Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 8 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 History Term 2 Set 8 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- This Question paper is divided into four sections-Section A, B, C and D.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Section-A: Question no. 1 to 4 are Short Answer type questions of 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
- Section-B: Question no. 5 to 7 are Long Answer type questions, carrying 6 marks. Answer to this question should not exceed 150-200 words.
- Section-C: Question no. 8 and 9 are Case Based questions, carrying 4 marks each with subparts.
- Section-D: Question no. 10 is map based, carrying 2 marks.
- There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been
provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions have to be attempted.
- In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Section – A
Short Answer Questions
Describe how Gulbadan Begum’s Humayun Nama gives important information about imperial household. (3)
Contribution of many people led to the completion of the chronicles in Mughal period. Explain.
Humayun Nama was written by Gulbadan Begum. The following points highlight Humayun Nama gives us the glimpse of the Mughal imperial household.
(i) In her work, she described in great detail the conflicts and tensions among the princes and kings in the imperial household.
(ii) She also wrote about important mediating role elderly women of the family played in resolving some of these conflicts.
(iii) In Humayun Nama, she had also given a vivid account of role of women in creating peaceful environment in the imperial household. Besides how the suggestions and advice of women were instrumental in shaping Mughal policies.
It is true that completion of chronicles or manuscripts in the Mughal period required the effort or contribution of many people. These included
- Paper Makers They prepared folios for the manuscript.
- Calligraphers Scribes or calligraphers copied the texts.
- Guilders They illuminated the pages of the manuscript.
- Painters They illustrated scenes from the text.
- Book Binders They gathered the individual folios and set them within ornamental covers.
What were the reasons behind keeping salt as a mode of protest in Civil Disobedience Movement? (3)
The reasons behind keeping salt as a mode of protest in Civil Disobedience Movement by Gandhiji were
- Salt tax was very high, it was fourteen time its value. It symbolised the unfair trade and economic policies of Britishers towards Indians.
- It was used by rich as well as common person alike hence everybody could easily be associated with it.
- Further, salt was a natural property and monopolisation of Britishers over salt manufacture and trade deprived the people of a valuable easy village industry.
Charkha was chosen as a symbol of nationalism in the Indian National Movement. Explain. (3)
Charkha was chosen as a symbol of nationalism because
(i) Dignity of Labour Charkha symbolised manual labour. Mahatma Gandhi always believed in the dignity of labour. He liked to work with his own hands only and he encouraged manual work.
(ii) Machines Enslave Human Beings Gandhiji opposed machines, as they enslave human beings. He adopted Charkha, as he wanted to glorify the dignity of manual labour and not of the machines and technology.
(iii) A Medium of Self-reliance Gandhiji believed that Charkha could make a man self-reliant, as it adds to his income.
(iv) Break the Boundaries of Caste System The act of spinning at Charkha wheel enabled Gandhiji to break the boundaries of traditional caste system. Gandhiji wanted to make Charkha as a symbol of nationalism.
How did the Constituent Assembly reflect the diversity of people of India and their opinions? (3)
The Constituent Assembly reflected the diversity of the people and their opinions in
the following ways
(i) Wide Range of View Points of Members : The Constituent Assembly had 300 members in all. These members held a wide range of views. Some were atheists and secular.
(ii) From Socialists to Capitalists Out of the members of the Constituent Assembly, some were socialists in their economic philosophy, while, others defended the right of capitalists.
(iii) From Different Caste and Religious Groups: Independent members of different castes and religious groups were also the members of the Constituent Assembly these were Maulana Azad, Frank Anthony and many more.
(iv) Questions from the Field of Law Law : experts also deliberated on matters involving as substantial question of law. The intense debates that took place within the Constituent Assembly reflected the diversity of opinions.
Section – B
Long Answer Questions
Chronicles play an important role in the understanding of Mughal rule in India. Explain. (6)
Chronicles play ah important role in understanding the Mughal rule in India in the following ways.
- They transmitted the vision of Mughal emperor through their dynastic histories. The Mughal kings commissioned the historians to write accounts.
- Chronicles presented continuous chronological record of events.
- They were an indespensible source of information for the historian who desires to understand the history of the Mughals.
- They were a repository of factual information about the institutions of the Mughal state.
- They give glimpse of imperial ideologies
- They were an important source for studying the empire and its court.
- They gave an account of the ruler’s rule for posterity.
Historians believe Gandhiji changed the way of Indian politics. Explain. (6)
Sources help to reconstruct the political career of Gandhiji and history of National Movement. How?
Gandhiji change the way of Indian politics in the following ways
(i) Mahatma Gandhi converted the National Movement into a Mass Movement Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the National Movement did not merely remain a movement of the intellectuals and the professionals. Thousands of farmers, labourers and artisans started participating in it. Hence, soon it became a mass movement.
(ii) Gandhiji Popularised the Simple Way of Living Gandhiji lived a simple life which was liked by the common people. He wore clothes like a poor farmer or a worker. His way of living was also like a common man. He believed in simplicity. All these inspired the common people.
(iii) Use of ‘Charkha’ to break Social Customs The charkha symbolised the importance of manual labours and also self-reliance. Gandhiji himself worked on the spinning wheel. He also inspired others to operate the spinning wheel. The job of spinning cotton helped Gandhiji to break the wall of distinction between mental and physical labour prevalent in the traditional caste system.
(iv) Participation of Women Moved by Gandhiji’s call, women began to participate in the National Movement. In urban areas, they came from high caste families and in rural areas, they came from rich peasant households. In this way, Gandhiji changed the way of Indian Politics.
A large number of sources are available which helps us to reconstruct the political career of Gandhiji and the history of National Movement. These source are
(i) Public Voice and Private Scripts The first important source is the writing and speeches of Mahatma Gandhi and his contemporaries including his associates and political adversaries. Speeches make us understand the public voice of an individual whereas private letter give a glimpse of his or her private thoughts.
Mahatma Gandhi used to publish the letters written to him in his journal, ‘Harijan’. Nehru also edited letters written to him during the national movement and published ‘A Bunch of Old Letters’.
(ii) Autobiography It give us an account of the past related to the person. They are often rich in human detail. But autobiographies are to be read and interpreted carefully as they are retrospective accounts written very often from memory.
Mahatma Gandhi’s autobiography ‘My Experiment with Truth’ throw light on his various facets about his personality. Similarly other freedom fighter’s autobiography also helps in reconstruction of the history of National Movement.
(iii) Government Records Compared to the public voice and private scripts and autobiography, the government records presents a vivid picture about Gandhiji and history of national movement. It comprised letters and reports written by policemen and other officials who viewed it from the different perspective.
For example, in fortnightly reports prepared by Home Department, the Salt March was seen as a drama, a desperate effort of Gandhiji to mobilise unwilling people against the British Raj, who were happy under the British rule. These sources suffer from biasness and prejudice against Gandhiji and national movement.
(iv) Newspaper: The newspaper, published in English as well as in different Indian languages, tracked Mahatma Gandhi’s movements and reported on his activities. It also gives an account of people’s reaction.
Similar to the government accounts, they may also suffer from biasness and prejudices, as they were published by people who had their own political opinions and world views. For example the newspaper report from London gave different account of the same event when compared it with an Indian nationalist paper.
Why did the Fifth Report become the basis of intense debate? Elucidate. (6)
What were the reasons and consequences of default payment by the zamindars after the introduction of Permanent Settlement in Bengal?
The Fifth Report was submitted to the British Parliament in 1813. It was called the ‘Fifth Report’, as it was fifth in a series of reports about the working of the East India Company in India. The core issue of the Fifth Report was the administration and activities of the East India Company. There were many reasons that led to debate in England over the Fifth Report. These were
(i) In Britain, many groups were not satisfied with the working of the East India Company and they opposed the monopoly enjoyed by the East India Company over trade with India and China. They wanted a revocation of the Royal Charter that gave the Company this monopoly.
(ii) Many British traders wanted a share in Company’s trade in India. They emphasised that the Indian market should be opened for British manufactures. In other words, they demanded an end to the monopoly trade enjoyed by Indians.
(iii) Many political groups put forth the argument that conquest of Bengal benefited only the East India Company and not the British nation as a whole. They highlighted the misrule and maladministration by the East India Company to emphasise their point.
Due to the above factors, it became a debated topic in Britain. The corrupt practices of the Company officials, accounts of their greed came to be widely publicised in the press. As a result, the British Parliament passed several acts in the late 18th century to regulate and control the rule of East India Company in India. It even asked the Company to submit regular reports on its administrative activities in India. The Fifth Report was one such a report produced by select committee.
It brought out the pitiable conditions in rural Bengal in the late 18th century. The above discussion makes it clear that the sentiment against the Company’s rule and policies was already formulating in England. The Fifth Report acted as a catalyst in making it more pronounced and evocative.
The reasons of default payment by the zamindars after the introduction of Permanent
(i) The Company kept the revenue price high with an idea that if the initial price would be low, then they would never be able to claim a share of increased income from land when prices rose and cultivation expanded. Hence, the Company argued that the burden on zamindars would decline with expanded agricultural production and price rise.
(ii) During the 1790s, the prices of agricultural produce were depressed which made the ryots difficult to pay their dues to the zamindar.
(iii) As the revenue was fixed, it had to be paid punctually on time regardless of the harvest. A law was introduced which came to be known as the Sunset Law. According to the law, if payment did not come in by sunset of the specified date, the zamindari was liable to be auctioned.
(iv) The power of the zamindar was initially limited to collect rent from the ryot and manage his zamindari.
The consequences of default payment by the zamindars after the introduction of Permanent
- The zamindars troops were disbanded, custom duties abolished and their cutcheries (courts) were brought under the supervision of a collector appointed by the Company.
- They lost the power to organise local justice and the local police. The collectorate emerged as an alternative centre of authority.
- An officer of the zamindar, the amlah, came to the village at the time of rent collection to keep an eye on the process.
- Bad harvests and low prices made to ryots difficult to pay dues to the zamindars.
- Sometimes ryots deliberately delayed the revenue payment.
- Rich ryots and village headmen, jotedars and Mandals were against the zamindars.
- The judicial process was long drawn to prosecute defaulters. In Burdwan, there were over 30,000 pending suits for arrears of rent payment in 1798.
Section – C
Source Based Questions
Read the source given below and answer the following questions.
“The Real Minorities are the Masses of this Country” Welcoming the Objectives Resolution introduced by Jawaharlal Nehru, N.G. Ranga said: Sir, there is a lot of talk about minorities. Who are the real minorities? Not the Hindus in the so-called Pakistan provinces, not the Sikhs, not even the Muslims. No, the real minorities are the masses of this country.
These people are so depressed, oppressed and suppressed till now that they are not able to take advantage of the ordinary civil rights. What is the position? You go to the tribal areas. According to law, their own traditional law, their tribal law, their lands cannot be alienated.
Yet our merchants go there, and in the so-called free market they are able to snatch their lands. Thus, even though the law goes against this snatching away from their lands, still the merchants are able to turn the tribal people into veritable slaves by various kinds of bonds, and make them hereditary bond-slaves. Let us go to the ordinary villagers.
There goes the money-lender with his money and he is able to get the villagers in his pocket. There is the landlord himself, the zamindar, and the malguzar and there are the various other people who are able to exploit these poor villagers. There is no elementary education even among these people.
These are the real minorities that need protection and assurances of protection. In order to give them the necessary protection, we will need much more than this Resolution …
(i) Who was N G Ranga? (1)
(ii) Which section of population was included in minorities? (1)
(iii) Who are real minorities as per NG Ranga? (2)
(i) NG Ranga was a socialist, who was a leader of Peasant Movement.
(ii) Minority according to NG Ranga included poors and down trodden people.
(iii) According to NG Ranga, the real minorities are not the Hindus in Pakistan provinces, Sikhs and even the Muslims. The real minorities are the masses of the country that are so depressed and oppressed. They are not able to take the advantages of the ordinary civil rights.
Read the source given below and answer the following questions.
‘We are Not just Going to Copy’ We say that it is our firm and solemn resolve to have an independent sovereign republic. India is bound to be sovereign, it is bound to be independent and it is bound to be a republic….Now, some friends have raised the question “Why have you not put in the word ‘democratic’ here.?
“Well, I told them that it is conceivable of course, that a republic may not be democratic but the whole of our past is witness to this fact that we stand for democratic institutions. Obviously, we are aiming at democracy and nothing less than a democracy. What form of democracy, what shape it might take is another matter.
The democracies of the present day, many of them in Europe and elsewhere, have played a great part in the world’s progress. Yet it may be doubtful if those democracies may not have to change their shape somewhat before long if they have to remain completely democratic. We are not going just to copy, I hope, a certain democratic procedure or an institution of a so-called democratic country.
We may improve upon it. In any event whatever system of government we may establish here must fit in with the temper of our people and be acceptable to them. We stand for democracy.
It will be for this House to determine what shape to be given to that democracy, the fullest democracy, I hope the House will notice that in this resolution, although we have not used the word ‘democratic’ because we thought it is obvious that the word ‘republic’ contains that word and we have done something much more than using the word.
We have given the content of democracy in this resolution and not only the content of democracy but the context, also, if I may say so of economic democracy in this resolution. Others might take objection to this Resolution on the grounds that we have not said that it should be a Socialist State.
Well, I stand for Socialism and, I hope, India will stand for Socialism and that India will go towards the Constitution of a Socialist State and I do believe that the whole world will have to go that way.
(i) Why Nehru did not mention the word democratic in the resolution? (1)
(ii) Mention the three basic features of the Constitution given in the above passage. (1)
(iii) On what kind of socialism did Nehru give stress to? (2)
(i) Jawaharlal Nehru did not mention the word democratic in the objective resolution as it was
thought by the makers of the Constitution that the word ‘republic’ already contains the word ‘democratic’. They did not want to use unnecessary and redundant words.
(ii) Three basic features of the Constitution given in above passage are independent, sovereign and republic.
(iii) Nehru was supporter of socialism and he said that India would stand for socialism, where every citizen would be provided equal opportunities for growth and development. There would be economic democracy and economic justice.
Section – D
Map Based Question
(i) Locate any one of the following areas on the political Map of India. (1)
(a) Madras Or
(ii) Identify the place marked as A on the map given below where Shah Jahan constructed his new capital Shahjahanabad. (1)