CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 5 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 5.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 5

Board CBSE
Class XII
Subject Political Science
Sample Paper Set Paper 5
Category CBSE Sample Papers

Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 5 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.

Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions :

  1. All questions are compulsory.
  2. Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
  3. Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
  4. Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
  5. Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
  6. Questions no. 21 is map based question
  7. Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not i exceed 150 words

Question 1.
What was first Gulf War?

Question 2.
What is the common currency of EU?

Question 3.
What does SPA stand for?

Question 4.
What was main objective of ‘Dalit Panthers’?

Question 5.
Mention three issue that dominate the politics of North-East?

Question 6.
What factors led to crisis of democratic order in Indian politics?

Question 7.
Give the significance of the following dates:
(i) 7 Feb. 1992
(ii) 1 Nov. 1993

Question 8.
Why did Nehru regard conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.

Question 9.
How can we see re-emergence of Indira Gandhi to power in 1971?

Question 10.
Describe any two outcomes of ‘Naxalite movement’.

Question 11.
Why did India oppose the international treaties on Nuclear non-proliferation?

Question 12.
Mention circumstances to be characterised for imposition of Emergency.

Question 13.
In what manner Gorbachev’s reform policy was protested? Who took the command during these events?

Question 14.
Mention three ways in which US dominance since the Cold War is different from its position as a superpower during the Cold War.

Question 15.
“Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council.” Do you agree with this statement? Give arguments for or against this position.

Question 16.
What are the differences in the threats that people in the Third World face and those living in the First World face?

Question 17.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
The Indian government is already participating in global efforts through a number of programmes. For example, India’s National Auto-fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency. Similarly, the Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy. Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real efforts. The government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel, using about 11 million hectares of land to produce biodiesel by 2011-2012. And India has one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world.
(i) How India has participated in global efforts to protect environment?
(ii) What are Energy Conservation Act and Electricity Act?
(iii) Mention the efforts made by Indian government for biodiesel.

Question 18.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The interim government took a firm stance against the possible division of India into smaller principalities of different sizes. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress and took the view that the States should be free to adopt any course they liked. Sardar Patel, India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period, immediately after Independence, played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of Princely States in bringing most of them into the Indian Union.
(i) Which government has been referred to as the interim government?
(ii) Why did the Muslim League oppose the Indian National Congress?
(iii) What makes the role of Sardar Patel a historic one? Explain.

Question 19.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 5 1
(i) What does the cartoon represent?
(ii) What does the equations speak about?
(iii) “I’m always good at calculations”. What does this represent?

Question 20.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Once an emergency is proclaimed, the federal distribution of powers remains practically suspended and all the powers are concentrated in the hands of the union government. Secondly, the government also gets the power to curtail or restrict all or any of the Fundamental Rights during the emergency. From the wording of the provisions of the Constitution, it is clear that an Emergency is seen as an extra-ordinary condition in which normal democratic politics cannot function. Therefore, special powers are granted to the government.
(i) When was Emergency imposed?
(ii) Who recommended Emergency to be imposed and to whom?
(iii) Mention the implications of Emergency.

Question 21.
Study the map and answer the following questions.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 5 2
(i) Name any two states which were under British rule directly before partition of the country.
(ii) Name any two Princely States of India before and after the partition.
(iii) Name any one state which was basically divided because of partition.

Question 22.
Define the various treaties to control arms. 6
“During the Cold War era, India and the USSR enjoyed a special relationship which made critics to say that India was part of Soviet camp”. Examine the statement.

Question 23.
What are different natures of hegemony? Explain. 6
Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.

Question 24.
What are some of the commonalities and differences between Bangladesh and Pakistan in their democratic experiences?
Why do some countries put a question mark on India’s inclusion as the permanent member in Security Council?

Question 25.
If Bharatiya Jana Sangh or the Communist Party of India had formed the government after the first election, in which respects would the policies of the government have been different? Specify three differences each for both the parties.
Why is Emergency considered to be one of the most controversial episodes in Indian politics? Analyse any three reasons.

Question 26.
What is globalisation? How has technology contributed in promoting globalisation? 6
Discuss the consequences of the India’s partition in 1947.

Question 27.
Write a note on tjie Socialist Party.
Describe any four major developments in the Indian politics since 1989.


Answer 1.
A massive coalition force of 660,000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it in what came to be known as the First Gulf War.

Answer 2.

Answer 3.
SPA stands for Seven Party Alliance to protest against monarchy in Nepal.

Answer 4.
Dalit Panthers aimed at the destroy of caste system and to build on organisation of all oppressed sections like landless poor peasants and urban industrial workers alongwith Dalits.

Answer 5.
Three issues :

  • demands for autonomy,
  • movements for succession,
  • opposition to outsiders.

Answer 6.

  • Emergence of Indira Gandhi with a lot of popularity.
  • Party competitions had been created.
  • Relation between the government and judiciary had become tense.

Answer 7.

  • 7 Feb. 1992 – Treaty of Maastricht was signed to establish the European Union
  • 1 Nov. 1993 – European Union was established.

Answer 8.

  1. India decided to conduct its foreign relations with respect to sovereignty of other nations and maintain peace and security through mutual cooperation to be reflected in the Directive Principles of State Policy on Article 51 of the Constitution.
  2. India always advocated the policy of Non-alignment, made efforts to reduce cold war tensions and contributed human resources to UN peace keeping operations.
  3. Hence, India took independent stand and got assistance from members of both the blocs.

Answer 9.
Congress (R) under Indira Gandhi had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan which was lacked by its opponents. The ‘Grand Alliance’ had only one common programme ‘Indira Hatao’:

  1. In contrast to this, Indira Gandhi put forward a positive slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.
  2. By this, she generated a support base among poor, minorities, landless labourers, dalit, women and unemployed youth.
  3. Except it, she focused on the growth of public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparity etc.
  4. Thus, the slogan of Garibi Hatao and programmes became the part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base during the electoral contest of 1971.

Answer 10.
Because of discriminatory nature :

  1. India felt that these treaties prove the monopoly of five nuclear weapon-powers only and applicable to only the non-nuclear powers.
  2. India opposed the indefinite extension of the NPT in 1995 and refused to sign even CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty).

Answer 11.


  • The first objective was to follow NAM, not to join either the military blocs formed by USA or Soviet Union.
  • To promote rapid economic development and maintain cordial relations with other nations.
  • To prefect the territorial integrity.
  • To preserve sovereignty of India and also respecting others sovereignty.

Answer 12.

  • Emergence of Indira Gandhi.
  • Power Politics became personalised and governmental authority was converted into personalization.
  • Bitter party competition.
  • Tense relations between the government and judiciary.

Answer 13.

  1. The East European countries which were the part of the Soviet Bloc, started to protest against their own government and Soviet control.
  2. Boris Yeltsin took the command during these events as he got popular support of people in the elections and began to shake off centralised control.
  3. Power began to shift from centre to the republics which declared themselves independent.
  4. In December 1991, under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin Russia, Ukraine and Baltics declared themselves as sovereign states.

Answer 14.

  1. During Cold War, the US found it difficult to win over the Soviet Union as hard power due to retaliating capacity of the Soviet Union and to protest world from large scale destruction. But in the areas of structural and soft power, the US dominated.
  2. During Cold War years, the Soviet Union provided an alternate model of socialist economy to maximise welfare of states. Still the world economy throughout the Cold War years adapted capitalist economy under the US.
  3. In the area of soft power, the US became triumphant. As the example of blue jeans shows that the US could engineer a generational gap even in Soviet Society on culture basis.

Answer 15.
Yes, we agree with the statement because Security Council plays a crucial role in functioning of the UN. In today’s scenario power equations have been changed with the disintegration of USSR and many new countries are entering into the UN:

  1. The UN charter has given a privileged position to permanent members to bring stability all over the world. This position remains the same and no one is allowed to enter.
  2. Except permanent members enjoy veto power to be placed in a valuable position.
  3. Permanent members category is from industrialised developed country which should be balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries to become either permanent or non-permanent members. ‘
  4. Hence, Security Council should reform and improve its working to make the UN more effective t.e., inclusion of member states should be judged on the basis of contribution to peace keeping initiatives.

Answer 16.
The threats are different in the Third World and First World peoples because their regions are changed, hence they face different security challenges in the following manner:

  • The newly independent countries faced the military conflicts even with their neighboring states.
  • These countries faced threats not only from outside their borders, mostly from neighbors, but also from within.
  • Internally, new states worried about threats from separatist movements which wanted to form independent countries.
  • Sometimes, the external and internal threats merged.
  • For the new states, external wars with neighbors and internal wars posed a serious challenge to their security.

Answer 17.

  1. It has launched a number of programmes i.e. Auto Fuel Policy, Energy Conservation Act 2001, Electricity Act 2003 to protect environment.
  2. The Energy Conservation Act was passed in 2001 to outline initiatives to improve energy efficiency and Electricity Act passed in 2003 to encourage the use of renewable energy by the Indian government as a conservation programme.
  3. The Indian government is keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel using about 11 million hectares of land to produce biodiesel by 2011-12.

Answer 18.

  1. The Indian National Congress has been referred to as the interim government.
  2. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress because it was of the view that the states should be free to adopt any course they liked.
  3. Sardar Patel was India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period immediately following independence. He negotiated with the rulers of Princely States firmly but diplomatically and brought most of them into the Indian Union.

Answer 19.

  • Dual role of Pakistan’s ruler Pervez Musharraf as the President and as Army General.
  • These equations speak about dominance of one the Person militarily more rather than only the President.
  • It shows the nation that Musharraf wants to command the country militarily and administratively both to strengthen his power because the President’s survival is not easy without military support.

Answer 20.

  1. 25 June 1975.
  2. The Prime Minister Indira Gandhi recommended to impose Emergency to the President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad.
    • The federal distribution of powers remains practically suspended.
    • All the powers are concentrated in the hands of Union government.
    • The government also gets power to restrict all or any of Fundamental Rights during Emergency.

Answer 21.

    • Punjab
    • Sindh
    • Hyderabad
    • Gujarat
  1. Bengal

Answer 22.

  1. Limited Test Ban Treaty: Banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963 came into force on 10 October, 1963.
  2. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: It allows only the nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons and stops others from acquiring them. A nuclear weapon state is one which had manufactured and exploded nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January, 1967. So there are five nuclear weapon states: US, USSR, Britain, France and China.
  3. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks I and II (Salt I and II): The first round began in November 1969. The Soviet Union leader Leonid Brezhnev and the US President Richard Nixon signed the following in Moscow on 26 May 1972—
    • Anti Ballistic Missile System Treaty,
    • Interim Agreement on limitation of strategic offensive arms.
      It came into force on 3 October, 1972.
      The second round started in November 1972. The US President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet leader Brezhnev signed Treaty on limiting strategic offensive arms in Vienna on 18 June, 1979.
  4. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I and II (START I and II): Treaty I signed by the USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and the US President George Bush (Senior) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 31 July 1991. Treaty II was signed for the same purpose in Moscow on 3 January, 1993 between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the US President George Bush (Senior).


During the Cold War era, India and the USSR enjoyed a special relationship which made critics to say that India was part of the Soviet camp. It was a multi-dimensional relationship:

  1. Economic :
    • The Soviet Union assisted India’s public sector companies at a time when such assistance was difficult to get.
    • It gave aid and technical assistance for steel plants like Bhilai, Bokaro, Vishakhapatnam and machinery plants like Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.
    • The Soviet Union accepted Indian currency for trade when India was short of foreign exchange.
  2. Political :
    • The Soviet Union supported India’s positions on the Kashmir issue in the UN.
    • The Soviet Union also supported India during its major conflicts during the war with Pakistan in 1971. .
    • India too supported Soviet foreign policy in some crucial but indirect ways.
  3. Military :
    • India received military hardware from Soviet Union.
    • India got technological know-how regarding maintenance of military arsenal.
    • India and Soviet Union got mutual agreements to produce military equipments.
  4. Cultural :
    • Hindi films and Indian culture were popular in the Soviet Union.
    • A large number of Indian writers and artists visited the USSR.
    • Indian heroes from Raj Kapoor to Amitabh Bachchan are household names in Russia.

Answer 23.
Hegemony is an international system to dominate world by only one superpower. The natures of hegemony can be found out as follows:

  1. Hegemony as Hard Power :
    • It is based on the military capability between the states.
    • The US military dominance is based on their higher expenditures on military as well as the technological know-how.
    • The US bears military dominance in both the terms i.e. absolute and relative. In absolute terms the US military capabilities can reach any point on the planet and no other power can be a match to them.
  2. Hegemony as Structural Power :
    • It is based on economic factors of the world dominated by the hegemonic power.
    • Hegemony must sustain global structure to establish certain norms for order and the US has set up Bretton Woods System.
    • he US hegemony has provided the global public goods to be consumed by one person without reducing the amount available for someone else as SLOCs and the Internet, MBA degree.
  3. Hegemony as Soft Power :
    • To dominate world even in reference of cultural dimensions i.e. class ascendancy in social, political and ideological spheres.
    • The US hegemony has the capacity to create ‘manufacturing consent’ by the class to be dominated by the hegemon.
    • The ‘blue jeans’ from the US is capable to engineer even a generational divide.


The relations with China experience friendly gestures from India as India signed popular ‘Panchsheel’ to develop Indo-China relations in 1954 and advocated China’s membership to the United Nations. Still, after 1957, various contentious issues arose in Indo-China relations:

  • In 1962, military conflict over a border dispute of MacMohan Line resulted on unwarranted claim by China which now lie in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin region of Ladakh. ,
  • Differences arose from Chinese take over of Tibet in 1950 which was protested by India against China.
  • After Panchsheel, attack by China on India in 1962, to occupy larger territories of India, created humiliation.
  • China’s assistance to Pakistan’s nuclear programme also created differences.
  • China’s military relations with Bangladesh and Myanmar were viewed as hostile to Indian interests.

All the above mentioned differences/disputes could be resolved for greater cooperation-

  • Both the countries should make some more efforts to revive harmonious attitude between themselves.
  • Both the countries should move hand-in-hand to fight against terrorism, nuclear race and economic disparities.
  • Both the countries should develop understanding and respect.
  • Hence, both of them have signed agreements on cultural exchange and cooperation in science and technology.

Answer 24.
Bangladesh has been the part of Pakistan itself. Both of these countries bear some similarities and differences as follows:
Commonalities :

  1. Both Bangladesh and Pakistan were under a military rule.
  2. At both the places, the struggle for democracy took place in their own way.
  3. Pakistan’s administration began under the command of General Ayub Khan and gave up due to dissatisfaction among people giving way to Yahya’s military rule and continued with the army rule though elections were held by military rulers to give a democratic shape to their own rule.
  4. In the same way, Bangladesh drafted its own constitution to begin with democracy. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman formed Presidential setup by abolishing all the parties except Awami Legue. But after his assassination the new military ruler Zia-ur-Rahman formed his own party and won elections in 1979. Later on he was also assassinated and another military leader Lt. Gen. H.M. Ershad took over.

Differences :

  1. In Pakistan, military, clergy and land-owning aristocrats dominated socially to overthrow elected government whereas in Bangladesh the leaders and their party members dominated for the same.
  2. Pro-military groups have become more powerful due to conflict with India in Pakistan whereas in Bangladesh, pro-military groups are powerful due to friendship and encouragement of India.


Due to following reasons :

  • Troubled relationship with Pakistan.
  • India’s nuclear weapon capabilities
  • If India is included, some emerging powers (Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa) will also be accommodated.
  • France and the US advocate that Africa and South America must be represented for they do not have any representation in the present structure.

Answer 25.

  1. Bharatiya Jana Sangh
    The policies of Bharatiya Jana Sangh were based on the principles as follows:

    • It replaced secular concept by the ideology of one country, one culture and one nation.
    • No cultural and educational rights as this party opposed the granting of concessions to religious and cultural minorities.
    • It focused on the reunity of India and Pakistan under the concept of Akhand Bharat.
  2. Communist Party of India
    Communist Party of India would have been different on the principles as follows:

    • It worked for proportional representation in the government.
    • This party followed communist ideology in various policies.
    • It emphasised on a control over electronic mass media by an autonomous body or corporation.


  1. There are different views about the need to declare emergency. The Indian Constitution simply described ‘internal disturbances’ as the reason for declaring Emergency. The government argued that in a democracy, the opposition parties must allow the elected ruling party to govern according to its policies. It felt that frequent recourse to agitations, protests and collective action are not good for democracy. This leads to instability and distracts the administration from its routine task of ensuring development. Some other parties like the CPI that continued to back the Congress during Emergency, also believed that these was an international conspiracy against unity of India.
  2. On the other hand, the critics of the Emergency argued that ever since the freedom movement, Indian politics had a history of popular struggles. Jai Prakash Narayan and many other opposition leader felt that in a democracy people had the right to publicly protest against the government. The Gujarat and Bihar agitations peaceful. Those who were arrested were never tried for any anti-national activity. The threat was not to the unity and integrity of the country, but to the ruling party and to the Prime Minister herself. The critics say that Indira Gandhi misused the constitutional provision meant for saving the country to save her personal power.
  3. The government used powers given by the constitution and suspended the democratic functioning. It said that it wanted to use the Emergency to bring law and order, restore government led by Indira Gandhi announced a twenty-point programme and declared its determination to implement this programme. In the initial months, the urban middle classes were generally happy over the fact that agitations came to an end. The poor and rural people also expected effective implementation of the welfare programmes. Thus, different sections of society had different expectations from the Emergency.
  4. Critics of Emergency indicated that most of these promises by the government remained unfulfilled, that these were simply meant to divert attention from the excesses that were taking place.
    Therefore, the Emergency of 1975 brought out both the weaknesses and the strengths of India’s democracy. It brought out some ambiguities regarding the Emergency provision in the Constitution that have been rectified since. Also the Emergency made everyone aware of the value of civil liberties.

Answer 26.
Globalisation as a concept fundamentally deals with flows. These flows could be of various kinds—ideas moving from one part of the world to another, capital shunted between two or more places, commodities being traded across borders, and people moving in search of better livelihoods to different parts of the world. The crucial element is the ‘worldwide interconnectedness’ that is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows. While globalisation is not caused by any single factor, technology remains a critical element. There is no doubt that the invention of telephone, microchip, etc. in more recent years has revolutionised communication between different parts of the world. When printing initially came into being it laid the basis for the creation of nationalism.

The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances. Advancement in technology has made it possible for the people to keep themselves fully informed about all events and happenings in the world.

Events taking place in one part of the world have impact over other parts of the world due to advanced technology.


Consequences of the partition of India :

  1. The year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that Indian history was known. In the name of religion, people of a community killed and maimed people of the other community. Cities like Lahore, Calcutta (Kolkata) and Amritsar were titled as communal zones.
  2. Muslims would avoid going into areas where mainly Hindus and Sikhs lived. Similarly, the Hindus and Sikhs stayed away from Muslim areas.
  3. People went through immense sufferings because they were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in ‘refugee camps’. They often found helpless local police and administration helpless in what was till recently their own country. They travelled to the other side of the new border by all sorts of means, often by foot. Even during this journey they were often attacked, killed or raped. Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border. They were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage. In many cases, women were killed by their own family members to preserve the ‘family honour’. Many children were separated from their parents.
  4. Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. For lakhs of these ‘refugees’ the country’s freedom meant life in refugee camps, for a long time.
  5. While recounting the trauma of partition, they have often used the phrase that the survivors themselves used to describe partition—as a division of hearts.
  6. The partition was not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets, or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus. The employees of the government and the railways were also divided. Partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border. About 5 to 10 lakhs people were killed in partition-related violence. However, beyond the administrative concerns and financial strains, the partition posed another deeper issue, the leaders of the Indian national struggle did not accept the two-nation theory. And yet, partition on religious had taken place.

Answer 27.
The Socialist Party traces its roots back to the mass movement stage of the Indian National Congress in the pre-independence era. The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was established within the Congress in 1934 by a group of young leaders who wanted a more radical and egalitarian Congress. In 1948, the Congress amended its constitution to prevent its members from having a dual party membership. This forced the Socialists to form a separate Socialists leaders Party in 1948. The leaders of the Socialist Party believed in the ideology of democratic socialism which distinguished them both from the Congress as well as from the Communists. They criticised the Congress Party for favouring capitalists and landlords and for ignoring the workers and the peasants. But the Socialist party faced a dilemma when in 1955 the Congress declared its goal to be the socialist pattern of society. Thus, it became difficult for the socialists to present themselves as an effective alternative to the Congress. Some of them, led by Rammanohar Lohia, criticised the Congress Party.

The Socialist Party went through many splits and reunions leading to the formation of many socialist parties. These included the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party, Jayaprakash Narayan, Achyut Patwardhan, Asoka Mehta, Acharya Narendra Dev, Rammanohar Lohia and S.M. Joshi were among the leaders of the socialist parties. Many parties in contemporary India, like the Samajwadi Party, the Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (United) and the Janata Dal (Secular) trace their origins to the Socialist Party.


In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties. This consensus consists of four elements :

  1. Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
  2. Acceptance of political and social claims of the backward castes: Political parties have recognised the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support reservation of seats for the ‘backward classes’ in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get adequate share of power.
  3. Acceptance of the role of state level parties in governance of the country: The distinction between state level and national level parties is fast becoming less important. State level parties are showing power at the national level and have played a central role in the country’s politics of last twenty years or so.
  4. Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement: Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. Thus, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.

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