Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 10 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Term 2 Set 10 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- This Question paper is divided into four sections-Section A, B, C and D.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Section-A: Question no. 1 to 4 are Short Answer type questions of 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
- Section-B: Question no. 5 to 7 are Long Answer type questions, carrying 6 marks. Answer to this question should not exceed 150-200 words.
- Section-C: Question no. 8 and 9 are Case Based questions, carrying 4 marks each with subparts.
- Section-D: Question no. 10 is map based, carrying 2 marks.
- There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been
provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
- In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Section – A
Short Answer Questions
The capital of the Mughal empire shifted from one place to another under each monarch. Explain. (3)
Explain the roles of the following officers in the Mughal administration.
(i) Waqia Navis
(ii) Mir Bakshi
(v) Diwan-i ala
The heart of the Mughal empire was its capital city where the court assembled. The capital cities shifted frequently during 16th and 17th centuries. Babur took over the Lodi capital of Agra. In 1560, Akbar constructed a fort in Agra with red sand stone. The shifting of capital started with Akbar.
In 1570, Akbar decided to build a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri. In 1585 the capital was transferred to Lahore to bring the North-West under control and Akbar closely watched the frontier for thirteen years.
Capital was shifted under Shah Jahan again. In 1648 the court, army and household of Shah Jahan moved from Agra to the newly completed imperial capital Shahjahanabad. It was a new addition to the old residential duty in Delhi with the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, a three line esplanade with Bazaars (Chandni Chowk) and spadous homes for the nobility. His new city was appropriate to a formal vision of grand monarchy.
(i) Waqia Navis They were court writers who rewarded all applications and documents presented to the court and all the imperial orders (farmans).
(ii) Mir Bakshi He was the payment’s general who stood in open court on the right of the emperor and prevented all candidates for appointment or promotion, while his office prepared orders bearing his seal and signature as well as those of the emperor.
(iii) Wakil They were agent of nobles and regional rulers rewarded the entire proceedings of the court under the heading ‘News from Exhalted Court’ (Akhbarat-i- Darbar-i-Maulla) with the date and time of the court session (pahar).
(iv) Qasid They were also called pathmar. They carried paper’s rolled up in bamboo containers. The emperor received reports from even distant provincial capitals within a few days.
(v) Diwan-i ala He was also an important officer of the state. He was the finance minister handling the finances of the state.
(vi) Sadr-us sadur He was the minister of grant or Madad-i-maash. He was in charge of appointing local judges or qazi’s.
Explain the Khilafat Movement. What demands were made by the proponents of the Khilafat Movement? (3)
The Khilafat Movement (1919-1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Ali brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. It emerged as a result of dismemberment of Turkey by the British. It sought to restore the Caliphate, a symbol of Pan-Islamism which had recently been abolished by the Turkish ruler Kemal Ataturk.
The Congress supported the movement and Mahatma Gandhi sought to combine it to the Non-cooperation Movement. Following demands were made by the proponents of the Khilafat Movement
- The Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire.
- The Jazirat-ul-Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under Muslim sovereignty only.
- The Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to enable them to defend the Islamic fait
What was Damin-i-koh? How it came into being? (3)
Damin-i-koh was the name given to the forested hilly areas of Rajmahal hills in present day Jharkhand state. This area was demarcated as land of Santhal and they were persuaded to carry out settled agriculture in this area. After carrying out survey and mapping of the area it was declared as Damin – i – koh in 1832.
Britishers created Damin-i-koh to serve their two fold purpose. They were
(i) After introduction of permanent settlement they wanted expansion of agricultural activities which can increase their land revenue collection.
(ii) They also wanted to drove out paharias who were constantly raiding the nearby plain settlements. Thus, demarcation of separate area for Santhal led to the clearing of forest and migration of Santhal from various regions of Eastern Indian to this region.
Give a detailed description on making of Indian Constitution. (3)
Constitution of India was the result of more than 3 years of debate, discussion and deliberation among nationalist leaders and constitutional experts. This culminated into making of lengthiest written constitution of the world.
Following points gives an account of making of Indian Constitution
(i) It was drafted by the Constituent Assembly of India, which was formed under the provisions of Cabinet Mission Plan of May, 1946.
(ii) The members of the assembly were elected through existing provincial legislature for which elections was held in 1946. It also comprised representatives from princely states.
(iii) The Muslim League chose to boycott the Constituent Assembly pressing its demand for Pakistan with a separate Constitution. Hence, 82% of the members of the Constituent Assembly were also the members of the Congress.
(iv) Under the Presidentship of Rajendra Prasad, the assembly created many important committees for focused deliberations on specific features of constitution. Constitutional experts and eminent public figures were also invited in Constitution making process.
(v) Public opinion also influenced the Constitution making process of India. The linguistic minorities demanded protection to their mother tongue while religious minorities also asked for special safeguards.
(vi) Under the Chairmanship of BR Ambedkar, the Drafting Committee studied more than 50 Constitutions of various countries and incorporated several features from these Constitution such as Preamble and Fundamental Rights from Constitution of USA.
(vii) It was ratified by the Constitutional Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and it came into effect from 26th January, 1950.
Section – B
Long Answer Questions
Discuss about the Non-cooperation Movement and also discuss contribution of Non-cooperation Movement to India’s freedom struggle. Why did Gandhiji couple Non-cooperation Movement with Khilafat Movement? (6)
Explain the beginning of the Dandi March. What is its significance in the history of the Indian National Movement?
Non-cooperation Movement : The Non-cooperation Movement was the first mass based political movement under Mahatma Gandhi. Indians who wished colonialism to end were asked to stop attending schools, colleges, law courts and pay no taxes. Indians were asked to adhere to a renunciation of all voluntary associations with the British Government.
In 1920, at the Congress Session at Nagpur, the Non-cooperation programme was adopted.
The movement started with middle class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government controlled schools, colleges, teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practices. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign clothes were burnt.
The import of foreign clothes halved between 1921 to 1922. As the movement spread, people began rejecting imported clothes and started wearing only Indian clothes.
Contribution of Non-cooperation in Struggle of Freedom
As a consequence of the Non-cooperation Movement, the British Raj was shaken to its foundations for the first time since the Revolt of 1857. By 1922, Gandhiji had transformed Indian Nationalism into a Mass Movement which was the greatest contribution of this movement. It was no longer a movement of professionals and intellectuals, now hundreds 1
of thousands of peasants, workers and artisans also participated in it.
The common men of India referred Gandhi as their ‘Mahatma’ who. dressed like them, lived like them and spoke their language and gradually became united against the British Raj under the leadership of Gandhiji. In this way, the Non-cooperation Movement changed the way of Indian nationalism.
Coupling of Non-cooperation with Khilafat
The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a pan-Islamic political protest launched by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims and Hindus under one roof i.e. the Indian National Movement. Therefore, he coupled Non-Cooperation with Khilafat.
Mahatma Gandhi announced in January, 1930 that he would began a march to break one of the most widely disliked laws in British India. The law which gave the state a monopoly in the manufacture and sale of Salt. This march is known as Dandi March.
The movement was started with famous Dandi March on 12th March, 1930. Gandhiji along with 78 of his followers began his foot march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on a seashore in Surat district, about 375 Ion away from Sabarmati Ashram.
The violation of Salt law by Gandhiji was a signal of the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement. Soon, this movement spread like wildfire through the length and breadth of the country.
Significance of Dandi March in the history of the freedom struggle of India is
(i) This march made Gandhiji a centre of attraction of the whole of the world. The European press and the American press published detailed accounts of the Salt March conducted by Gandhiji.
(ii) Undoubtedly, it was the first National movement in which women participated in large numbers. Kamala Devi Chattopadhyay, the renowned socialist worker advised Gandhiji not to keep the movement limited to men-folk only. A large number of women along with Kamala Devi violated the Salt and Liquor laws and courted arrest collectively.
(iii) As a result of the Salt Movement, the colonial rulers understood it clearly that their authority was not going to remain permanent in India and now they will have to give some participation to the Indians in power.
(iv) The Salt March, brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention. It was widely covered by the European and American press, which brought sympathy for Indian national movement. The Britishers were pressurised to bring out reform in administration.
What were the concerns that shaped the Mughal policies and attitudes towards region outside the subcontinent? (6)
Describe in detail about the egalitarian nature of Mughal nobility and also explain how its served an useful function for administration of the empire.
The concerns that shaped the Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the sub continent can be understood through the accounts of diplomatic relationships and conflicts with neighbouring political powers. These showed some tension and political opposition arising from competing regional interests. These accounts are.
(i) Relations between Safavids and Mughals The political and diplomatic relations between the Mughal kings and the neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan depended on the control of the boundary marked by the Hindukush mountains.
The Safavids and the Mughals had a continuous disagreement over Qandahar. The fortress had initially been under the control of Humayun, which was reconquered by Akbar in 1595, though the Safavid court maintained diplomatic relations with the Mughals, it continued to make claims to Qandahar.
Jahangir sent a diplomatic representative to the court of Shah Abbas in 1613, to plead the Mughal case for holding Qandahar under its control, but this mission failed. In the winter of 1622, a Persian army surrounded Qandahar and defeated Mughal troops present in the fortress town. They had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.
(ii) Relations between Mughals and Ottomans: The relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans was based on the concern to ensure free movement for merchants and pilgrims in the territories under Ottoman control.
This was more true for the Hijaz, that part of Ottoman Arabia where the important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located. The Mughal emperor usually combined religion and commerce by exporting valuable goods to Aden and Mokha, both Red Sea ports, and distributing the profits of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and religious men present there.
When Aurangzeb found out about corruption involved in funds sent to Arabia, he favoured their distribution in India itself because he thought, India was as much a house of God as Mecca.
Nobility included the corps of officer who were appointed to serve various functions related with administration of the empire. The following points illustrate the egalitarian nature of Mughal nobility
(i) In Akbar’s imperial service, Turani and Iranian nobles were present from the earliest phase of carving out a political dominion. Many among them had accompanied Humayun and others migrated later to the Mughal court.
(ii) From 1560 onwards, the Rajputs and Indian Muslim entered the imperial service. The acceptance of emperor’s suzerainty and marriage alliances cemmented the position of Rajputs in Mughal nobility.
(iii) The members of Hindu castes inclined towards education and accountancy were
also promoted. For instance, the finance minister of Akbar, Raja Todarmal was from Khatri caste.
(iv) Iranians gained high offices under Jahangir, whose politically influential queen, Nur Jahan was an Iranian. Later, Aurangzeb also appointed Rajputs to high positions and under him the Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officers.
(v) The Char Chaman (Four Gardens) written by Chandrabhan Barahman also point towards the fact that Mughal nobility was also comprised of people from different regions of India such as Karnataka, Bengal, Assam, Udaipur, Srinagar and Kumaon.
This egalitarian nature of Mughal nobility played significant role in consolidation and administration of the empire in the following ways
(i) It performed an effective function of check and balance, as it ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state.
(ii) The selection of people in administration from diverse ethnic, religious and regional background also played significant role in balancing the aspiration and sentiments of the people.
(iii) It created mutual competition among different faction of nobility to get more privileges from the emperor which helped in better administration of provinces.
(iv) These nobles were appointed in hierarchial position in charge of different aspect of governance which was also supplemented by effective network of spies, it ensured effective check on misappropriation and corruption.
The Revolt of 1857 was the effect of the rumours. Explain the causes of the revolt and the shaking of the values by the revolt. (6)
- The Fifth Report discusses the nature of East India Company’s rule in India and this was submitted to the British Parliament.
- The auction of land of the zamindars that was not mentioned in the Fifth Report was Jhansi.
- Fifth Report became the basis of intense parliamentary debates. The clause of Fifth Report consisted of petitions of zamindars and ryots and also reports of collection from different districts.
Section – C
Source Based Questions
Read the source given below and answer the following questions.
From the Fifth Report
Referring to the condition of zamindars and the auction of lands, the Fifth Report stated: The revenue was not realised with punctuality, and lands to a considerable extent were periodically exposed to sale by auction.
In the native year 1203, corresponding with 1796-97, the land advertised for sale comprehended a jumma or assessment of sicca rupees 28,70,061, the extent of land actually sold bore a jumma or assessment of 14,18,756, and the amount of purchase money sicca rupees 17,90,416.
In 1204, corresponding with 1797-98, the land advertised was for sicca rupees 26,66,191, the quantity sold was for sicca rupees 22,74,076, and the purchase money sicca rupees 21,47,580. Among the defaulters were some of the oldest families of the country.
Such were the rajahs of Nuddea, Rajeshaye, Bishenpore (all districts of Bengal), … and others, the dismemberment of whose estates at the end of each succeeding year, threatened them with poverty and ruin, and in some instances presented difficulties to the revenue officers, in their efforts to preserve undiminished the amount of public assessment.
(i) What does the Fifth Report emphasise and where was it submitted? (1)
(ii) Which land was not mentioned in Fifth Report for auction? (1)
(iii) What did Fifth Report became basis of and what was its clause? (2)
(i) The Fifth Report discusses the nature of East India Company’s rule in India and this was submitted to the British Parliament.
(ii) The auction of land of the zamindars that was not mentioned in the Fifth Report was Jhansi.
(iii) Fifth Report became the basis of intense parliamentary debates.
The clause of Fifth Report consisted of petitions of zamindars and ryots and also reports of collection from different districts.
Read the source given below and answer the following questions.
The Azamgarh Proclamation, 25th August, 1857 Section III – Regarding Public Servants. It is not a secret thing, that under the British Government, natives employed in the civil and military services have little respect, low pay, and no manner of influence; and all the posts of dignity and emolument in both die departments are exclusively bestowed on Englishmen,…
Therefore, all the natives in the British service ought to be alive to their religion and interest, and abjuring their loyalty to the English, side with the Badshahi Government, and obtain salaries of 200 and 300 rupees a month for the present, and be entitled to high posts in the future. … Section IV – Regarding Artisans.
It is evident that the Europeans, by the introduction of English articles into India, have thrown the weavers, the cotton dressers, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the shoemakers, etc., out of employ, and have engrossed their occupations, so that every description of native artisan has been reduced to beggary.
But under the Badshahi Government the native artisans will exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajahs, and the rich; and this will no doubt ensure their prosperity. Therefore kings, the rajahs, and the rich; and this will no doubt ensure their prosperity. Therefore these artisans ought to renounce the English services
(i) How did the introduction of English affect the artisans? (1)
(ii) How would the condition of the artisans improve under the Badshahi Government? (1)
(iii) Why were the public servants dissatisfied with the British Government? (1)
(i) The effect on artisans was that they were deprived of their employment as the cheap machine made goods of Britain captured the Indian markets.
(ii) Under the Badshahi government, the condition of native artisans would improved as they would exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajas and the rich.
(iii) The public servants were dissatisfied with the British Government because
- Under the British Government, natives employed in the civil and military service had no respect.
- Their salaries were low and they had no power or influence so, they were dissatisfied with the British Government.
Section – D
Map Based Question
(i) Locate any one of the following areas on the political Map of India. (1)
(a) Agra Or
(ii) Identify the territory marked as A on the map given below which was under British control in 1857. (1)