Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 10 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 10 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- The question paper has three sections as A,B and C.
- Section A has 8 questions of 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 50 words each.
- Section B has 3 questions of 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 100 words each. Answer of map question should be attempted accordingly.
- Section C has 2 question of 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 170 words each.
Highlight the most important aspects of present Indo-Israeli relationships. (2)
Why ASEAN was formed? Explain.
Indo-Israeli relationship has reached new heights over the last few years.
- Israel is the second most important defense partner of India after Russia.
- The two nations have started cooperation in various fields like cultural exchange, security and defense, counter terrorism, space research, water and energy and agricultural development.
- Centers of Excellence that Israel has opened up, cooperation in the field of agriculture can reach new heights.
- Water Harvesting is also an area where Israel stands out as a unique partner of India.
The causes which led to the formation of ASEAN were
- The South East Asian Nations suffered the economic and political consequences of repeated colonialisms before and during the Second World War.
- The end of the Second World War confronted problems of nation-building, the ravages of poverty and economic backwardness and the pressure to align with one great power or another during the Cold War.
Hence, South East Asian countries established the Association for South East Asian Nations in order to solve the issues of South East Asian Countries.
Write any four objectives of BRICS. (2)
The objective of the BRICS can be summarised below
(i) The BRICS seeks to deepen, broaden and intensify cooperation within the grouping and among the individual countries for more sustainable, equitable and mutually beneficial development.
(ii) BRICS takes into consideration each members growth, development and poverty objectives to ensure that relations are built on the respective country’s economic strength and to avoid competition where possible.
(iii) To enhance and diversify trade and investment cooperation that support value addition among the BRICS countries.
(iv) To enhance market access opportunities and facilitate market interlinkages.
What effect does globalisation have on the sovereignty of nations? (2)
The impact of changing role of state in developing countries in the light of globalisation can be summed up as follows
- Globalisation reduces state capacity i.e. the ability of governments to do what they do.
- Market becomes the prime determinant to down economic and social priorities.
- Multinational companies effect on decision taken by governments because their own interest fulfillment depends on government policies.
- The old welfare state is now giving way to more minimalist state to perform certain core functions as maintenance of law and order and the security.
List some chellenges to democracy in Nepal. (2)
The three challanges to democracy in Nepal are
- Maoists are spread throughout Nepal and this group believes in armed insurrection.
- Restoration of Parliament and elections of a popular government and writing of a constitution of Nepal.
Explain the causes of the Bihar student movement in 1974, as well as Jayaprakash Narayan’s role in it? (2)
Reasons for the students movement of 1974 in Bihar are following
- Rising prices of food grains, cooking oil and other essential commodities and corruption in high places.
- There was demand for fresh elections to the State Legislature.
Role played by Jayaprakash Narayan in this movement is stated in the points below
- He demanded the dismissal of the Congress Government in Bihar and gave a call for total revolution in the social, economic and political spheres.
- In 1975, he led a peoples March to the Parliament.
What were the two major concerns confronting Indian politics in the 1990s? (2)
Some of the important challenges faced by the Indian politics during the 1990s’ are discussed below:
(i) Ayodhya Dispute This dispute arose due to the demolition of Babri Masjid and rise of Hindutva Politics. A number of events resulted in the demolition of disputed structure known as Babri Masjid in December 1992.
This event brought various changes in the politics of the country and intensified debates on the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism. These developments led to rise of BJP and politics of Hindutva.
(ii) Mandal Issue The rise of Mandal issue is one of the major challenges that Indian politics has faces during the 1990’s. The new National Front Government in 1990 implemented the recommendation of the Mandal Commission.
It held that jobs in Central Government should be reserved for the OBC’s. This caused violent anti-Mandal protests in different parts of the country. The dispute was evident among the supporters and the opponents of OBC’s reservation which came to be known as Mandal Issue. This issue helped in shaping the Indian politics since 1989.
Examine the political influence of India’s Other Backward Classes. (2)
The impact of political rise of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in India is
(i) When the support for the Congress among many sections of the backward castes had declined, this created a space for non-Congress parties to get the support of OBC’s.
(ii) Many of the constituents of the Janata Party like the Bhartiya Kranti Dal and Samyukta Socialist Party had a powerful rural base among some sections of the OBC.
(iii) In the 1980’s, the decisions of the National Front Government to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission further helped in shaping the politics of the OBC.
(iv) 1980’s saw the emergence of many parties like Bahujan Samaj Party that sought better opportunities for OBC’s in education, employment, adequate representation in administration.
“The South Asian experience of democracy has expanded the global imagination of democracy”. Explain the statement with examples. (2)
“The South Asian experience of democracy has expanded the global imagination of democracy”. This statement can be explained by following examples people of South Asian countries participate in the aspiration of democracy.
There is widespread support for democracy in all these countries. Ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor and belonging to different view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy.
- India is the largest democratic country in the world. People of South Asian countries prefer democracy over any other system of governance and believe that democracy is suitable for their country.
- There was a monarchy in Nepal but at present there is democracy.
Explain any four factors that contribute to ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. (4)
The factors that contributed to the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka were
(i) The bone of contention was the region of Ceylon which was represented by the majority Sinhala group. They opposed the migration and settlements of Tamilians from India in their region.
(ii) According to the group, Sri Lanka was only for Sinhala people and not for Tamils. This attitude of Sinhala people led to the establishment of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant, organisation, which desired for a separate country.
(iii) There was a pressure on the Government of India by the Tamils of Indian origin to intervene in the matter. Hence, the Government of India tried to negotiate with the Government of Sri Lanka on Tamil question.
But direct involvement was in the year 1987. India conceded to sent troops to Sri CD Lanka for the preservation of relations between Tamils and Sri Lanka Government. Eventually, the Indian troops got into a fight with LTTE.
(iv) The presence of Indian troops was not liked by many Sri Lankans and hence in 1989, the Indian. Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) pulled out of Sri Lanka without attaining its objective.
When did India’s long history of coalition politics begin? Also, what is the rationale behind it? (4)
The long period of coalition politics began in India in 1989 because
(i) No political party able to get majority despite of Congress being the largest party in Lok Sabha elections. So in 1977, the Janta party formed government with the support of many non-Congress parties.
(ii) United Front Government was formed under Prime Ministership of Chandra Shekar, then under HD Deve Gowda and finally IK Gujral with the outside support of BJP and leftists.
(iii) In 1999 to 2004, NDA run the government under Prime Ministership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. It was the first coalition government which completed its full term.
(iv) In 2004 to 2014, UPA run the government under Dr. Manmohan Singh, it is another coalition government which run for two terms. Thus, coalition governments were not stable in earlier times, but after 1999 they emerged as a stable governments.
In an outline Political Map of India, four states have been marked as A, B, C and D. Identify the states and write down the names of the ruling political parties of those states. (4)
|Sr. No. of the Information Used||Alphabet Concerned||Name of the State||Ruling Political Party|
|Sr. Number of the information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of the State||Name of the State|
|(i)||A||Bihar||The JDU and BJP|
What was the reason behind declaration of National Emergency by the then PM Indira Gandhi? Write any four major consequences of National Emergency. (6)
What is Democratic Upsurge? Discuss briefly the three democratic upsurges in post-independence history of India.
On 12th June, 1975 an issue was raised in which ruling of the Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi’s election invalid. This petition was filed by Raj Narain, a socialist challenging Indira Gandhi’s election as invalid as she used government servants for her election campaign.
The High Court declared her election as invalid so legally she was no more an MP and therefore, could not remain the PM unless once again elected as an MP within six months.
A political turmoil emerged after the Allahabad High Court decision.
The opposition parties led by JP Narayan organised a massive demonstration in Ram Leela grounds on 25th June, 1975 for resignation of Indira Gandhi. Jayaprakash Narayan announced a nationwide Satyagraha for her resignation and asked the army, the police and government employees not to obey illegal immoral orders.
Indira Gandhi’s government responded to this crisis by declaring a state of Emergency. On 25th June, 1975, the government argued that there was a threat of internal disturbances and therefore, she imposed Emergency under Article 352 of the Constitution.
The four major consequences of national emergency were
(i) Government suspended the freedom of Press. Press Censorship was imposed on newspapers and they were asked to get prior approval for all content to be published.
(ii) Fundamental Rights and Right of Citizen to move to the court for restoring their Fundamental Rights had also been suspended under the Emergency.
(iii) The government made extensive use of preventive detention. Under preventive detention, people were arrested and detained not because they have committed offence but on the apprehension that they may commit an offence. Moreover, arrested persons were not informed about the reason of their arrest and also could not challenge their arrest through habeas corpus petitions.
(iv) The government also passed certain amendments to the Constitution curbing powers of judiciary and President. It even extended tenure of the Parliament from 5 to 6 years.
Increasing participation of the people in the democratic politics of the country is broadly characterised as democratic upsurge. Based on this principle, social scientists have characterised three democratic upsurges in post-independence history of India.
(i) The first democratic upsurge was based on the participation of Indian adult voters to the democratic politics both at the centre and in states. Falsifying the Western myth that the success of democracy requires modernisation, urbanisation, education and access to media, the successful holding of elections to both Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies all across states.
(ii) During the 1980’s, the increasing political participation of the lower classes of the society such as SCs, STs and OBCs has been interpreted as second democratic upsurge by Yogendra Yadav. This – participation has made Indian politics more accommodative and accessible for these classes.
(iii) The era of Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation from the early 1990s is attributed to the emergence of a competitive market society encompassing all important sectors of economy, society and polity thus paving way for the third democratic upsurge.
The third democratic upsurge represents a competitive electoral market which is based not on the principle of survival of the best but rather the survival of the ablest.
Evaluate the cultural consequences of globalisation. (6)
What is worldwide interconnectedness? What are its components?
Cultural consequences of globalisation affects our food, clothes and thinking. But sometimes external influence simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms. The examples are
(i) The burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge.
(ii) In the same way blue jeans can go well with a pure cotton khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination that is unique. This clothing combination has been exported back to the country that gave us blue jeans.
(iii) Popularity of Hollywood movie throughout the world has resulted in adoption of latest techniques of film production and use of computer generated images and graphics.
(iv) The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves it imprint on a less powerful society, and the society begins to behave like a dominant power which it wishes to be.
(v) This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe. So we can say that globalisation broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.
Globalisation is defined as worldwide interconnectedness. Globalisation fundamentally means the flow of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world.
The crucial element is the ‘worldwide interconnectedness’, that is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows.
It is a multi-dimensional concept as it has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished. The impact of globalisation is vastly uneven because it affects some societies more than others and some parts of some societies more than others.
The major components of worldwide interconnectedness i.e. globalisation are Technological Advancement Technology remains an important factor with regard to globalisation.
The technological inventions such as telegraph, telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors. Thus, technological advancements has been most significant component of worldwide interconnectedness.
Free Flow of Capital and Investment: It has also been the key component of rising worldwide interconnectedness. Flow of FDI across the world has transform the world into a interconnected global market.
Migration and Movement of People: It has also been responsible for growing worldwide interconnectedness. Technological advancement has reduced the physical distances and increased the migration and movement of people from one country to another.
Sharing of Ideas and Knowledge: It has also been responsible for increasing interconnectedness. With technological advancement, ideas and knowledge are rapidly moving from one part to another parts of world.