Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 1 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 1 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- The question paper has three sections as A,B and C.
- Section A has 8 questions of 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 50 words each.
- Section B has 3 questions of 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 100 words each. Answer of map question should be attempted accordingly.
- Section C has 2 question of 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 170 words each.
“The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations”. Justify this statement. (2)
How has the European Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one?
This statement represents the ASEAN Regional Forum and the European Union, where ASEAN Regional Forum is based on the notion not to escalate territorial disputes into armed confrontation and establishment and strengthening of regional organisations in following ways.
- The ASEAN is rapidly growing as a regional organisation with the Vision 2020 including an outward looking role in international community and to encourage negotiations over conflicts in the region.
- ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) maintains coordination of security and foreign policy.
The European Union has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one. The EU has started to act more as a nation state. While the attempts to have a Constitution for the EU have failed, it has its own flag, anthem, founding date, and currency.
It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations. The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc.
Explain India’s role in the Bangladesh War of 1971. (2)
In early 1971 Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib-ur Rahman and unleashed a reign of terror on the people of East Pakistan. In response to this the people started a struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan. The government of India supported the demand of the people of East Pakistan for their independence and helped them financially and militarily.
“Despite their uneven democratic experience, the people of all South Asian countries share democratic aspirations.” Explain (2)
The various countries in South Asia have experienced mixed record of democracies. The people also shared aspirations for democracy to be flourished not only in rich or developed countries but in developing and underdeveloped countries also which can be drawn from the example of Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Maldives.
- Nepal has transitioned from monarchy to democracy.
- Since their independence from the British, Sri Lanka and India have effectively run democratic systems.
- The Maldives transitioned from a sultanate to a republic with a presidential form of government and a multi-party system.
Does globalisation lead to ‘cultural homogenisation’ or ‘cultural heterogenisation’ or both? Justify. (2)
Globalisation leads to both ‘cultural homogenisation’ and ‘cultural heterogenisation’ as
- Though cultural homogenisation is an arena of globalisation the same process generates the opposite effect also which prompts each culture to dominate over other culture resulting into heterogenisation.
- Globalisation leads to the rise of uniform culture known as cultural homogenisation i.e. the influence of western culture.
What is globalisation? Explain cultural consequence of globalisation. (2)
Globalisation refers to the flow of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It lead to worldwide interconnectedness that is created and sustained as an outcome of these constant flows. Cultural consequence of globalisation can be summed up as follow:
- The rise of uniform culture as cultural homogenisation.
- Global culture is imposition of western culture of rest of the world.
What is Preventive Detention? How it was used during Emergency? (2)
Preventive Detention is a provision under which people could be arrested even if he/she has not committed any crime. Suspection to do so is enough to arrest him/her. During Emergency, government used it as an Instrument to deal with opposition and people Protesting against government. Hundreds of People were arrested under this provision.
What was the impact of National Emergency on party system in India? (2)
Under Article 352 of Indian Constitution upon the advice by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declared a state of emergency. The impact of National
Emergency on party system in India are as follows:
- After the end of National Emergency, the major opposition parties started coming together on the eve of elections and formed a new party known as the Janta Party.
- Later there was an emergence of multi-party system or coalition government as against one party system or two-party system.
Which coalition came to power in 2004? Name its any two major supporting parties. (2)
The coalition came to power in 2004 was UPA and Left Front parties DMK (Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam), RJD (Rashtriya Janata Dal), AIADMK (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam), etc. Parties supported UPA (United Progressive Alliance) to form a government. The UPA Government was led by Congress party and Prime Minister was Man mohan Singh.
Explain any three factors responsible for the European Union to be a highly influential regional organisation.(4)
The three factors which make European Union a highly influential regional economic, political and diplomatic, and military influence. EU’s Economic Influence The EU is the world’s largest economy and political community in the world with an estimated nominal GDP is more than $ 17 trillion in 2016. It is a union of twenty-seven independent states based on European Communities and founded to enhance political, economic and social co-operation.
It is the largest exporter and second largest importer in the world. It also functions as an important soviet bloc in international organisation such as World Trade Organisation (WTO).
EU’s Political and Diplomatic Influence One members of the EU, Britain and France, hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council.
The EU includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy, economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on Human Rights and Environmental Degradation.
EU’s Military Influence The EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
Its total spending on defence is second after the US. Two EU member states, Britain and France, also have nuclear arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads. It is also the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.
Did India ever tried to interfere in the domestic affairs of any foreign neighbouring nation? What are the factors which are responsible for it? If yes, what are the ways to clear their perception? (4)
No, this is not a correct impression. India never wanted to dominate or interfere in the domestic affairs of the smaller countries of the region. India believed that there are real economic benefits for all, if all the countries lift up trade barriers.
Various factors are responsible for the thinking of smaller countries of South Asia towards India which are as follows:
- Due to size of India smaller countries are bound to be suspicious about India’s intentions.
- Interference of India in internal affairs of Pakistan and helping in transformation of East Pakistan to Bangladesh into an independent country is another reason.
- These countries think that India wants to invade and dominate international markets with the help of SAFTA.
The perception of smaller countries could be cleared by the following facts:
- India has always provided shelter to refugees those who came from different countries.
- India has always cooperated with their neighbours like it has provided assistance to Bangladesh during floods, it has provided military help to Maldives during military attack on the Maldives.
- India has given an open invitation to SAARC countries to sell their products without any trade tariffs.
Study the map given below carefully and answer the questions that follow. Or Make the following on an outline map of India. (4)
(i) Mark the state to which Jayaprakash Narayan belongs
(ii) The state where Sarojini Naidu became the first Governor.
(iii) Mark the state which was the birth place of Mahatma Gandhi.
(iv) Mark the state where ‘Dravadian Movement’ took place.
|Sr. Number of the information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of the State|
|Sr. Number of the information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of State|
“Emergency was a Blackmark in Indian History”? Comment. (6)
“Emergency showed both the weakness and strengths of Indian Democracy”. In the light of this statement discuss the lesson learnt from the Emergency?
Emergency was a blackmark in Indian History through many ways which were as follows:
- Emergency was declared on the ground of internal disturbances on 25th June, 1975 to invoke Article 352 of the Indian Constitution.
- The Prime Minister Indira Gandhi recommended to impose the Emergency to the then President of India Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.
- Emergency was one of the most controversial episodes which possessed different virus regretting imposition of Emergency.
- Emergency practically suspended the democratic functioning and most of the fundamental rights.
- Shah Commission exposed many excesses committed during emergency.
- Emergency highlighted some hidden matters over constitutional matters between the Parliament and Judiciary.
- Tensions or conflicts had been arisen between institution based democracy and popular participation of people.
Emergency showed both the weakness and strengths of Indian Democracy. Many observers thought that India ceased to be democratic during the Emergency but normal democratic functioning resumed within a short span of time. The lessons learnt from Emergency are discussed below
- It was proved that no emergency can destroy the democratic spirit of India.
- It brought out the ambiguities related to emergency. Internal emergency can now be proclaimed only on the grounds of armed rebellion and any such advice to President must be written from the Council of Ministers.
- It made everyone aware of the importance of civil liberties. Courts also took an active role in restoring and protecting civil liberties of people.
- The most valuable lesson we learnt from emergency is that governments which are perceived to be anti-democratic are severely punished by the voters.
- Lastly we learnt that government which are unstable and quarrelsome are punished by voters.
Analyse the working of democracy in Pakistan. (6)
What are the different schemes launched by the NDA III? How it can deliver a good Governance?
With the framing of the first Constitution of Pakistan, General Ayub khan took over the Administration and soon got himself elected. He renounced his office after the dissatisfaction from his rule and the military took over under General Yahya Khan.
During Yahya Khan’s Military rule, Pakistan faced Bangladesh crisis and war with India in 1971 and East Pakistan was liberated as an independent country named Bangladesh. After this, an elected government was formed Under the leadership of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto From 1971 to 1977.
The government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was removed by General Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 who had to face pro-democracy movement from 1982 onwards. Again in 1988, An elected democratic government was established under Benazir Bhutto but had to face competition between her party, Pakistan people’s party and the Muslim League.
However, the duration of elective democracy was short lived and again the military intervened in 1999 and General Parvez Musharraf removed the then Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif in 2001 and got himself elected as The President.
A major change in Indian politics after 2014 is the shift from caste and religion based politics to development and governance oriented politics. With its pre-intended goal Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, the NDA III Government started several socio-economic welfare schemes to make development and governance accessible to the masses such as
- Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
- Jan-Dhan Yojana
- Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
- Kisan Fasal Bima Yojana
- Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao
- Ayushman Bharat Yojana, etc
All these schemes intended to take administration to the doorstep of the common man by making the rural households, particularly the women, weak beneficiaries of the Central Government Schemes.
The success of these schemes could be seen from the results of 2019 Lok Sabha elections where the voters across states- castes, classes, communities, gender and region brought back the issues of development and governance to the centre state.
It was under the BJP led NDA Government characterising the current change with ‘Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas and Sabka Vishwas’.