CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 6
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Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 6 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
General Instructions :
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not i exceed 150 words
When did NATO come into existence? How many states joined it?
What does CIS stand for?
What is SLOCs?
What is WSF?
Why did India adopt planning?
In which context India started participating in the world affairs as an independent nation state?
What challenges were faced by India between 1964 to 1966 during Prime ministership of Lai Bahadur Shastri?
What factors led to crisis of democratic order in Indian politics?
What was criticism against Narmada Bachao Aandolan?
What was the role of Congress in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir?
Examine growing consensus over the crucial issues.
What are the objectives of military alliances? Give an example of a functioning military alliance with its specific objectives.
Why have issues related to global environmental protection become the priority concern of states since the 1990s?
Mention positive impact of globalisation.
Bring out two major differences between the challenge of nation building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of Independence.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
The global economy relied on oil for much of the 20th century as a portable and indispensable fuel. The immense wealth associated with oil generates political struggles to control it, and the history of petroleum is also the history of war and struggle. Nowhere is this more obviously the case than in West Asia and Central Asia. West Asia, specifically the Gulf region, accounts for about 30 per cent of global oil production. But it has about 64 per cent of the planet’s known reserves, and is therefore the only region able to satisfy any substantial rise in oil demand. Saudi Arabia has a quarter of the world’s total reserves and is the single largest producer. Iraq’s known reserves are second’only to Saudi Arabia’s. And, since substantial portions of Iraqi territory are yet to be fully explored, there is a fair chance that actual reserves might be far larger. The United States, Europe, Japan, and increasingly India and China, which consume this petroleum, are located at a considerable distance from the region.
(i) Which region has much potential for oil production?
(ii) Which area is supposed to have far larger reserves than actually it has?
(iii) Why is the history of petroleum called the history of war and struggle?
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
At the most simple level, globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of government to do what they do. All over the world, the old ‘welfare state’ is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens. However, it ‘ withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities. The entry and the increased role of multinational companies all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decisions on their own. At the same time, globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be the unchallenged basis of political community. The old jealousies and rivalries between countries have not ceased to matter in world politics. The state continues to discharge its essential functions (law and order, national security) and consciously withdraws from certain domains from which it wishes to. States continue to be important. Indeed, in some respects state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens. With this information, the state is better able to rule, not less able. Thus, states become more powerful than they were earlier as an outcome of the new technology.
(i) How does globalisation effect on state capacity?
(ii) How have multinational companies effected the states?
(iii) How does the old welfare state react to globalisation?
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) Identify the person in the centre of the cartoon and mention the challenge surrounding him.
(ii) What does the picture actually refer?
(iii) How did India avoid all these conflicts?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
This coalition-like character of the Congress gave it an unusual strength. Firstly, a coalition accommodates all those who join it. Therefore, it has to avoid any extreme position and strike a balance on almost all issues. Compromise and inclusiveness are the hallmarks of a coalition. This strategy put the opposition in a difficulty. Anything that the opposition wanted to say, would also find a place in the programme and ideology of the Congress. Secondly, in a party that has the nature of a coalition, there is a greater tolerance of internal differences and ambitions of various groups and leaders are accommodated. The Congress did both these things during the freedom struggle and continued doing this even after Independence. That is why, even if a group was not happy with the position of the party or with its share of power, it would remain inside the party and fight the other groups rather than leaving the party and becoming an ‘opposition’.
(i) What do you mean by a faction?
(ii) How did coalition-like character affect the nature of the Congress Party?
(iii) How did the Congress avoided to increase number of‘opposition’?
On a political outline map of India, locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
(i) Two states where the Congress was not in power at some point during 1952-67.
(ii) Two states where the Congress remained in power through this period.
Suggest any six steps since 2005 to make the United Nations more relevant in the changing context.
Explain the areas of operation of non-traditional notion of security.
Describe the security challenges faced by the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War
Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies required by states to save Planet Earth. Substantiate the statement in the light of the ongoing negotiations between the North and South on environmental issues.
How did the reorganisation of states take place in India after its independence? Explain. What do you know about the Communist Party of India?
State the main arguments in the debate that ensued between industrialisation and agricultural development at the time of the Second Five Year Plan. 6
India’s foreign policy was built around the principle’s of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy? Or would you say that this was a result of international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.
What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?
Discuss the effects of emergency on the following aspects of Indian polity:
(i) Effects on civil liberties for citizens.
(ii) Impact on relationship between the executive and judiciary.
What was Narmada Bachao Aandolan? What were its main issues? What democratic strategies did it use to put forward its demands?
Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree? Give reasons.
NATO came into existence in April 1949 and twelve states joined it.
Commonwealth of Independent States.
SLOCs stands for Sea Lanes of Communications. It is the naval power of hegemon that underwrites the law of the sea and ensures freedom of navigation in international water.
WSF stands for World Social Forum, which is a global platform to bring together a wide coalition of human rights activists, environmentalists and women activists.
Fraction are the groups formed inside the party i.e. coalitions made in Congress created various factions which were based on either ideological considerations or personal ambitions.
- To bring a socio-economic changes.
- It was to provide a controlled and faster growth rate.
- To resolve contradictions between societies.
- British government left the legacy of many international disputes.
- Priority to the poverty alleviation.
- Pressures created by the partition.
- Economic crisis due to Indo-China War 1962 and Indo-Pak War 1965.
- Failed Monsoons, drought, serious food crisis presented a grave challenge.
- Emergence of Indira Gandhi with a lot of popularity.
- Party competitions had been created.
- Relation between the government and judiciary had become tense.
Criticism against Narmada Bachao Aandolan :
- The obstruction of the process of development
- Denial of the access to power to many people
- Hurdle to economic development
Congress dominated the politics of Jammu and Kashmir between 1953 to 1974 in the following manner:
- National Conference remained iconic power with the active support of Congress for sometime but later merged with the Congress.
- The Congress gained direct control over the government in state.
- The Congress Party also made attempts to have an agreement-between Sheikh Abdullah and Government of India.
- In 1974, Indira Gandhi signed an agreement with Sheikh Abdullah. As per this agreement, Sheikh Abdullah became the Chief Minister of State.
In the midst of severe competition and conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties consisting of following four elements:
- Most political parties were in support of new economic policies to lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.
- All political parties supported reservation of seats for backward classes in education and employment and even to ensure the OBCs to get adequate share of power.
- Role of state level parties was accepted in the governance of country.
- Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
Hence, most of the NDA did not agree with the Hindutva ideology of BJP. Still they come together to form a government and remained in power for full term.
- Alliance building is important component of traditional security to threats to deal between states and nations to deter or defend against military attacks.
- Alliances are formalised in written treaties and identification of who constitutes the threats.
- Alliances are formed to increase their effective power relative to another alliance.
- Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interest change.
Example – The US backed the Islamic militants in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union in 1980s, but later attacked them when Al-Qaeda, a group of Islamic militants, led by Osama Bin Laden launched terrorist strikes against America on 11th September 2001.
Issues related to global environmental protection became the priority concern of states since the 1990s because at global level, the environmental issues drew attentions of various states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio-de-Janerio, Brazil in June 1992 through Agenda 21:
- Rio-Summit 1992 dealt with climatic change, bio-diversity and forestry.
- Agenda 21 combined economic growth with ecological responsibilities.
- Kyoto Protocol set targets for greenhouse emissions. The above mentioned conferences and summits raised the environmental issues at the global level to take steps by various states to check environmental degradation in a co-operative manner.
- Increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
- It attracts private foreign capital ‘investment’.
- It creates new job opportunities.
- It raises standard of living.
- It increases production efficiency and healthy competition. ‘
- It attracts Foreign Direct Investment also.
The two major differences between Eastern (Bengal) and Western (Punjab) regions can be summed up as follows:
- These regions were the Muslim majority provinces to be joined. Hence, it was decided that new country Pakistan will comprise two territories i.e. West and East Pakistan.
- Secondly, there was a problem of minorities on both sides of border (East and West). Lakhs of Hindus and Sikhs in areas of Pakistan and Muslims on the Indian side of Punjab and Bengal found themselves trapped with no option except to leave their homes.
- West Asia especially the Gulf region enjoys much more potential for oil production.
- Iraqi territory is supposed to be fully explored.
- The global economy relied on oil for much of 20th century as a portable and indispensable fuel. The common wealth associated with oil generates political struggles to control it.
- It reduces state’s capacity and ability of government to do what they do.
- The entry and increased role of MNCs all over the world leads to reduction in the capacity of government to take decision on their own.
- The old welfare state is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions i.e. maintenance of law and order and security of its own citizens.
- The person is the first Prime Minister of India Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, who faced the first and foremost challenge of integration of Princely States and formation of linguistic states.
- The picture refers the problem of reorganisation of states on linguistic basis with the fear of disintegration in the country.
- India identified and respected regional demands of the people and enhanced democracy by providing some autonomy to the states also.
- Factions are the groups formed inside the party based on either ideological considerations or on personal ambitions and rivalries.
- Coalition-like character of the Congress accommodated all social diversities and maintained a balance on almost all issues. Even a proper space for the programmes and ideology of opposite parties was also given. In such a way the Congress showed greater tolerance towards internal differences.
- Along with its coalition-like character, Congress did not let the groups to leave the party to become an opposition.
- Jammu and Kashmir
- Uttar Pradesh
In September 2005, the UN celebrated its 60th anniversary and leaders decided to make it more relevant in the changing context by following steps:
- Creation of Peace Building Commission.
- Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
- Establishment of a Human Rights Council (Operational Since 19 June 2006).
- Agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
- Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
- Creation of a Democracy Fund.
- An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
Non-traditional concept of security includes human and global security covering a wide range of threats affecting human existence:
- It does not cover only the states but also the individuals and communities also.
- It emphasises on security on nature of threat and right approach to deal with the threat.
Its sources can be identified as follows:
- Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government.
- Human Rights refer to basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being as political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights to lead an honourable and dignified life.
- Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
- Health epidemics is a very serious threat to country’s security because severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (ARS), HIV-AIDS, bird flue diseases spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations.
- After the Second World War, there were many newly countries emerged in Asia and Africa as a result of the collapse of colonialism and the most nations faced threats not only from outside their borders but also from within.
- For the newly independent countries external and internal threats posed serious challenges to their security.
- Some of these states are worried about threats from separatist movement within the country.
- Terrorism is a problem faced by maximum newly free countries from outside borders i.e. 1ST
- Newly independent countries are highly populated and low per capita income countries so that facing the problem of global poverty.
- Newly independent countries are also facing the problem of social injustice discrimination based on caste, creed, religion which affects the human rights.
Compromise and accommodation are the two essential policies to save Planet Earth by the states but the states from North and South have different notions towards environmental issues:
- The Northern States (Developed) are concerned with ozone depletion and global warming whereas Southern states (Developing) want to address the relationship between economic development and environmental management.
- The developed countries of the North want to discuss the environmental issues which stand equally responsible for ecological conservation.
- The developing countries of the south feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is created by developed countries through their industrial projects.
- And if developed countries cause more environmental degradation they are supposed to take more responsibility on wards.
- The developing counties are under process of industrialization and they should be exempted from restrictions imposed on developed countries through various conventions like protocol etc.
- The special needs of developing countries must be taken into considerations in the process of development, application and interpretation of rules of International Environmental Law.
All the above mentioned provisions were accepted in Earth Summit, 1992 while adopting common but differentiated responsibilities.
- In the initial years, it was felt that linguistic states may foster seperatism and create pressures on newly founded nation, but India considered democracy and federalism by making a favour to linguistic states only.
- The States Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1953 by the Central Government to rearrange the boundaries of states.
- Its main recommendations were to organise states on language basis as well as the boundaries of states could reflect the linguistic aspects also.
- The States Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956 which created 14 states and 6 union territories.
- Linguistic states enhanced democratic practices.
- Linguistic states reduced separatist attitude by accepting the regional and linguistic claims of all regions.
The Communist Party of India was founded in 1920. In the early 1920s, Communist groups emerged in different parts of India taking inspiration from the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and advocating socialism as the solution to problems affecting the country. From 1935, they worked mainly from within the fold of the Indian National Congress. A parting of ways took place in December 1941, when the Communists decided to support the British in their war against Nazi Germany. At the time of Independence, other non-Congress parties like the CPI had a dedicated cadre. Soon after Independence, the Communist Party thought the transfer of power in 1947 was a not true independence and encouraged violent uprisings in Telangana, but they failed to generate popular support for their position and were crushed by the armed forces.
In 1951, the Communist Party abandoned the path of violent revolution and decided to participate in the approaching general elections. In the first general elections, CPI won 16 seats and emerged as the largest opposition party. The party’s support was more concentrated in Bihar, West bengal, Andhra Pradesh West Bengal, Bihar and Kerala, The party leaders included A.K. Gopalan, S.A. Dange, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, P.C. Joshi, Ajay Ghosh and P. Sundarraya.
At the time of the Second Five Year Plan, some controversial issues rose in reference to relevancy of agriculture over industry.
- The Second Five Year Plan emphasised on industry in place of agriculture or rural India.
- J.C. Kumarappa, a Gandhian economist proposed an alternative blueprint to emphasise on rural industrialisation.
- Bharatiya Lok Dal leader, Chaudhary Charan Singh also commented that the planning leading to creation of prosperity in urban and industrial sections at the cost of rural welfare.
Others debated that without an increase in industrial sector poverty could not be alleviated:
- India planning did not have an agrarian strategy to boost the production of food grains.
- It also proposed programmes of community development and spent large sums on irrigation project and failure was not that of policy but of its non-implementation because of the politics of land owning classes.
- Besides, they also argued that even if the government had spent more money on agriculture, it would not have solved the massive problem of rural poverty.
No, this was not the failure of foreign policy but this was a result of international situation:
(i) The Chinese Invasion, 1962 :
- Serious conflict arose when China annexed Tibet in 1950 and removed a historical buffer between two nation, and India did not oppose this openly.
- India grew uneasy, when China began to suppress Tibetan Culture.
- Another border dispute arose when China claimed Aksai Chin area and NEFA (much of the state in Arunachal Pradesh) within the Indian territory.
- Despite long-term correspondence and discussions, these issues have not been resolved even by top leaders of country.
- Hence, India had to indulge in the conflict.
(ii) War with Pakistan :
- A serious armed conflict between two countries began in 1965 with the initiative of Pakistan over Kashmir partition.
- In 1966, the hostilities came to an end with the UN intervention and Tashkent Agreement signed between Indian Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan.
- The 1965 War added to India’s already difficult economic situation.
(iii) Bangladesh War of 1971 :
- In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis in the way for a split verdict i.e. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as winner in West Pakistan while Awami league led by Sheikh Mujibur Rehman swept through East Pakistan.
- The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against discriminatory attitude of West Pakistan, which was not acceptable to West Pakistan rulers.
- In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a region of terror on Eas(t Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
- India had to bear 80 lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
- A full scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan to be.retaliated an attack from India.
- Within ten (Jays the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral ceasefire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
- Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a clear sign of India’s growing military powers.
- Socialist credentials became main projects during this period.
- Indira Gandhi campaigned to implement land reform legislations and land ceiling legislations.
- She ended her dependence on other political parties by strengthening her party’s position and recommended the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December’ 1970.
- The crisis in East Pakistan and Indo-Pak war to establish Bangladesh as an independent one, also enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi.
- Indira Gandhi’s government was not accepted only as a protector of the poor and underprivileged but as a strong government also.
- Congress became popular among different social sections and restored dominance again
(a) Effects on Civil Liberties for Citizens :
- The government made large scale arrests under preventive detention.
- Arrested political persons could not challenge arrest even under Habeas Corpus petition.
- Despite of filing many petitions government claimed it not to be necessary to be informed on grounds to arrested persons.
- In April 1976, finally it was proved that the government could take away citizen’s right to life and liberty by overruling of High Courts under Supreme Court and accept government’s plea.
(b) Impact on Relationship between the Executive and Judiciary :
- The Parliament brought in many new changes in the Constitution which made an amendment declaring that elections of the Prime Minister, the President and the Vice-President could not be challenged in the court.
- The 42nd amendment was also passed to bring a series of changes in the Constitution like duration of legislatures, elections can be postponed by one year during an emergency.
- Narmada Bachao Aandolan (NBA) linked its opposition to Sardar Sarovar Project with larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing developmental projects, efficacy of model of development that the country followed and what constituted public interest in a democracy.
- It demanded that there should be a cost benefit analysis of the major developmental projects due to construction of dam submerged around 245 villages to require two half a lakh population to be relocated.
- The movement demanded proper rehabilitation of all those to be affected from the construction of these projects.
- This movement also questioned the nature of decision making process to be in forming of mega scale development projects.
- Movement also insisted that local communities must have a say in such decision making alongwith an effective control over natural resources.
- Hence, NBA achieved a comprehensive National Rehabilitation Policy formed by government in 2003.
Democratic strategies used by it :
- Mobilisation of support at inter-national level
- Appeals to judiciary
- Public rallies
- Forms of Satyagraha
Yes, we agree with the statement because India adopted a democratic approach on these regional aspirations in place of considering them as anti-national:
- India’s democratic politics allows people and groups to address the people on the basis of their regional identity, aspiration, and specific regional problems.
- India’s democratic politics focus on regional issues and problems to receive adequate attention and accommodation in the policy making process, i.e. regional aspirations of Assam, Punjab and North-East, Kashmir, etc.
- Its examples are in eighties, military erupted in Punjab, problems persisted in the North-East, students agitated in Assam and Kashmir valley was on the boil.
- The Government of India settled down some negotiations with these regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions.
- Mizoram is an example of political settlement to resolve the problem of separation effectively.
It can be concluded that regional aspirations do not encourage separation but these respect diversity to retain unity in the nation.
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