Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 1 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions

Time : 2 Hours
Maximum Marks : 35

General Instructions:

  • Question paper is divided into 5 sections A, B, C, D &E.
  • In Section A question number 1 to 3 are Very Short Answer Type Questions. Attempt any 3 Questions.
  • In Section B question number 4 is Source Based Question.
  • In Section C question number 5 & 6 are Short Answer Based Questions.
  • In Section D question number 7 to 9 are Long Answer Based Questions.
  • In Section E question number 10 is a Map Based Question.

Section – A

Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 x 3 = 6)
(Attempt All Questions)

Question 1.
Discuss the reasons which impede the formation of dew or frost. [2]
How does the unequal distribution of heat over the planet earth in space and time cause variations in weather and climate? [2]
The formation of dew or frost is impeded by:

  • Dry air.
  • Wind mixes the air and prevents its lower portion from reaching the dew point.
  • Clouds which slow down terrestrial radiation.

In the areas where there is high temperature, the wind blows from low temperature areas. Therefore, wind moves upward from equatorial regions and blows towards two poles. Due to this wind, the pressure on both the poles increases. Unequal distribution of temperature is the main cause of blowing of the wind. The unequal distribution of temperature, gives rise to rainfall and cyclone. Thus, unequal distribution of heat over the earth in space and time causes variations in weather and climate.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions

Question 2.
What are the features of black soil? [2]
Features of black soil:

  1. The Black soils are also known as the ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’. These soils are generally clayey, deep and impermeable.
  2. They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. So, during the dry season, this soil develops wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of ‘self ploughing’.
  3. Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially, the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season.

Question 3.
‘In spite of abundant rainfall, India is a water thirsty land.’ Explain. [2]
Inspite of abundant rainfall, India is a water thirsty land because:

  1. The occurrence of rainfall is restricted to a few months, i.e., June to September.
  2. Even though monsoons occur, due to high temperature, there is a quick evaporation of rainwater and rapid run off.
  3. Monsoons suffer from delay and long breaks.

Section – B
Source Based Question (1 x 3 = 3)

Question 4.
Water Vapour:
Water vapour is also a variable gas in the atmosphere, which decreases with altitude. In the warm and wet tropics, it may account for four per cent of the air by volume, while in the dry and cold areas of desert and polar regions, it may be less than one percent of the air. Water vapour also decreases from the equator towards the poles. It also absorbs parts of the insolation from the sun and preserves the earth’s radiated heat. It thus, acts like a blanket allowing the earth neither to become too cold nor too hot. Water vapour also contributes to the stability and instability in the air.

Attempt All Questions:

(i) Why do water vapours decrease with an increase in height? [1]
The amount of water vapours in the air tend to decrease with altitude. This is because temperatures decrease with height and the availability of a moisture source is farther away.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions

(ii) Why do water vapours decrease from equator to pole? [1]
Water vapours decrease from Equator to Pole due to temperature as lower temperatures mean lower absolute humidity.

(iii) What percentage of water vapours are found in the warm and wet tropics. [1]
The volume of water vapours is about 4% in very warm and humid tropical air.

Section – C
Short Answer Type Questions (2 x 3 = 6)

Question 5.
What are the main factors responsible for the formation of soil? [3]
Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develop on the earth’s surface. The major factors affecting the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, vegetation and other life-forms and time. Besides these, human activities also influence it to a large extent. Components of the soil are mineral particles, humus, water and air. The actual amount of each of these depends upon the type of soil.

Question 6.
How has the water been distributed on the Earth’s surface? [3]
What do you know about thunderstorms? [3]
The distribution of water on earth is quite uneven. Many locations have plenty of water while others have very limited quantities. The hydrological cycle, is the circulation of water within the earth’s hydrosphere in different forms i.e. the liquid, solid and gaseous phases. It also refers to the continuous exchange of water between the oceans, atmosphere, land surface and subsurface and the organisms.

About 71 percent of the planetary water is found in the oceans. The remaining is held as freshwater in glaciers and ice caps, groundwater sources, lakes, soil moisture, atmosphere, streams and within life. Nearly 59 per cent of the water that falls on land returns to the atmosphere through evaporation from over the oceans as well as 1 from other places. The remainder runs-off on the surface, infiltrates into the ground or a part of it becomes a glacier.

Commonly Made Error:
While discussing the distribution of water on Earth, the students fail to mention the percentage of water distributed all across.

Answering Tip:
The distribution of water on earth is quite uneven. Only 3% of water on the surface is fresh; the remaining 97% resides in the ocean.

  1. Thunderstorm is a violent short-lived weather disturbance which is almost always associated with lightning, thunder, dense clouds, heavy rain or hail, and strong gusty winds.
  2. Thunderstorms are caused by intense convection on moist hot days.
  3. Thunderstorms arise when layers of warm, moist air rise in a large, swift updraft to cooler regions of the atmosphere.
  4. A thunderstorm is a well-grown cumulonimbus cloud producing thunder and lightning.

Section – D
Long Answer Type Questions (3 x 5 = 15)

Question 7.
What is soil conservation? Suggest some measures to conserve soil? [5]
Soil conservation is a methodology to maintain soil fertility, prevent soil erosion and exhaustion, and improve the degraded condition of the soil.

Measures taken to conserve soil are:

  1. The first step is to check open cultivable lands on slopes from farming.
  2. Lands with a slope gradient of 15 – 25 per cent should not be used for cultivation. If at all the land is to be used for agriculture, terraces should carefully be made.
  3. Over-grazing and shifting cultivation in many parts of India have affected the natural cover of land and given rise to extensive erosion. It should be regulated and controlled by educating villagers about the consequences.
  4. Contour bunding, Contour terracing, regulated forestry, controlled grazing, cover cropping, mixed farming and crop rotation should be encouraged.
  5. In arid and semi-arid areas, efforts should be made to protect cultivable lands from encroachment by sand dunes through developing shelter belts of trees and agro-forestry.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions

Question 8.
‘The planet has warmed up from the temperature records.”Explain. [5]
Why does tropical cyclone originate over the seas? In which part of the tropical cyclone do torrential rains and high-velocity winds blow and why? [5]
The planet has warmed up from the temperature records. Temperature data are available from the middle of the 19th century mostly for western Europe. The reference period for this study is 1961-90. The temperature anomalies for the earlier and later periods are estimated from the average temperature for the period 1961 – 90. The annual average near-surface air temperature of the world is approximately 14°C. Earth’s temperature has risen by 0.14° F (0.08° C) per decade since 1880, and the rate of warming over the past 40 years is more than twice that: 0.32° F (0.18° C) per decade since 1981.

The greatest warming of the 20th century was during the two periods, 1901 – 44 and 1977 – 99. Over each of these two periods, global temperatures rose by about 0.4°C. In between, there was a slight cooling, which was more marked in the Northern Flemisphere. The globally averaged annual mean temperature at the end of the 20th century was about 0.6°C above that recorded at the end of the 19th century. The seven warmest years during the 1856 – 2000 were recorded in the last decade. The year 1998 was the warmest year, probably not only for the 20th century but also for the whole millennium.

Question 9.
Discuss the factors affecting the speed and direction of the wind? [5]
The air in motion is called wind. The wind blows from high pressure to low pressure. The wind at the surface experiences friction. In addition, rotation of the earth also affects the wind movement. The force exerted by the rotation of the earth is known as the Coriolis force. Thus, the horizontal winds near the earth surface respond to the combined effect of three forces – the pressure gradient force, the frictional force and the Coriolis force. In addition, the gravitational force acts downward.
(i) Pressure Gradient Force:
The differences in atmospheric pressure produces a force. The rate of change of pressure with respect to distance is the pressure gradient. The pressure gradient is strong where the isobars are close to each other and is weak where the isobars are apart.

(ii) Frictional Force:
It affects the speed of the wind. It is greatest at the surface and its influence generally extends upto an elevation of 1 – 3 km. Over the sea surface the friction is minimal.

(iii) Coriolis Force:
Due to the Earth’s rotation, winds do not cross the isobars at right angles as the pressure gradient force directs, but get deflected from their original path. This deviation is the result of the Earth’s rotation and is called the Coriolis Effect or Coriolis Force. Due to this effect, winds in the northern hemisphere get deflected to the right of their path and those in the southern hemisphere to their left, following Farrel’s Law. The Coriolis Force changes wind direction but not its speed. This deflection force does not seem to exist until the air is set in motion and increases with wind velocity, air mass and an increase in latitude.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions 1

(iv) Pressure and Wind:
The velocity and direction of the wind are the net results of the wind generating forces. The winds in the upper atmosphere, 2-3 km above the surface, are free from the frictional effect of the surface and are controlled by the pressure gradient and the Coriolis force. When isobars are straight and when there is no friction, the pressure gradient force is balanced by the Coriolis force and the resultant wind blows parallel to the isobar.

(v) Centripetal Acceleration:
Due to the inward acceleration of air towards the centre of rotation on the rotating earth, it is possible for the air to maintain a curved path (parallel to the isobars), about a local axis of hig|i or low pressure. It is known as centripetal acceleration.

Section – E
Map Based Questions (1 x 5 = 5)

Question 10.
On the outline map of India indicate and mark the following features. (Attempt any 5)
(i) Onset of monsoon in Chandigarh
(ii) Onset of monsoon in Mumbai
(iii) A place in North India where alluvial soil is found
(iv) A place where black soil is found
(v) A place where Arid Soil is found in North India
(vi) Largest mangrove forest in India
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 Geography Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions 2