Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 1 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- This Question paper is divided into four sections-Section A, B, C and D.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Section-A: Question no. 1 to 4 are Short Answer type questions of 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
- Section-B: Question no. 5 to 7 are Long Answer type questions, carrying 6 marks. Answer to this question should not exceed 150-200 words.
- Section-C: Question no. 8 and 9 are Case Based questions, carrying 4 marks each with subparts.
- Section-D: Question no. 10 is map based, carrying 2 marks.
- There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been
provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
- In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Section – A
Short Answer Questions
How did Akbar Nama help us to construct the history of Akbar’s reign ? (3)
How did Mughal painting in the 17th century initiate a vibrant visual culture to fulfil imperial political and cultural needs?
The Akbar Nama helped today’s historians to construct the history of Akbar’s reign. The book gives a detailed description of Akbar’s reign giving a synchronic picture of all aspects of Akbar’s empire geographic, social administrative and cultural without reference to chronology.
The Akbar Nama is an official chronicle of the reign of Akbar the third Mughal monarch who instructed his court historian and biographer Abu’l Fazl to pen it down in a book.
The chronicle is based on a range of sources, including actual records of events (waqai), official documents and oral testimonies of knowledgeable persons. It depicts paintings of battles, sieges,building constructions court scenes etc. Akbar Nama is divided into three books.
The first volume contains history of mankind from Adam to the one celestial cycle of Akbar’s life (30 years). The second volume closes on the 46th regnal year of Akbar. The third book Ain I Akbari( Administration of Akbar) is a detailed document recording the administration of Mughal empire under Akbar.
Evidences that show that Mughal painting in the 17th century initiate a vibrant visual culture to fulfil imperial political and cultural needs are
- Chronicles narrating the events of Mughal emperors reign contained images that described the event in visual form.
- They enhanced the beauty of the book. Abu’l Fazl describes it as magical art.
- Paintings potrayed emperor ,his court and people who were part of it.
- In paintings number of symbols were created for visual representation of the idea of justice which came to stand for the highest virtue of Mughal monarchy. One of the favourite symbols was Motif of Lion and Goat peacefully nestling next to each other. This stated that both the weak and strong existed in harmony in Akbar’s realm.
- Badshah Nama depicts motifs in a niche directly below the emperor’s throne.
Explain the observations of Francis Buchannan that helped the East India Company. (3)
Francis Buchannan’s observations helped East India Company in expanding its trade in India. The record left by Francis Buchannan is the last first hand written account of pre- colonial South India.
Observations made by Francis Buchannan that helped East India Company are
(i) His work is a travelogue but deeply scientific in approach. It has maps, tables, line diagrams, photograph’s depicting lives of people.
(ii) He was an employee of British East India Company, he served as a surgeon for Governor General Wellesley. He searched for minerals stones that were commercially valuable. He recorded all signs of iron ore, mica, granite and saltpetre.
(iii) He also made references to local practices of salt making and iron coal mining. He travelled through the Rajmahal hills.
(iv) Interesting facts have been given by him on the lifestyle of forest dwellers and felt forests should be turned into agricultural lands. He gives glimpses of hill folk in the early 19th century.
(v) His journal was written as a diary of places he visited, people he encountered and practices he saw.
Why is the revolt of 1857 called the First War of Independence?
The revolt of 1857 was an unprecedented event in the history of British rule in India. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar termed the 1857 revolt as the First War of Independence. Reasons of considering the Revolt of 1857 as the first war of independence are:
(i) It united though in a limited way many sections of Indian society for common cause.
(ii) It was the first time that the entire nation irrespective of the caste creed race and religion had come together and staged an armed protest against the Britisher’s to gain independence from the colonial rule.
(iii) It led to the dissolution of the East India Company.
(iv) It was not a sudden occurrence but a culmination of a century old long resistance to the British rule and a whole world of nationalist imagination was woven around the revolt.
(v) It was celebrated as the First War of Independence in which all sections of people of India came together against the imperial rule. Though, the revolt failed to achieve its desired goal but it sowed the seeds of Indian Nationalism.
What was the rationale behind selection of salt as a mode of protest in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
The main rationale behind the Salt Satyagraha was that salt tax imposed by the British government was very high it was fourteen times its value which was a necessity item.
The selection of salt as a main mode of protest by Gandhi in the Civil Disobedience Movement was done to make it a Mass Nationalist Movement. Civil Disobedience Movement was an active, professed refusal of the citizens of British India to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of the government.
It began with the famous Dandi March of Gandhi on 12th March, 1930. The program of Civil Disobedience Movement included defiance of salt laws passed by the British government, bycott of liquor and bycott of foreign cloth and varieties of British products.
The Salt Satyagraha was the main part of the Civil Disobedience Movement. It depicted an unfair trade practice by the Britishers towards Indians. Secondly, the entire population could associate with the cause as salt was used by everyone. Salt was a natural property and monopolisation by the Britishers deprived the Indians of their valuable village industry.
Section – B
Long Answer Questions
Explain the distinctive features of Mughal Nobility. (8)
Nobility was an important pillar of Mughal administration. It was the corps of officers for the empire.
Distinctive features of the Nobility under the Mughal rule in India
(i) The nobility was recruited in the Mughal administration from diverse ethnic groups. This ensured that there was no faction large enough to challenge the emperor. Akbar personally reviewed their rank, titles and postings.
(ii) It was heterogeneous in nature composed of diverse, ethnic and religious groups. It included the Turanis, Iranis, Rajputs and Indian Muslims.
(iii) They nobility were also called Mansabdars. They held Mansabs which comprised of two ranks, the Zat and the Sawar rank.
(iv) They were entitled to maintain a large retinue of armed forces which when the emperor required had to participate in the military campaigns. The nobility stationed at the court were trated as a reserve force.
(v) People who excelled in education or accountancy were also included in the ranks of nobility.
(vi) Iranis prospered in Nurjahan’s indirect government under Jahangir’s regime. Under Aurangzeb reign in the early years Rajputs were given high positions to solve the Deccan problem.
During the 18th century, the character of nobility deterioted and ceased to discharge their duties, they were more keen in self interests which led the Mughal empire into bitter civil wars confusion and anarchy finally leading to the collapse of the Mughal empire.
What were the different types of sources from which political role of Gandhi and the history of nationalist movement can be reconstructed? (8)
Differentiate between the Non Co-operation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement.
There are different kinds of sources used by historians to construct a true picture of events that happened in India during the Indian nationalist movement. The main sources are
1. The speeches and writings of Gandhi and other nationalist leaders. They were a public voice of the nationalist leaders.
2. Letters were also an important source. These included individual and private letters about his thoughts and beliefs. They gave important information about the ideas on various events.
3. Autobiographies were also an important source of information about the Nationalist movement as they were retrospective accounts written very often from memory.
4. Government records were also an important source of information. Colonial rulers maintained records about events of the people and leaders who were a critical of the government. These include reports and letters kept in archives.
5. Newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, etc. were also an important source of information. They gave information about movements, policies, beliefs and thoughts of nationalist leaders.
The differences between the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience
|Non Cooperation Movement||Civil Disobedience Movement|
|The Non cooperation Movement was launched on 4th September, 1920. It United the Hindus and Muslims to attain Swaraj.||Civil Disobedience Movement was introduced to attain Puma Swaraj or complete independence from the British rule in India.|
|Non Co-operation Movement||Civil Disobedience Movement|
|Non-cooperation Movement aimed at not cooperating with the British Government.||Civil Disobedience Movement aimed at breaking certain laws like the Salt Law.|
|Non-cooperation Movement urged the masses to surrender titles and boycott British goods.||In Civil Disobedience Movement, people were urged not to pay certain taxes.|
|In Non-cooperation Movement, women did not participate on large scale.||In Civil Disobedience Movement, participation of women was at a large scale.|
|Non-cooperation Movement, was restricted to certain areas.||Civil Disobedience Movement witnessed large scale geographical coverage.|
|Non-cooperation Movement was withdrawn due to violence at Chauri- Chaura.||Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn by the passing of Gandhi- Irwin Pact.|
What historical forces shaped the vision of the Constitution? (6)
How is the term minority defined by different groups?
The historical forces that shaped the vision of the Constitution are Nehru in his famous speech made references of the American revolution and the French revolution thus linking the making of the Indian Constitution with the revolutionary movements of the past. But at the same time he insisted it not to be a copy of the past but one should learn from Western experiments achievements and failures.
(i) Nehru insisted that the will of the people was important thus the Constituent Assembly was expected to represent the will of the masses.
(ii) The Constitution was prepared keeping in mind that India was a country of diverse ethnic groups of population.
(iii) Provisions were in cooperated in the Constitution to keep in mind the interests of the minorities and depressed classes.
(iv) To prevent riots and violence which was seen in the past more powers were given to the centre.
(v) There were more than five hundred princely states to accommodate them a federal system of government was introduced.
Minority is a culturally, ethnically, or racially distinct group that co exists with but subordinate to a more dominant group. The term minority has been described by different groups in different ways
(i) NG Ranga, a socialist has described minority to be interpreted in economic terms. A supporter of peasant movements in India emphasised the poor and downtrodden as minority.
(ii) Jaipal Singh, an Adivasi believed that minority should be based on the basis of its numerical strength in a country. According to him, they needed protection and are often neglected. Usually treated as backward and primitive they are disgracefully treated.
(iii) Dakshayani Velayudhan was against the idea of considering harijan as a minority as their numerical strength exceeded seventy million. They should be given privileges to remove disabilities but not to be considered a minority community.
(iv) J Nagappa pointed out that numerically the depressed castes were not a minority as they constituted twenty to twenty five percent of the total population. According to him, they suffered due to their systematic marginalisation.
Section – C
Source Based Questions
Read the source given below and answer the following questions.
Mahatma Gandhi was profoundly critical of the modem age in which machines enslaved humans and displaced labour. He saw the Charkha as a symbol of a human society that would not glorify machines and technology. The spinning wheel, more over, could provide the poor with supplementary income and make them self-reliant. What I object to, is the craze for machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labour saving machinery.
Men go on “saving labour”, till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation. I want to save me and labour, not for a fraction of mankind, but for all; I want the concentration of wealth, not in the hands of few, but in the hands of all. Young India, 13th November, 1924 Khaddar does not seek to destroy all machinery but it does regulate its use and check its weedy growth. It uses machinery for the service of the poorest in their own – cottages. The wheel is itself an exquisite piece of machinery.
Young India, 17th March, 1927.
Khaddar does not seek to destroy all machinery but it does regulate its use and check its weedy growth. It uses machinery for the service of the poorest in their own cottages. The wheel is itself an exquisite piece of machinery.
Young India, 17th March, 1927 :
(i) Which idea was propagated by Mahatma Gandhi through Young India? (1)
(ii) Mention the impact of British industrial goods that were sold in India. (1)
(iii) What is the importance of Charkha, mentioned by Gandhiji? (2)
(i) Gandhiji propagated the idea of Satyagraha and Non-violence through Young India.
(ii) British industrial goods resulted in the concentration of wealth in the hands of few people.
(iii) Importance of Charkha is
- Charkha was introduced to propagate self reliant society.
- It was introduced to diminish the importance of machines and technology.
Read the source given below and answer the following questions.
“I Believe Separate Electorates will be Suicidal to the Minorities” During the debate on 27th August, 1947, Govind Ballabh Pant said I believe separate electorates will be suicidal to the minorities and will do them tremendous harm. If they are isolated forever, they can never convert themselves into a majority and the feeling of frustrations will cripple them even from the very beginning. What is that you desire arid what is our ultimate objective? Do the minorities always want to remain as minorities or do they ever expect to form an integral part of a great nation and as such to guide and control its destinies?
If they do can they ever achieve that aspiration and that ideal if they are isolated from the rest of the community? I think it would be extremely dangerous for them if they were segregated from the rest of the community and kept aloof in an air-tight compartment where they would have to rely on others even for the air they breathe. The minorities if they are returned by separate electorates can never have any effective voice.
(i) Why were some Muslims like Begum Aizaz Rasul was against separate electorate?
(ii) What are separate electorates? (1)
(iii) Why did GB Pant feel separate electorate would be suicidal for the minorities? (2)
(i) Begum Aizaz Rasul was against separate electorate as she felt that separate electorates were self-destructive.
(ii) Separate electorates are that type of elections in which some minorities select their own representative separately.
(iii) GB Pant felt that separate electorate will be suicidal for minorities because
- It would be difficult for minorities to become an integral part of a Nation.
- Minorities could never have an effective voice.
Map Based Question
(i) Identify the centre of British territory under British control in 1857 on the given political map of India marked as A. (1)
(ii) On the same outline map locate any one of the given below territory under British control in 1857 on the map of India. (1)
(a) Awadh Or