Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 2 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 11 History Term 2 Set 2 with Solutions
Time: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- This Question paper is divided into four sections – Section A, B, C and D.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Section – A: Question no. 1 to 4 are Short Answer type questions of 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
- Section – B: Question no. 5 to 7 are Long Answer type questions, carrying 6 marks each. Answer to this question should not exceed 150-200 words.
- Section – C: Question no. 8 and 9 are Case Based questions, carrying 4 marks each with subparts.
- Section – D: Question no, 10 is map based carrying 2 marks.
- There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
- In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Section – A
Short Answer Type Questions (3 X 4 = 12)
What was the objective of the European countries to establish colonies? What was their nature of control over the colonies? 
The main objective of the European countries to establish colonies was to earn profit The nature of
control was different in different colonies:
1. In South Asia, the East India Company was established to trade with India but ultimately succeeded in becoming a political power by defeating the local rulers and annexing their territories.
2. In Africa, the Europeans initially traded on the coast, but later the imperialist powers agreed to divide Africa as colonies among themselves.
3. The Europeans settled in countries like Ireland, NewZealand and Australia and South Africa and became to be known as ‘settlers’.
‘Britain was the first country to experience modern industrialisation’. Examine the factors responsible for it. 
What are the relative advantages of canals and railway transportation? 
Britain was the first country to experience modern industrialisation’ because:
1. Britain had accumulated large amounts of money by foreign trade. The British merchants were very rich and could invest their capital in industries. Raw materials for factories were easily available in the colonies.
2. The agricultural revolution had greatly increased the number of landless peasants in Britain and these became the workforce for the factories.
3. Britain had sufficient natural reserves of coal and iron that helped in establishing industries. They had amassed huge wealth which was necessary for the functioning of industries.
4. There were many technological inventions in Britain that accelerated the pace of industrialisation.
Advantages of canal and and railway transportation was:
1. Canals helped meet and transport economically the increasing demand for coal as industrial energy for heating and lighting. The confluence of canals also created marketing centers in new towns. All the navigable sections of the river flowed into the sea. Therefore, cargo on the river was easily transported to coastal ships. However, the congestion of vehicles slowed the movement of cargo on certain stretches.
2. Railways emerged as a new means of transportation available throughout the year. It was both cheap and fast, to carry passengers and goods.
3. In the second stage, the invention of the railways took the entire process of industrialisation.
Why did the tribes not attempt to produce a surplus? 
The tribes did not attempt extensive agriculture and since they did not produce a surplus, they did not develop kingdoms and empires as in Central and South America. There were some instances of quarrels between tribes over territory but by and large, the control over land was not an issue. They were content with the food and shelter they got from the land without feeling any need to ‘own’ it. An important feature of their tradition was that of making formal alliances and friendships and exchanging gifts. Goods were obtained not by buying them, but as gifts.
Discuss the political system under Tokugawa Shogun. 
The main features of political system under Tokugawa were:
(i) The political system was based on a rigid social structure headed by the emperor whose role was largely symbolic. The country was in effect controlled by the Tokugawas. The Shoguns were followed by the Daimyos. These lords exercised power over 250 domains, into which the country was divided. Each Daimyo exercised autonomous control over his domain and was responsible for maintaining troops and collecting taxes.
(ii) The Shogun sought to maintain control over the Daimyos by what has been called the ‘alternate attendance system’ and ‘hostage system’. This required the families of Daimyos to remain in Edo while the Daimyo took care of his domain.
(iii) The Daimyos were followed by the warrior class the ‘Samurai’. Since most of the Tokugawa period
was peaceful, these came to be a part of ‘privileged idlers’. Then came the peasants and the last was the merchant class
Section – B
Long Answer Type Questions (6 x 3 = 18)
Name the Renaissance scientists who contribute to the revolution in science. 
What do you understand by the term ‘Renaissance’? Analyse the role of the printing press in Renaissance and the rapid spread of humanist culture of Italy. 
Renaissance scientists represented a new trend with a focus on questioning, observation, and experimentation.
(i) Copernicus (1473 – 1543):
Represented the turning point in European science. He was the first to put forth the theory that the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun. This was a complete break from the traditional system of thought which believed that the earth was the center of the world. It was a sinful place and the heavy burden of sin made it immobile.
(ii) Galileo (1564 – 1642):
He invented the telescope and used it to observe heavenly bodies. Based on his observations he confirmed Copernicus’ theory.
(iii) Kepler (1571 – 1630):
Kepler was responsible for creating Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Kepler popularised the theory that the earth was a part of a sun-centered system and demonstrated that the planets moved around the sun in elliptical orbits and not circles. Kepler was one of the first to incorporate the field of physics and the field of astronomy.
(iv) Isaac Newton (1642 – 1726):
He put forth the Theory of Gravitation which proved that all heavenly bodies move according to their gravitational force.
(v) Vesalius (1514 – 1564):
Based on his study of dissection of the human body, he provided a complete description of the human body. This marked the beginning of modern anatomy.
(vi) John Napier:
He originated the concept of logarithms as a mathematical device to aid in calculations.
The Renaissance scientists began learning by observation and experimentation popularly termed the scientific method. It emphasized knowledge as distinct from belief. This method is to date applied to various fields and is termed the Scientific Revolution. Increasingly nature rather than God was seen as the source of all creation. This thought was popularised by scientific societies such as Paris Academy (1670) and the Royal Society in London (1662).
Renaissance means ‘rebirth’. It occurred in Italy in the 15th century. A It is a French word. It gave a new dimension to art and culture and created awareness among the people. It started from Italy.
Role of Printing Press:
(i) The invention of the printing press made books available to the people in various towns and cities.
(ii) Rome, Florence and Venice became the centers of art and learning. Many artists, scholars and writers were patronized by the rich people in the cities and towns.
(iii) A printed book promoting ideas could quickly reach hundreds of readers.
The rapid spread of humanist culture of Italy:
(iv)The main reason behind the rapid spread of humanism was the fast circulation of the printed books rapidly across the Alps.
Do you think that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success? 
It is true that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying basis for its current success. In 1925, after the death of Sun Yat-sen, the Guomindang was headed by Chiang-Kai-shek. Previously, the Communist Party of China was founded in 1921. He tried his best to strengthen the rule of the Guomindang. But no initiatives were taken to achieve the three revolutionary principles of Sun Yat-sen, i.e., nationalism, democracy and socialism. He also made an attempt to raise a new class of landlords. They always exploited the peasantry. Mao Zedong, a Communist leader formed the Red Army. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. He became its chairperson in 1930. He also started a guerrilla war against Chiang-Kai-shek’s army.
He defeated Chiang’s army four times. But for the fifth time, he left the idea of war and started the Long March. Mao Zedong formed a Communist front against Japan in 1935. It was his opinion that his struggle against Japan would make his mass movement more effective. He suggested that a United Front be formed in collaboration with Red Army. But Chiang completely denied his proposal and he was imprisoned by his own soldiers. The increasing power of Mao Zedong worried Chiang-Kai-shek. He was not interested in working with him.
Even then he came with Mao in the war against Japan. After the end of war, Mao put the proposal of coalition government before Chiang but he declined. Mao continued his struggle and was elected the chairman of the Chinese Government. Chiang Kai-shek was worried about increasing power of Mao Zedong. After many persuasions he became ready to stand by Mao against Japan. In 1949, Chiang fled to Formosa to seek asylum. Mao was elected the Chairman of the Chinese Government. He held his office till his death.
How did the Industrial Revolution in England affect India’s economy? 
What sort of reforms through laws were made by the British government to improve the condition of workers? 
Industrial Revolution in England became the main cause of poverty in India. As India was a colony of England, it hit the Indian economy adversely. Due to the Industrial Revolution in England India’s economy was affected in the following ways:
(i) The Industrial Revolution enabled England to produce more goods than needed there. Indian markets were flooded with the machine made goods from England. In this way, India became a big consumer of the English goods.
(ii) The Industrial Revolution in England threw the Indian artisans and handicrafts men out of job. As a result, small industries of India collapsed.
(iii) The British Government forced the Indian farmers to sell their raw materials at cheap rates to the British factory owners. The policy of exploiting the Indian economy for the benefit of the British capitalist was the direct consequence of the Industrial Revolution on India’s economy.
(iv) The unemployed artisans again became the farm labourers. They became a burden on the Indian agriculture. In this way, within very short-time, India became a poor country where agriculture was the only occupation of the people.
(v) Before the Industrial Revolution, India was the major producer of cotton, woollen and silken clothes. Now India suffered a severe setback in these industries. Clothes made by the British mills were cheaper than the Indian clothes.
(vi) The Indian goods could not compete with the British goods. The British Government in India
imposed heavy duties on the Indian goods and discouraged the Indian craftsmen in many ways so that they could never think of competing with the British goods.
The reforms through laws made by the British government were as follows:
(i) Act of 1819:
In 1819, laws were passed. It prohibited the employment of children under the age of nine in factories. It limited the hours of work of those between the age of 9 and 16 to 12 hours a day.
(ii) Act of 1833:
Under the Act of 1833, children under the age of nine were permitted to be employed only in silk factories. This act also limited the hours of work for older children. A number of Factory Inspectors Act were also employed to ensure that the Act was enforced.
(iii) Ten Hours Bill:
In 1847, the Ten Hours Bill was passed. This bill limited the hours of work for women and children and secured a ten-hour day for male workers.
(iv) The Mines Commission of 1842:
The Mines Commission was set up in 1842. This commission revealed that working conditions in mines had become worst, because more children had been put to work in coal mines.
(v) The Mines and Collieries Act of 1842:
The Mines and Collieries Act of 1842 banned children under ten and women from working in underground mines.
(vi) Fielder’s Factory Act of 1847:
In this act, it was laid down that children under eighteen and women should not work more than ten hour a day.
Section – C
Case Based Question (4 x 2 = 8)
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow: [1+1+2 = 4]
Much of the writings of the Greeks and Romans had been familiar to monks and clergymen through the ‘Middle Ages’, but they had not made these widely known. In the fourteenth century, many scholars began to read translated works of Greek writers like Plato and Aristotle. For this they were indebted not to their own scholars but to Arab translators who had carefully preserved and translated ancient manuscripts (Plato was Aflatun, and Aristotle Aristu in Arabic).
While some European scholars read Greek in Arabic translation, the Greeks translated works of Arabic and Persian scholars for further transmission to other Europeans. These were works on natural science, mathematics, astronomy, medicine and chemistry. Ptolemy’s Almagest (a work on astronomy, written in Greek before 140 CE and later translated into Arabic) carries the Arabic definite article ‘al’, which brings out the Arabic connection. Among the Muslim writers who were regarded as men of wisdom in the Italian world were Ibn Sina (‘Avicenna’ in Latin, 980 – 1037), an Arab physician and philosopher of Bukhara in Central Asia, and al-Razi (‘Rhazes’), author of a medical encyclopaedia.
Ibn Rushd (‘Averroes’ in Latin, 1126 – 98), an Arab philosopher of Spain, tried to resolve the tension between philosophical knowledge (faylasuf) and religious beliefs. His method was adopted by Christian thinkers. Humanists reached out to people in a variety of ways. Though, the curricula in universities continued to be dominated by law, medicine and theology, humanist subjects slowly began to be introduced in schools, not just in Italy but in other European countries as well.
Among the Muslim writers who was regarded as the man of wisdom ? 
Among the Muslim writers Ibn Sina and A1 Razi were regarded as men of wisdom.
Who was the author of the medical encyclopaedia? 
Ibn Sina an Arab physician and philosopher of Bukhara in Central Asia, and Al-Razi, were the authors of the medical encyclopedia.
What is Ptolemy’s Almagest all about? 
Ptolemy’s Almagest is a 2nd – century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. It is also a key source of information about ancient Greek astronomy.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow: [1+1+2 = 4]
As in the Americas, human habitation in Australia has a long history. The ‘aborigines’ (a general name given to a number of different societies) began to arrive on the continent over 40,000 years ago (possibly even earlier). They came from New Guinea, which was connected to Australia by a land-bridge. In the natives’ traditions, they did not come to Australia, but had always been there. The past centuries were called the ‘Dreamtime’ – something difficult for Europeans to understand, since the distinction between past and present is blurred. In the late eighteenth century, there were between 350 and 750 native communities in Australia each with its own language (even today 200 of these languages are spoken). There is another large group of indigenous people living in the north, called the Torres Strait Islanders.
The term ‘Aborigine’ is not used for these as they are believed to have migrated from elsewhere and belong to a different race. Together, they make up 2.4 per cent of Australia’s population in 2005. Australia is sparsely populated, and even now most of the towns are along the coast (where the British first arrived in 1770) because the central region is arid desert. The story of the interaction between the European settlers, the native peoples and the land in Australia has many points of similarity to the story of the Americas, though it began nearly 300 years later. Initial reports from Captain Cook and his crew about encounters with natives are enthusiastic about their friendliness. There was a sharp reversal of feeling on the part of the British when Cook was killed by a native – not in Australia, but in Hawaii. As often happened, a single incident of this nature was used by colonisers to justify subsequent acts of violence towards other people.
They did not foresee that in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries nearly 90 per cent of them would die by exposure to germs, by the loss of their lands and resources, and in battles against the settlers. The experiment of settling Brazil with Portuguese convicts had been abandoned when their violent behaviour provoked angry reprisals from the natives. The British had adopted the same practice in the American colonies until they became independent. Then they continued it in Australia. Most of the early settlers were convicts who had been deported from England and, when their jail term ended, were allowed to live as free people in Australia on condition that they did not return to Britain. With no recourse but to make a life for themselves in this land so different from their own, they felt no hesitation about ejecting natives from land they took over for cultivation.
Who were the Aborigines? 
he aborigines are Australia’s indigenous people.
Who were Torres Strait Islanders? 
Torres Strait Islanders were indigenous people living in the north of the Australian continent.
Who were the early setters of Australia? 
Most of the early settlers were convicts who had been deported from England and when their jail term ended, were allowed to live as free people in Australia on condition that they would not return to Britain.
Section – D
Map Based Question (1 + 1 = 2)
On the given outline map of East Asia, locate and label ANY ONE of the following with appropriate symbol.
(I) Sun Yat-sen unanimously regarded as the founder of modern version of this country.
(II) This country had been a Japanese colony since the Chinese ceded it after the 1894-95 war.
(III) On the same map of East Asia, A is a country which became a member of United Nations in the year 1956. A. Identify it and write its name.