When Tut’s body was taken out to be scanned and the million-dollar scanner had stopped functioning because of sand in a cooler fan, the guard jokingly remarked that the king had expressed his annoyance at being disturbed.

Question 14.
With King Tut was being finally laid to rest, nature was at rest too. Explain.
Answer:
When King Tut was finally laid to rest, the wind stopped blowing and was still, like death itself. Orion, the constellation that the ancient Egyptians knew as the soul of Osiris, the god of the afterlife, was sparkling. It seemed to be watching over the boy king.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Nature echoed the unnatural happenings with King Tut’s body. Comment.
Answer:
To set to rest the modem world’s speculation about King Tut, the body was taken out of its resting place some 3,300 years later. He was required to undergo a CT scan to generate precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction. As the body was taken out, raging wind began to blow which seemed to arouse the eerie devils of dust. Dark clouds gathered and appeared to shroud the stars in a grey-coloured coffin. When the body was put down for scan, the million-dollar scanner seemed to keep from functioning.

There was sand in a cooler fan. It was when he was finally laid to rest, that the winter air lay cold and still, like death itself, in this valley of the departed. Just above the entrance to Tut’s tomb stood Orion the constellation that the ancient Egyptians knew as the soul of Osiris, the god of the afterlife, supervising the young pharaoh returning to his rightful place.

Question 2.
“The mummy is in a very bad condition because of what Carter did in the 1920s.” What did Carter do and why?
Answer:
Howard Carter was the British archaeologist who in 1922 discovered Tut’s tomb. He searched its contents in haste. The tomb, which had stunning artefacts in gold, caused a sensation at the time of the discovery.

After months of carefully recording the treasures in the pharaoh’s coffin, Carter began investigating the three nested coffins. When he finally reached the mummy, he found that the ritual resins had hardened. Thus, Tut’s body was cemented to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. Carter set the mummy outside in blazing sun that heated it up to 149 degrees Fahrenheit, to no avail.

To prevent the thieves from ransacking, he chiselled the body free. To separate Tut from his embellishments, Carter’s men removed the mummy’s head and severed nearly every major joint.

Question 3.
Describe the changing attitudes of the archaeologists over a span of time.
Answer:
Archaeology has changed substantially in the intervening decades. It now focusses less on treasure and more on the interesting details of life and the intriguing mysteries of death. It also uses more sophisticated tools, including medical technology. In 1968, more than forty years after Carter’s discovery, an anatomy professor X-rayed the mummy and revealed a startling fact: beneath the resin that cakes King Titu’s chest, his breast bone and front ribs were missing.

Today, diagnostic imaging can be done with computed tomography, or CT, by which hundreds of X-rays in cross section are put together like slices of bread to create a three dimensional virtual body. It can even answer questions such as how a person died, and how old he was at the time of his death.

Question 4.
What are the facts that are known about King Tut’s lineage?
Answer:
Amenhotep III, Tut’s father or grandfather, was a powerful pharaoh who ruled for almost four decades at the height of the eighteenth dynasty’s golden age. His son Amenhotep IV succeeded him and initiated one of the strangest periods in the history of ancient Egypt. The new pharaoh promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun disk, changed his name to Akhenaten, or ‘servant of the Aten’, and moved the religious capital

from the old city of Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten, now known as Amama. He further shocked the country by attacking Amun, a major god, smashing his images and closing his temples. After Akhenaten’s death, a mysterious ruler named Smenkhkare appeared briefly and exited with hardly a trace. A very young Tutankhaten took the throne as the king, thereafter.

Online Education for A Photograph Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

Here we are providing Online Education for A Photograph Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill, Extra Questions for Class 11 English was designed by subject expert teachers. Students can also read A Photograph Poem. https://ncertmcq.com/extra-questions-for-class-11-english/

Online Education for A Photograph Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 11 English Hornbill

A Photograph Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

A Photograph Class 11 Extract Questions And Answers Question 1.
The poet talks about a particular cardboard. How is it special to her?
Answer:
The poet talks about a particular cardboard to which is pasted her mother’s photograph taken at the sea beach. The mother seems to have been enjoying her sea holiday. The photograph is special as she has lost her mother sometime back and looking at the photograph makes her happy as well as sad.

A Photograph Class 11 Extract Questions And Answers Pdf Question 2.
What can you say about the childhood of the poet’s mother?
Answer:
The childhood of the poet’s mother must have been filled with fun and happiness. This is clear from the snapshot of the sea holiday. They are enjoying their holiday.

The mother of the poet laughs when looking at the snapshot even after many years have passed since the sea holiday. All this shows us that it was a very pleasant childhood.

A Photograph Class 11 Extra Questions And Answers Question 3.
What moment does the photograph depict?
Answer:
The photograph clicked by. the uncle of the poet’s mother depicts a sea-holiday being enjoyed by the poet’s mother and her two cousins Dolly and Betty. They are full of smiles in their beach dresses, not worrying about their flying hair.

A Photograph Extract Based Questions With Answers Question 4.
Were the three cousins camera friendly? Who was taking their photograph?
Answer:
The three cousins appear to be camera-friendly as they stood at the sea beach without moving when the uncle took the photograph.

The Photograph Class 11 Extra Questions Question 5.
The poet’s mother would laugh looking at the photograph. Why?
Answer:
The poet’s mother was in middle age when she looked at that photograph and used to laugh remembering those golden days of her childhood, enjoying a sea holiday. She would also laugh at the beach dresses which looked weird after many years.

A Photograph Question Answers Question 6.
What impression do you form about the poet’s mother?
Answer:
The poet’s mother was very pretty at the age of twelve. She enjoyed the sea holiday. This is indicated by the happiness that she gets in middle age after looking at her childhood photograph.

Photograph Class 11 Extra Questions Question 7.
The sea ‘appears to have changed less’ in comparison to the three girls who enjoyed the sea holiday. Comment.
Answer:
The poet compares the mortal nature of human beings with the eternal nature of the sea or natural objects. With the passage of time, the poet’s mother died but the vast sea has remained as it was since the photograph was taken.

The Photograph Extra Questions Question 8.
Why does the poet feel nostalgic?
Answer:
The poet sees an old photograph of her mother in which she was standing on the beach with her two cousins — Dolly and Betty. They were enjoying themselves. The photograph captured her mother’s sweet and smiling face. At that time, she was around twelve years old. The poet remembers how her mother used to laugh whenever she looked at that old photograph. But time has passed and now the poet has been left only with the memories of her mother. Thus, she feels nostalgic

A Photograph Class 11 Important Question Question 9.
What does the poet say about her mother’s face?
Answer:
The poet remarks that her mother had a sweet face, smiling and caring for her cousins who were younger to her. The poet also says that her mother used to enjoy these sea holidays, and would laugh heartily, later on when she saw the photograph.

A Photograph Short Question Answer Question 10.
How does the poet react to her past? Why has she not mentioned anything about her mother’s death?
Answer:
The poet remembers with sadness her mother’s laughter which she cannot hear any more. The poet is full of a sense of loss and does not mention about her mother’s death, as it may bring more gloom to her and make her speechless.

A Photograph Class 11 Important Questions And Answers Question 11.
Does the poet appear to be grieving?
Answer:
The poet is certainly filled with a sense of loss. Her mother is long dead and though the poet has adjusted to her absence, she is not able to completely overcome her loss.

She remembers how it used to be when her mother was still with her. The last line is an apt depiction of her state of mind. The loss has filled her life with silence.

A Photograph Question And Answer Question 12.
Comment on the tone of the poem.
Answer:
The tone of the poem is that of sadness. Shirley Toulson looks at an old photograph of her mother and is sadly reminded of her mother who is no more. She mentions about death of her mother indirectly only but this photograph has made her speechless and silent.

A Photograph Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Class 11 English Poem A Photograph Extra Questions Question 1.
The poet has paid a tribute to her mother. Similar instances can be seen in ‘The Portrait of a Lady’. This made you think that writing about a loved one is much better than building their statues or drawing their portraits. Comment.
Answer:
Many writers have paid tributes to their loved ones through beautiful writing. Khushwant Singh gave an adorable description about his grandmother through his story. Shirley Toulson remembered her mother through her heart-touching poem.

In my opinion, writing about a loved one is much better than building their statues or drawing their portraits. One can never tell the true personality of a person just by looking at their sculptures or portraits. One can never know about the amazing time someone has spent with them. That magic can only be created by words.

Words stand the passage of time, whereas sculptures or portraits may get damaged by it. Hence, words are the best way by which anyone can pay a tribute to one’s loved ones.

A Photograph Important Questions Question 2.
“Its silence silences,” writes Shirley Toulson. The loss of her mother has silenced her. Do you think that this attitude of the poet is the right attitude to live life? Why/ why not?
Answer:
There is no doubt that Shirley Toulson has given a very touching tribute to her mother by remembering her through her verses. It is apparent that she is very much nostalgic and is grieving at the loss of her mother. Though she says that over the years she has adjusted to her mother’s absence, but circumstances have surely filled her with silence and a deep void.

We cannot deny that it hurts very much to lose someone, but the attitude shown by the poet at the end is not the right way to live your life. Life will keep going on even if we stop to lament our loss.

Loss is universal. It is the law of nature. We cannot let ourselves get depressed just because of this. It is also understandable that we will grieve. However, grieving to the point of hampering the normal functioning of our lives is not acceptable.

Extract Based Questions Class 11 English A Photograph Question 3.
Happy moments are short-lived but provide a lifetime memory. They provide a cushion to bear the difficulties which the future has in store for you. Comment in the light of the poem ‘A Photograph’ by Shirley Toulson.
Answer:
Our life is a mixture of happy as well as adverse times. We must learn to move on with the help of those happy memories which provided us with so much enjoyment and happiness. As life is not a bed of roses, everyone at one stage or another is likely to face difficulties.

At the time of difficulties, happy moments can give us solace and fill us with positivity which is required during difficult times. Happy moments will certainly provide us with a hope that, as happy moments are short-lived, so are difficult times. One must learn to cope with the situation. The memories of happy times can provide us a cushion to bear difficulties with patience and peace.

A Photograph Poem Question Answer Question 4.
‘Both wry with the laboured ease of loss.’ The poet is missing her mother. What is the role of the mother in forming the personality of a child?
Answer:
A mother’s role in shaping the personality of a child is of paramount importance. The child watches his/ her mother intently and learns about the world and how to react to it at the initial stages. The mother can

play an important role by making the child to deal constructively with mistakes, forgive others, handle frustration, show kindness and share love.
When a mother is nurturing and caring the child, it will develop a healthy bond with not only the mother but will be willing to form new relationships with others.

Children and adults both want a sense of independence and autonomy. It is very important on a mother’s part to offer choices to the child. This makes the child feel that he/she is smart enough to make choices.

The mother’s thoughts nourish a child’s mind and soul as her personal attention nourishes a child’s body. She is a child’s first teacher. She tries to imbibe such values that may help a child lifelong.

A Photograph Extract based Questions and Answers

I. Read the extract given below and answer any two of the questions that follow.

“The cardboard shows me how it was When the two girl cousins went paddling, Each one
holding one of my mother’s hands,
And she the big girl – some twelve years or so.”

Question 1.
What does the cardboard here refer to?
(a) A thick paper on which the poet’s photograph was pasted
(b) A thick envelope
(c) A thick paper on which the poet’s mother’s photograph was pasted
(d) A paper boat
Answer:
(c) A thick paper on which the poet’s mother’s photograph was pasted

Question 2.
What does the cardboard depict?
(a) It depicts a scenery
(b) It depicts the picture of a house
(c) It depicts the picture of a school
(d) It depicts the picture of three girls
Answer:
(d) It depicts the picture of three girls

Question 3.
Who is the ‘big girl’ mentioned here?
(a) The big girl is the poet herself
(b) The big girl is the poet’s mother
(c) The big girl is the poet’s relative
(d) The big girl is the poet’s friend
Answer:
(b) The big girl is the poet’s mother

II. Read the extract given below and answer any two of the questions that follow.

“All three stood still to smile through their hair At the uncle with the camera. A sweet face,
My mother’s, that was before I was born.
And the sea, which appears to have changed less,
Washed their terribly transient feet.”

Question 1.
What does the poet mean by ‘smile through their hair’?
(a) It means that a smile was painted on the hair of the photographed girls
(b) It means that the photographed girls were wearing a mask
(c) It means that the hair of the photographed girls were covering their face when they were smiling
(d) It means that the hair of the girls in the photograph was smiling too
Answer:
(c) It means that the hair of the photographed girls were covering their face when they were smiling

Question 2.
What has not changed over a period of time?
(a) The photo
(b) The cardboard
(c) The girls
(d) The sea
Answer:
(d) The sea

Question 3.
Find a word from the extract which means “lasting only for a short time”?
(a) Still
(b) Transient
(c) Changed
(d) Less
Answer:
(b) Transient

III. Read the extract given below and answer any two of the questions that follow.

“Some twenty-thirty – years later She’d laugh at the snapshot. “See Betty And Dolly,” she’d
say, “and look how they Dressed us for the beach.” The sea holiday Was her past, mine is her
laughter. Both wry With the laboured ease of loss.”

Question 1.
Why did ‘she’ laugh?
(a) Because of the funny dresses that they were wearing at the sea holiday
(b) Because one of them cracked a joke
(c) Because of the funny dresses they were wearing at the party
(d) Because of the funny man they saw at the sea holiday
Answer:
(a) Because of the funny dresses that they were wearing at the sea holiday

Question 2.
Who are Betty and Dolly?
(a) They are poet’s cousins
(b) They are poet’s friends
(c) They are poet’s mother’s friends
(d) They are poet’s mother’s cousins
Answer:
(d) They are poet’s mother’s cousins

Question 3.
…………. in the extract is the synonym of ‘photograph’.
(a) Snapshot
(b) Picture
(c) Mine
(d) Laboured
Answer:
(a) Snapshot

IV. Read the extract given below and answer any two of the questions that follow.

“Now she’s been dead nearly as many years As that girl lived. And of this circumstance There
is nothing to say at all.
Its silence silences.”

Question 1.
Who does ‘she’ refer to?
(a) The poet’s dead aunt
(b) The poet’s dead mother
(c) The poet’s dead cousin
(d) The poet’s sister
Answer:
(b) The poet’s dead mother

Question 2.
Why is there nothing to say about the death of the poet’s mother?
(a) Because the poet is confused
(b) Because the poet was not in her senses when her mother expired
(c) Because the death of the poet’s mother has left a deep void in the poet’s heart
(d) Because the poet did not have a good relationship with her mother
Answer:
(c) Because the death of the poet’s mother has left

Question 3.
Which word in the extract means the same as “events that change your life, over which you have no control”?
(a) Silences
(b) Circumstances
(c) Situation
(d) Circumstance
Answer:
(d) Circumstance

Online Education for Speech Writing Format CBSE Class 11 Examples, Samples, Topics

Speech Writing Class 11

Though speech is essentially an essay, it is significantly different. Whereas an essay or an article is read by people at a distance in time and place, a speech is delivered ‘live’ to an audience. This fact determines, to a great extent, the language and style of the composition.

A speech consists of the words spoken by a person to a gathering. The speaker could be a leader, a learned man, a man in a position of power and authority or an ordinary person, a student. The ‘address’, the language and style are determined by the occasion and the audience.

This grammar section explains Online Education English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 11 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/speech-writing-format-cbse-class-11/

Online Education for Speech Writing Format CBSE Class 11 Examples, Samples, Topics

Speech Writing Class 11

♦ Format:

(a) Address the gathering, e.g., Respected Principal, teachers, students, Good Morning.
(b) Speech in three or four paragraphs.
(c) A speech ends with Thank you. The speaker thanks the listeners for their patient hearing. Content:

♦ Content:

According to the occasion, you may include quotations. Organise the speech into introduction, main points and conclusion.

Language and style should be a mingling of the serious and conversational modes.

Speech Topics For Class 11 Question 1.
You are Mukesh/Mukta of Saket. You have been reading the news items on Nithari killings. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be given in the morning assembly, stressing the need of keeping a close vigil on the anti-social elements of the locality and taking care of young children of the area so that they don’t fall prey to bad characters.
Answer:

Crimes Against Children
by Mukta (XIA)

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends. Good Morning. I am Mukta of Class XI. Today I would like to share my views with you on crimes against children. It is a horrifying reality with which we have to contend.

Some recent tragic events have opened our eyes to the magnitude of crimes against children. Mostly, children are kidnapped for ransom if they are from rich families, or for begging and stealing if they are from ordinary families. Cases of child abuse are growing in alarming proportions.

The most disgusting and horrifying of these cases was the one discovered at Noida, where the owner- servant team carried out dastardly crimes against children behind closed doors. Investigations are unveiling horrible acts.

In such a scenario, it is imperative that parents take good care of their children. Children should be trained not to.trust strangers.

The security of a neighbourhood depends on the alertness of the citizens. We have a tremendous responsibility towards our youngsters.

I hope my words will make you think about the matter.
Thank you

Format Of Speech Writing For Class 11 Question 2.
Children usually come to school without taking breakfast in the morning and eat junk food from the school canteen. This habit affects adversely the performance of students in academics and sports. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be given in your school assembly about ‘How Health is Affected by Lifestyle’.
Answer:

How Health is Affected by Lifestyle

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends,

Good morning, I am Mamta of XI A, and I wish to speak to you on a very important matter. I wish to speak to you on how our health is affected by our lifestyle.

Yesterday, a class VI student fainted in the assembly. The reason was that she had not taken her breakfast of porridge, fruit and milk. She wanted noodles only with coffee!

Friends, the breakfast her mother had prepared was nutritious, it would have given her energy for the whole day. If we fill our stomach, meal after meal, with junk food, how shall we grow tall and strong? How will we get the energy for mental work?

Like food, rest is an important part of our lifestyle. My friend Roshan was unable to answer his English paper in the unit test; he was feeling sleepy. He had studied till 3 a.m. because he thought English could be studied in a few hours. Had he been regular in work and study, he would have done well, for he is very intelligent.

My last word is for my obese friends who form almost 30% of our student body. Exercise, exercise and regular exercise is the answer to your problems.

I sincerely hope you will improve your lifestyle to be healthier and stronger.

Thank You.

♦ Analysis:

  1. Notice that the speech opens with an address to the listeners. They are addressed in order of importance. Do not forget to address the student audience.
  2. Notice the conclusion. The speech ends with thanking the audience.
  3. Notice that the language and style are more conversational than that of an article.
  4. The structure of the content of a speech is very similar to that of an article/essay, i.e., having an introduction, main body and conclusion.

Speech Format Class 11 Question 3.
A recent survey by the Ministry of Health shows that the growing tendency of obesity among children today is caused by addiction to junk food and lack of physical exercise, and it adversely affects their learning power. Write a speech in 150-200 words to be delivered in the morning assembly of the school highlighting the importance of good health and motivating the children to eat healthy, balanced diet.
Answer:

Side Effects of Junk Food

Respected Principal, Vice Principal, teachers, and dear friends. Good morning.

I am grateful to the Principal, Dr N. Ravi, for giving me this opportunity to speak on a matter that is close to the heart of all teenagers.

As I stand here, I can see about eight to ten overweight students in each class line. Surely, they are embarrassed and have become the butt of jokes. To look fit and trim is vital for a good personality.

Friends, I want you to look at your daily routine and see what you are doing to get this bulky figure. Are you excessively fond of cold drinks, pizzas and hamburgers? Do you love to sit before TV and munch wafers and packaged chips of all brands ? Is your favorite snack during the long break everyday a spicy oily ‘samosa’ or ‘bread pakora’?

Later in the evening do you just sit indoors and work on your computer, complete your homework or watch TV ?

If the answer to these questions is ‘Yes’, you know why you have this ungainly figure. In order to be slim and athletic, you need to eat right, exercise briskly in fresh air and live a disciplined life. The food that your mother prepares is what you should consume rather than junk food.

Thank you

Format Of Speech Writing Class 11 Question 4.
With the visual media technology overtaking the print-media, you have observed a decline in the people’s interest in reading books. You are disturbed by this excessive dependence of the young on television and computer games as the source of entertainment. Write a speech in 150-200 words for your school magazine on the “Pleasures of Reading” or “The Company of Books. ”
Answer:

The Pleasures of Reading
by ABC

Reading affords pleasure like no other activity. It is deeply fulfilling and satisfying. While reading, the reader is in direct communication with the writer, however distant he may be in time or space. The reader is fully focussed and enjoys the content as well as the beauty and power of language. Reading offers an infinite variety according to one’s taste. Knowledge, imagination and the reader’s own appreciation of the written word are some of the rewards of reading. If one is adventurous, one can venture into unknown cultures through books. For example, a reading of Tolstoy or Chekhov gives us an insight into the life of the Russians as a reading of Dickens gives us of the British, particularly of London dwellers.

Reading makes us more sensitive to human greatness as well as human suffering. A reading of Premchand’s short stories acquaints us with the strengths and weaknesses of human character. The classics of literature are eternal in their appeal.

Unfortunately, today most of us visit the celluloid version of Sharat Chandra’s ‘Devdas’ three four times, and the original printed one not even once.

Speech Writing Format Class 11 Question 5.
The world that we are living in is under a great threat of extinction. Large scale pollution, deforestation and industrialization are suffocating the environment. You, as a concerned citizen, want to share the causes and effects of global warming. You would also like to give a few suggestions on how to contribute to the making of a better world. As Vivek/Vineeta Arora, Head Boy/Girl of the school, prepare a speech on this issue for the morning assembly under the heading “The Hazards of Global Warming”. (150-200 words)
Answer:

The Hazards of Global Warming

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends,

This morning, I wish to draw your attention to the catastrophe that is slowly and surely coming towards us. I am talking about the hazards of global warming.

Some of my friends may not be aware of ‘global warming’. This term means the rise of the temperature of the atmosphere surrounding our planet. This is happening because of over industrialisation, large-scale pollution and deforestation. Hot emissions from industry and release of chemicals in the air are making the atmosphere of the earth warmer.

What are the hazards of global warming? Already, the polar ice caps have started melting. This can bring disaster to the world. Huge glaciers in the Himalayas and other mountains are shrinking. This will cause a rise in the sea level and will eventually lead to the flooding of coastal areas. Global warming will also bring about changes in the world climate. There will be excess rains, floods, unbearable heat and cold. These changes will surely bring disaster to the flora and fauna of our planet.

What can we do about this problem? The countries need to exercise discipline ajpout putting up industries. Effective measures to control pollution are needed.

Friends, I have tried to acquaint you with the problem the whole world is facing.

Thank you.

Speech Writing Class 11 Format Question 6.
You are the Class Representative, Class XI of Gandhi Memorial School, Pushp Vihar. You have been asked to prepare a speech on the need to imbibe principles of truthfulness, gentleness and cooperation to counter the growing violence in today’s world. Write this speech in 150-200 words.
Answer:

Respected Principal, teachers and dear friends,

Today, I wish to speak to you on the very familiar subject of values like truthfulness, gentleness and cooperation. If we wish to counter the growing violence around us, these values are the only recourse open to us. (Develop these points).

Truthfulness – the basis of social stability – will rid society of deceit and fraud – example of Gandhiji! who could defeat the mighty British with the weapon of truth.

Gentleness – tolerance of the other colour, religion and caste, patience and compassion advocated by Buddha and Mahavir.

Cooperation – inevitable in the era of globalization.

Thank you

Speech Class 11 Question 7.
You are Rajini/Rajat Gaur. After seeing some obese children in your school, you are worried about
the craze for junk food and electronic gadgets in students. Write a speech to be read out in the morning assembly highlighting the need to have good eating habits and the benefits of outdoor activities. (Word limit: 150-200 words)
Answer:

Respected principal, teachers and dear friends. Today I am standing before you to express my views on the topic “obesity among school children”. Obesity has become a cause of concern for one and all. With the entry of companies like McDonalds, Kentucky chicken, wimpeys, Pizza Huts, etc. the concept of fast food has spread like a wild fire. More and more school children have taken to chocolates and soft drinks without worrying for colories. The result is obesity increasing by leaps and bounds among school children.

‘Junk food’ appeals to our taste buds but our digestive system repels it. Oil and extra fat harm our liver. We put on flesh and increase our weight. Fresh home cooked meals are hygenic, better and full of vitamins. Minerals can be easily digested. Our food should consist of coarse cereals, green and leafy vegetables, fruits, and pulses, etc. To keep ourselves agile, energetic and robust, we must do physical exercises, play games like football, badminton, kabbaddi, volleyball, etc.

By eating healthy food, doing regular physical activities not only our body will be healthy and toned our minds would remain active. I hope you all will give some consideration to my suggestion and try to instil it in your daily routine.

Thank you all for giving me a patient hearing.

Speech Writing Examples For Class 11 Question 8.
Yoga is beneficial. Speak about the benefits of yoga in the morning assembly. (Word limit: 150-200)
Answer:

Respected Principal, teachers and friends, a very good morning to one and all. Today I am standing before you to express my views on the benefits of practising yoga.

Many of us perform yoga but do we know what this entails and why is it performed? Basically yoga is a means to attain balance in our body, i.e., gaining strength, increasing flexibility and attaining spirituality. Postures and asanas are an indispensable part of yoga. These are performed keeping in mind all the body parts, combining breathing practices, and include guided mediation, Yoga is a union between body and mind. In other words, we can say it is a balance between mind and helps us keep ourselves fit and fine.

Yoga has the potential to cure many diseases like respiratory problem, abdominal problem and diseases related to the nervous system. Yoga helps in releasing toxins, reduces stress and increases concentration. In short, yoga helps us keep disease-free, happy, wealthy, wise and toned up. Yoga is a never-ending process. The deeper you delve into it the more fruitfull will be the results.

I would like to end my speech on this note.

Online Education for Water in the Atmosphere Class 11 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 11

Here we are providing Online Education for Class 11 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere. Important Questions for Class 11 Geography are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.

Online Education Important Questions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere

Water in the Atmosphere Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture?
Answer:
The surface of the ocean is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture.

Question 2.
What is meant by humidity?
Answer:
The state of the atmosphere with respect to its content of moisture or water vapour is called humidity.

Question 3.
What is meant by sensible temperature?
Answer:
It is the cold or heat felt by the human body, depending not only on actual temperature but also on relative humidity and wind.

Question 4.
Name three states in which water exists.
Answer:
Water exists in three states or forms:

  1. Solid (ice),
  2. Liquid (water),
  3. Gas (water vapour).

Question 5.
What is the measure of absolute humidity?
Answer:
Absolute humidity is measured in grams per cubic metre (g/m3).

Question 6.
What is the dew point?
Answer:
It is the temperature at which air, on cooling, becomes saturated with water vapour, and below which condensation begins and dew forms.

Question 7.
Why dew and frost form on grass quite readily?
Answer:
Because grass is a good radiator and, therefore, cools quickly.

Question 8.
Identify various forms of precipitation.
Answer:
Various forms of precipitation include rainfall, snowfall, hail, sleet and drizzle.

Question 9.
Name three types of precipitation.
Answer:
The three types of precipitation are convectional, orographic and cyclonic precipitation.

Question 10.
How does precipitation take place?
Answer:
Precipitation takes place as a result of the continued condensation and growth of the moisture particles until they become too large to remain suspended in the air.

Question 11.
What is the source of atmospheric moisture?
Answer:
The oceanic surface is the main source of atmospheric moisture.

Question 12.
Which factors control evaporation?
Answer:
There are three main factors which control evaporation:

  1. aridity,
  2. temperature,
  3. movement of air.

Question 13.
Name the various types of clouds.
Answer:
Cirrus clouds, stratus clouds, stratocumulus and cumulus clouds.

Question 14.
What are the different types of fog?
Answer:
Fogs are of three types: radiating, advection and frontal fog.

Question 15.
What is condensation?
Answer:
Cooling of saturated air is called condensation.

Question 16.
What are the different types of rainfall?
Answer:
Rainfall is of three types: convectional, orographic and cyclonic rainfall.

Question 17.
What is sublimation?
Answer:
The process of conversion of ice into liquid or vapour is known as sublimation.

Question 18.
Name the temperature at which a given sample of air becomes saturated.
Answer:
Dew point.

Question 19.
What do you mean by saturated air?
Answer:
The air that contains moisture to full capacity.

Question 20.
What is relative humidity?
Answer:
The ratio of the amount of water vapour actually presents in the air at a particular temperature to the amount of water vapour required to saturate the same air at the same temperature.

Question 21.
What is sleet?
Answer:
The falling of frozen raindrops and frozen melted snow on the earth’s surface is known as sleet.

Question 22.
Name the various types of humidity.
Answer:
Absolute humidity, specific humidity and relative humidity.

Water in the Atmosphere Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe various processes involved in the change of state (form) of water.
Answer:
Water exists in three forms, solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas-(vapour). All three states are interchangeable. The change of solid to ‘ liquid is called melting; from liquid to solid is freezing; from liquid to gas is evaporation and from gas to liquid is condensation. But sometimes ice directly converts into vapour or vice-versa. This is called sublimation.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-1

Question 2.
Describe various sources of atmospheric moisture on the earth.
Answer:
The surface of the ocean is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture. Besides, smaller water bodies, vegetation and damp surfaces also contribute significant amounts of moisture.

Question 3.
What is relative humidity and how is it measured?
Answer:
The amount of water vapour in the air compared with the amount that would be present if the air was saturated at that temperature. It is expressed in percentage determined by dividing the absolute humidity by water holding capacity of air. If the air is saturated, its relative humidity is 100%; if only half saturated, the relative humidity. is 50%. Since the capacity of air for absorbing and retaining moisture varies with temperature, the relative humidity of air mass can be altered by merely lowering its temperature without changing the actual amount of moisture present in it.

Question 4.
Discuss the reasons which impede the formation of dew or frost.
Answer:
On cool nights in early winter, when Radiation from the ground is relatively rapid, the air in contact with the ground may be chilled to the dew point and moisture condenses on the leaves and grass in the form of dew. If the dew point is below the freezing point, the condensation takes place in the form of ice crystals or frost. The formation of dew or frost is impeded by

  1. Dry air,
  2. Wind mixes the air and prevents its lower portion from reaching the dew point, and
  3. Clouds which slow down terrestrial radiation.

Question 5.
What are the middle clouds?
Answer:
The clouds which form at height of2000-7000 km. above the ground are called middle clouds. Altostratus and altocumulus are examples.

Altostratus – It is a uniform sheet of cloud, grey or bluish in colour and usually has a fibrous structure.

Altocumulus – These are flattened globular masses of clouds arranged in lines or waves. They have large globules with shadows.

Question 6.
Why does the amount of water vapour decrease rapidly with altitude?
Answer:
Water vapour in the atmosphere is the result of the evaporation of water from the earth’s surface, a continual process dependent on air. Since the air becomes thinner with the altitude, so also does the water vapour.

Question 7.
What is condensation and how does it take place?
Answer:
Condensation is the process of water vapour changing to a liquid state. If the air is cooled below its dew point, some of the air’s water vapour becomes liquid. Thus, any amount of cooling of saturated air starts the process of condensation. Condensation may start with the addition of any further water vapour to the saturated air, or with the reduction of its temperature.

Question 8.
What is precipitation? What are the conditions to determine the form of precipitation?
Answer:
Precipitation is a process of condensation of water vapour in ‘ the atmosphere which falls to the earth in the form of rain, snow, hail or sleet. These are the various forms of precipitation.
Conditions for precipitation.

  1. There should be evaporation so that the relative humidity is „ high in the air.
  2. There should be adiabatic cooling of the moist air.
  3. There should be dust particles in the air.

Question 9.
What are the effects of humidity?
Answer:
The main effects of humidity are:

  1. The skin of the human body starts to crack due to low relative humidity.
  2. It causes joint pain in the human body.
  3. The high relative humidity is harmful to the human body.
  4. The joints of furniture get loosened.

Question 10.
Why does the amount of water vapour decrease rapidly with altitude?
Answer:
The amount of water in the atmosphere is variable from place to place and from time to time. It decreases rapidly with altitude. The temperature decreases as the altitude increases.

Question 11.
How is rainfall caused?
Answer:
The moist air is cooled, saturated and condensation takes place. Water vapour condenses on a large number of dust particles to form clouds.

The cloud droplets merge to form raindrops. When these raindrops become so heavy that air cannot hold them, these fall on the earth in the form of rainfall. The release of moisture in the form of drops of water is called rainfall.

Question 12.
Describe the conditions for the formation of dew.
Answer:
Following are the favourable conditions for the formation of dew:

  1. Clear sky
  2. Calmness, i.e., the wind should not blow
  3. High relative humidity
  4. Rich vegetation cover
  5. Long nights

Water in the Atmosphere Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Distinguish between:
1. Relative humidity and Absolute humidity.
2. Evaporation and Condensation.
3. Dew and Frost.
Answer:
1. Relative humidity and Absolute humidity:
Relative humidity:
The amount of water vapour in the air compared with the amount that would be present if the air was saturated at that temperature. It is expressed in percentage determined by dividing the absolute humidity by water holding capacity of air. If the air is saturated, its relative humidity is 100%; if only half saturated, the relative humidity. is 50%. Since the capacity of air for absorbing and retaining moisture varies with temperature, the relative humidity of air mass can be altered by merely lowering its temperature without changing the actual amount of moisture present in it.

Absolute humidity:
It is the actual amount of water vapour present per unit volume of air and it is measured in grams per cubic meter.

2. Evaporation and Condensation
Evaporation is the process by which a solid or liquid is converted to a gaseous state or vapour. It occurs whenever energy is transported to an evaporated surface and temperature rises. The molecules become more mobile and overcome the forces binding them to the water surface and break away resulting in evaporation.

Condensation:
Condensation is the process of water vapour changing to a liquid state. If the air is cooled below its dew point, some of the air’s water vapour becomes liquid. Thus, any amount of cooling of saturated air starts the process of condensation. Condensation may start with the addition of any further water vapour to the saturated air, or with the reduction of its temperature.

3. Dew and Frost:
Dew: When the moisture is deposited in the form of water droplets on cooler surfaces of solid objects, such as stones, grass blades and plant leaves, it is known as dew. Clear sky, calm air, high relative humidity, cold and long nights are the ideal conditions for the formation of dew.

Frost: Frost forms on cold surfaces at a dew point which is at or below the freezing point when an excess of moisture is deposited in the form of minute ice crystals instead of droplets of water.

Question 2.
Write short notes on:
(a) Convectional precipitation
(b) Cyclonic precipitation
(c) Orographic precipitation
Answer:
(a) Convectional precipitation:
It occurs when moist air over the heated ground becomes warmer than the surrounding air and is forced to rise, expand, cool and yield some of its moisture.

Convectional rain is common in low latitudes and usually comes in the form of short heavy showers, often during the hottest part of the day. Thunder and lightning generally accompany the showers. If the convection currents are especially strong and turbulent, hail is formed.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-2

(b) Cyclonic precipitation:
It occurs in low-pressure areas, where cyclonic winds coming from various directions converge and force the large volumes of light air to rise and cause rain.

Cyclonic precipitation is generally associated with the passage of depression in middle or high latitudes, as the warm moist air mass of the depression rises and over-rides colder, heavier air.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-3

(c) Orographic precipitation:
It is caused due to relief. It occurs when the moist wind is forced to rise over a mountain or any other height. Precipitation occurs due to cooling of moisture-laden air as it rises over a high relief barrier. It happens, particularly on the windward slopes! On the other side of the barrier or on the leeward side of the slopes, there develops rain shadow area with no or very little rainfall because as the moisture-laden wind descends down the slope, after precipitating on the windward side, it becomes warmer and drier. Such a situation occurs along the western coasts of Qudra, North America and South America. The moist air from the Arabian Sea is forced by Sahyadri hills of the Western Ghats to rise up resulting in expansion, cooling and rainfall.

Amount of precipitation depends on slope, the height of the hills, temperature and moisture content of the air mass. On the other side of the mountain, the descending wind is devoid of moisture and, hence, does not give rain. The eastern slope of Sahyadri mountains in India falls in the rain shadow area.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-4

Question 3.
Describe the factors controlling the rate of evaporation and evapotranspiration.
Answer:
vaporation is the process by which liquid water or ice changes into water vapour. It occurs whenever energy is transported to an evaporated surface and temperature rises. The molecules become more mobile and overcome the forces binding them to the water surface and break away resulting in evaporation.

Evapotranspiration, on the other hand, is the amount of moisture transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation of liquid and solid water plus transpiration from living tissues principally from the plants.

Factors like the temperature of the air, source of moisture, vegetation cover, latitude, permeability and water retention effect evaporation and evapotranspiration.

Evaporation depends upon air temperature. Greater the temperature, higher is the rate of evaporation and so on. Therefore, the highest rate of evaporation occurs in deserts in conditions Of great heat and lack of surface cone.

The surface of oceans is the greatest source of atmospheric moisture.

Vegetation is an important factor, particularly in evapotranspiration. Because, under transpiration, the loss of water takes place from the green plants resulting in a stream of water with dissolved mineral salts surfing up through the plants.

Question 4.
Describe the various forms of precipitation and the major precipitation regimes of the world.
Answer:
Precipitation results from the continued condensation and growth of the moisture particles until they become too large to remain suspended in the air.

If condensation takes place at a temperature above 0°C, the resulting precipitation is in the form of rain.

If the process through a layer of colder air on the way down, it may freeze and fall as sleet.

In a strong turbulent current of a thunderstorm, water drops may be carried upward into freezing temperatures and eventually fall as hail. In fact, violent air currents may keep hailstones shuttling up and down until they grow to enormous sizes.

When the more. moisture crystallises into ice particles from vapour at a temperature below freezing point, it called snow. If snowflakes grow without interference, they form beautiful symmetrical, six-sided Crystals.

Ice-storms result when rain, already near the freezing point, falls on colder ground and vegetation and freezes upon contact.

Major precipitation regimes:
(a) Convectional precipitation:
It occurs when moist air over the heated ground becomes warmer than the surrounding air and is forced to rise, expand, cool and yield some of its moisture.

Convectional rain is common in low latitudes and usually comes in the form of short heavy showers, often during the hottest part of the day. Thunder and lightning generally accompany the showers. If the convection currents are especially strong and turbulent, hail is formed.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-2

(b) Cyclonic precipitation:
It occurs in low-pressure areas, where cyclonic winds coming from various directions converge and force the large volumes of light air to rise and cause rain.

Cyclonic precipitation is generally associated with the passage of depression in middle or high latitudes, as the warm moist air mass of the depression rises and over-rides colder, heavier air.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-3

(c) Orographic precipitation:
It is caused due to relief. It occurs when the moist wind is forced to rise over a mountain or any other height. Precipitation occurs due to cooling of moisture-laden air as it rises over a high relief barrier. It happens, particularly on the windward slopes! On the other side of the barrier or on the leeward side of the slopes, there develops rain shadow area with no or very little rainfall because as the moisture-laden wind descends down the slope, after precipitating on the windward side, it becomes warmer and drier. Such a situation occurs along the western coasts of Qudra, North America and South America. The moist air from the Arabian Sea is forced by Sahyadri hills of the Western Ghats to rise up resulting in expansion, cooling and rainfall.

Amount of precipitation depends on slope, the height of the hills, temperature and moisture content of the air mass. On the other side of the mountain, the descending wind is devoid of moisture and, hence, does not give rain. The eastern slope of Sahyadri mountains in India falls in the rain shadow area.
Class 11 Geography Important Questions Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere im-4

Question 5.
Why dew is not formed on cloudy, windy nights and in shady places?
Answer:
Dew is formed when objects radiate heat thoroughly so that the moist air coming into contact with them may be sufficiently cooled down and the water vapour condenses into water droplets. The clouds act as a blanket for the earth’s surface. They check the radiation of heat so it does not radiate heat thoroughly. Hence, dew is not formed on cloudy nights and in shady places.

Similarly, dew is not formed on windy nights, because the winds blow fast and the moist air does not come long enough into contact with cold objects to get cooled. Hence, condensation does not take place and no dew can be formed.