Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 6 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography Term 2 Set 6 with Solutions
Time Allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 35
Roll No. ___________
- Question paper is divided into 5 sections A, B, C, D & E
- In section A, question number 1 to 3 are Very Short Answer type questions. Attempt any 3 questions.
- In section B, question number 4 is Source based question.
- In section C, question number 5 & 6 are Short Answer type questions.
- In section D, question number 7 to 9 are Long Answer type questions.
- In section E, question number 10 is a Map based question.
Section – A
Very Short Answer Questions
Why is iron and steel industry also known as basic industry? (2)
Secondary activities are concerned with manufacturing processing and construction (infrastructure) industries. What does the process of manufacturing entail?
The iron and steel industry forms the base of all other industries and, therefore, it is called a basic industry. It provides raw material for other industries such as machine tools used for further production. It may also be called a heavy industry because it uses large quantities of bulky raw materials and its products are also heavy.
Manufacturing involves a full array of production from handicrafts to moulding iron and steel and stamping out plastic toys to assembling delicate computer components or space vehicles. In each of these processes, the common characteristics are the application of power, mass production of identical products and specialised labour in factory settings for the production of standardised commodities. Manufacturing may be done with modern power and machinery or it may still be very primitive.
What role does climate play to attract tourists to a region? (2)
Climate plays an important role to attract tourists to a region. Most people from colder regions expect to have warm, sunny weather for beach holidays. This is one of the main reasons for the importance of tourism in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean lands. People taking winter holidays have specific climatic requirements, either higher temperatures than their own homelands, or snow cover suitable for skiing.
State about network, node and link. (2)
As transport systems develop, different places are linked together to form a network. Networks are made up of nodes and links. A node is the meeting point of two or more routes, a point of origin, a point of destination or any sizeable town along a route. Every road that joins two nodes is called a link. A developed network has many links, which means that places are well-connected.
Section – B
Source Based Question
Read the source given below and answer the following questions by choosing the correct option.
Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways since time immemorial Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers. The development of inland waterways is dependent on the navigability width and depth of the channel, continuity in the water flow, and transport technology in use. Rivers are the only means of transport in dense forests. Very heavy cargo like coal, cement, timber and metallic ores can be transported through inland waterways.
In ancient times, riverways were the main highways of transportation as in India. But they lost importance because of competition from railways, lack of water due to diversion for irrigation, and their poor maintenance. The significance of rivers as inland waterways for domestic and international transport and trade has been recognised throughout the developed world.
Despite inherent limitations, many rivers have been modified to enhance their navigability by dredging, stabilising river banks, and building dams and barrages for regulating the flow of water. The following river waterways are some of the world’s important highways of commerce. The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands.
It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland. Ocean-going vessels can reach up to Cologne. The Ruhr River joins the Rhine from the east. It flows through a rich coalfield and the whole basin has become a prosperous manufacturing area. Dusseldorf is the Rhine port for this region.
i. What is the result of lack of navigable waters and development of other means of transport? (1)
The lack of navigable waters and development of other means of transport is resulted in decrease in waterway transport.
ii. How can we improve water way navigability? (1)
We can improve waterway navigability through desiltation by dredging, stabilising water banks and raising water level by damming.
iii. What is the navigable length of Volga waterway for transport? (1)
The navigable length of Volga waterway for transport is 11,200 km.
Section – C
Short Answer Questions
Outline the distribution of petroleum resources in India. (3)
What are Non-conventional energy sources ? How do ocean currents contribute to such kind of energy?
Crude petroleum occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period. The distribution of petroleum resources in India is
- In Assam, Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran are important oil producing areas.
- The major oilfields of Gujarat are Ankaleshwar, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba and Lunej.
- Mumbai High in Maharashtra which lies 160 km off Mumbai was discovered in 1973 and production commenced in 1976.
- Oil and natural gas have been found in exploratory wells in Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin on the East coast.
Non-conventional energy sources refers to the renewable or non-exhaustible sources of energy. Conventional fuel sources, such as coal, petroleum, natural gas and nuclear energy use exhaustible raw materials. Non-conventional energy resources are the renewable and sustainable energy sources like solar, wind, hydrogeothermal and biomass.
These energy sources are more equitably distributed and environment-friendly. The energy sources will provide more sustained, eco-friendly cheaper energy after the initial cost is taken care of. Ocean currents are the store house of infinite energy. Tide and waves in the ocean comprises of potential, kinetic and thermal energy which can used to generate electricity.
Since, ocean currents are present globally and in inexhaustible amounts, they are also non-conventional energy sources, persistent efforts are being made to create a more efficient energy system from the ceaseless tidal waves and ocean current.
What does the Bharatmala scheme comprise of? (3)
The Bharatmala is a proposed umbrella scheme which includes
- Development of State roads along coastal border areas, including connectivity of non-major ports.
- Backward areas, religious and tourist places for connectivity programme.
- Setubharatam Pariyojana, which is for the consruction of about 1500 major bridges and 200 rail over bridges rail under bridges.
- District Headquarters connectivity Scheme for the development of about 9000 km newly declared National Highways. The programme is targeted for completion by 2022.
Section – D
Long Answer Questions
Elucidate the concept of ‘trading’ in tertiary sector of economy. (5)
Transport is an important tertiary activity. Explain.
Trading is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere and specifically intended for profit. The towns and cities where all these works take place are known us trading centres. The rise of trading from barter at the local level to money-exchange of international scale has produced many centres and institutions such as trading centres or collection and distribution points. They types of trading are
Retail Trading This is the business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumers. Most of the retail trading takes place in fixed establishments or stores solely devoted to selling. Street peddling, handcarts, trucks, door-to-door, mail-order, telephone, automatic vending machines and internet are examples of non-store retail trading.
Wholesale Trading It constitutes bulk business through numerous intermediary merchants and supply houses and not through retail stores. Some large stores including chain stores are able to buy directly from the manufacturers. However, most retail stores procure supplies from an intermediary source. Wholesalers often extend credit to retail stores to such an extent that the retailer operates very largely on the wholesaler’s capital.
Transport is a tertiary activity which is essential for a nation’s economy. It is a service by which people, materials and manufactured goods are physically carried from one location to another. It is an organised industry created to satisfy the basic need of mobility. Speedy and efficient transport systems assist in the production, distribution and consumption of goods in the modern developing societies, the value of the material is significantly enhanced by transportation In other words, final sale price of an item depends on the total transportation involved from manufacturing to sale point.
Transport distance can be measured as: kilometre distance or actual distance of route length; time distance or the time taken to travel on a particular route; and cost distance or the expense of travelling on a route. In selecting the mode of transport, distance, in terms of time or cost, is the determining factor.
Factors affecting demand for transport is influenced by the size of population. The larger the population size, the greater is the demand for transport. Some of the commonly used form of transport are roadways, railways and airways. They can vary in distance covered, cost and goods or manpower transported. Railways are the cheapest option to carry large amount of cargo over large distances, whereas airways are the fastest but usually expensive compared to road and railways transport.
Coal is a commonly used conventional energy source. State its main uses and distribution in India. (5)
Coal is a commonly used conventional energy source. It is an organic fossil fuel. It is an exhaustible source of energy. Its main uses are (i) Coal is used for generation of thermal power. (ii) Coal is used as an energy fuel and a reducing agent in iron smelting process. Coal is baked to produce coke which is a high energy source with minimal impurities. In India, coal is found in the rock sequences mainly of two geological ages, namely Gondwana and tertiary deposits. It distribution is
The most important Gondwana coal fields of India are located in Damodar Valley. The important coal fields in this region are Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura. Jharia is the largest coal field followed by Raniganj.
The most important coal mining centres are Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh (part of Singrauli coal field lies in Uttar Pradesh), Korba in Chhattisgarh, Talcher and Rampur in Odisha, Chanda-Wardha, Kamptee and Bander in Maharashtra and Singareni in Telangana and Pandur in Andhra Pradesh.
Tertiary coals occur in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. It is extracted from Darangiri, Cherrapunji, Mewlong and Langrin (Meghalaya); Makum, Jaipur and Nazira in upper Assam, Namchik – Namphuk (Arunachal Pradesh) and Kalakot (Jammu and Kashmir).
Nuclear energy is considered as an alternative and sustainable form of energy resource. How is nuclear energy generated and state its distribution in India? (5)
Nuclear energy is considered as an alternative and sustainable form of energy resource. It is produced by generation of steam from heat generated during the fission process. Two important minerals used as raw materials for the generation of nuclear energy are uranium and thorium.
The steam is used to move turbines which produces electricity. The fission process results in splitting of atom into smaller atoms. The fission process takes place inside a reactor in a nuclear power plant. The fuel, uranium or thorium is placed at the core of the reactor. Nuclear energy is considered sustainable because it doesn’t burn fossil fuel and hence don’t produce greenhouse gases or any other pollutants. The distribution of uranium and thorium is
Geographically, uranium ores are known to occur in several locations along the Singhbhum Copper belt. It is also found in Udaipur, Alwar and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, Durg district of Chhattisgarh, Bhandara district of Maharashtra and Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh.
Thorium is mainly obtained from monazite and ilmenite in the beach sands along the coast of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. World’s richest monazite deposits occur in Palakkad and Kollam districts of Kerala, near Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh and Mahanadi river delta in Odisha.
Section – E
Map Based Question
On the political map of the world, identify the places (Attempt any 5). (1 × 5 = 5)
A. An inland waterway
B. A major airport
C. A major seaport
D. Western Terminal Station of Trans-Canadian Railway
E. An international airport
F. A canal