Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 2 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 2 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- The question paper has three sections as A,B and C.
- Section A has 8 questions of 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 50 words each.
- Section B has 3 questions of 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 100 words each. Answer of map question should be attempted accordingly.
- Section C has 2 question of 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 170 words each.
What do you mean by alliance politics? (2)
Discuss the significance of BRICS for India. (2)
During the period of 90s, many powerful political parties emerged which played an important role in the formation of government at centre. During this period any government could be formed only with the participation or support of several regional parties. This phase of politics is called alliance politics.
BRICS is an acronym for five emerging economies of the world- Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The term BRIC was coined by Jim O’ Neil, the then Chairman of the Goldman Sachs in 2001.
Significance of BRICS for India can be analyse through many ways:
- India can benefits from collective strength of BRICS by way of consultation and cooperation as well as topical global issues, such as international terrorism, climate change, food and energy security, reform of global governance institutions, etc.
- The New Development Bank (NDB) will help India to raise and avail resources for their infrastructure and sustainable development projects.
Define Globalisation and also highlights its various causes. (2)
Globalisation refers to the flow of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It lead to worldwide interconnectedness that is created and sustained as an outcome of these constant flows. The various causes of globalisation are as follows:
- Technological Factors It is the most prominent cause of globalisation. Invention of printing, microchips, telephone and internet has revolutionised communication between different parts of the world.
- Communication Due to faster means of communication and transport, ideas, commodities and capital move easily to any part of the world.
What is the difference between globalisation of the past and of the present? (2)
The difference between globalisation of the past and present are as follows
Globalisation of the Past.
- Earlier only finished products travelled all over the world.
- Only the eastern part of the world dominated the international trade.
- Finished products of the east were values and dominated.
Globalisation of the Present
- Today along with finished products raw material, enhanced technology and people travel all over the world.
- Now the western part of the world dominated the international trade.
- Today, the products from the west are highly valued. Many companies produce products in developing countries and sell in the global market as the goods of the developed countries.
Discuss the role of technology had in globalisation. (2)
Technology has contributed to globalisation in the following ways
- The technological inventions such as telegraph, telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors and hence invention of printing laid the basis for the emergence of nationalism. Thus, technology influences our personal and collective lives.
- The sharing of ideas, capital, commodities and people throughout the globe has been made possible only by technological advancement.
Analyse any two events that occurred near the end of the 1980s and had a long-term impact on Indian politics. (2)
The events that occurred near the end of the 1980s impacted the India politics were
Decline of Congress System:
The defeat of the Congress Party in the election of 1989 marked the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system. It could win only 197 seats in the Lok Sabha.
Rise of Mandal Issue:
The Mandal issue started with the National Front government’s decision to implement the recommendation of Mandal Commission the jobs in the Central Government should be reserved for OBC’s. This led to violent anti-Mandal protests in different parts of the country.
Examine the rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) as a major political force in the aftermath of the emergency. (2)
After emergency, Bhartiya Jana Sangh had merged into the Janta Party. After the fall of the Janta party and its break-up, the supporters of erstwhile Jana Sangh formed the Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP) in 1980. But it did not get much success in the election of 1980 and 1984. In 1996, BJP Minority Government was formed for a short period. In June 1996, BJP failed to get majority support in the vote of confidence and thus collapsed.
From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and others formed alliances NDA (National Democratic Alliance) under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and his government formed in 1999 completed its full term. Again in 2014 elections, BJP under the leadership of Modi came to power with landslide victory and also formed the government almost is more than half of the states across India.
Examine the factors which allowed VV Giri to gain the post of President of India? (2)
During 1969 presidential election, a series of events took place which helped Shri. W Giri to become the President of India. These were
(a) The fractional rivalry between the syndicate and Indira Gandhi, the then PM became public in 1969.
(b) Despite Indira Gandhi’s reservations, the Syndicate nominated her longtime opponent and the then speaker of the Lok Sabha, N Sanjeeva Reddy, as the official Congress candidate for presidential elections. Smt. Indira Gandhi reacted by encouraging the then Vice-President, VV Giri to stand for presidential election as an independent candidate.
What was the main reason behind the split Congress in 1969? (2)
The main reasons behind the split in Congress in 1969 were
(i) The political tension inside the Congress over the unsettled question of relation between its ministerial all organisation wings became more pronounced. Indira Gandhi had acquired a certain control over the government but after the blow suffered by the Syndicate in 1967 elections, she had hardly any organisational base in the party.
(ii) Indira Gandhi adopted a radical ten-point programme which included social control of banks, nationalisation of 14 private banks and abolition of the privy purse or the special privileges given of former princes.
The Congress divided into two factions, one was right and second was left, attacked on Morarji Desai as the representative of big business houses. The defect Congress formalised the split in the party.
India and Pakistan have been embroiled in a number of disputes, but they are currently well on their road to developing a good relationship. Discuss. (4)
India and Pakistan just after independence got involved in conflict over certain issues. These included Kashmir, control over Siachen Glacier, sharing water of rivers etc. These issues led to wars between them in 1947-1948,1965 and 1971. The nuclear test by both the countries in 1990’s further deteriorated the relations between them.
Steps were taken to improve the relations between India and Pakistan. Some of them include
- Both the countries signed an agreement in February 2007 on reducing the rise from accident relating to nuclear weapons.
- Both the countries have agreed to have a dialogue for reaching a peaceful settlement on all bilateral issues, including Kashmir.
- Leaders have meet at summits to understand each other better and to find solutions to the major problems between the two neighbours.
- The two countries have agreed to undertake confidence building measures to reduce the risk of war.
- A number of bus routes have been opened up between the two countries.
Coalition politics has shifted political parties focus from ideological inferences to power-sharing arrangements within the area of consensus since 1989. Discuss with the help of an examples. (4)
Coalition politics has indeed shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power-sharing arrangement within the sphere of consensus. Most political parties except a few, unanimously agree to the new economic policy of globalisation as they believe that this is beneficial for India. Even on issue of socio- political claims of the backward castes, they have a consensus as they feel the need to accept these demands.
Regional parties and their role in formation of government has ensured that the political parties have regional parties as new competitors. In such a scenario, it becomes difficult to maintain an ideological divide.
Thus, coalitions are formed and alliances are made without consensus on ideology and it becomes more of a power play. It leads to political alliances and coalitions emerging as a power sharing arrangement. Some such alliances are NDA and UP A, popular United Front consisting of Akali Dal.
In the given political outline map of the European Union, identify and write the names of four old members marked as A, B, C and D and four new members marked as P, Q, R and S in your answer book. (4)
|Old Members of EU||New Members of EU|
|A. Finland||P. Estonia|
|B. Denmark||Q. Poland|
|C. Austria||R. Hungary|
|D. Ireland||S. Lithuania|
Explain Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya’s ‘Integral Humanism’ ideology. (6)
“Indian Government had many differences with the Judiciary”. Discuss.
Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was a philosopher, socialist, economist and politician. The philosophy presented by him is called ‘Integral Humanism’ which was intended to present an ‘indigenous socio-economic model’ in which human beings remains at the centre of development.
The aim of Integral Humanism is to ensure dignified life for every human being while balancing the needs of the individual and society. It supports sustainable consumption of natural resources so that those resources can be replenished.
Integral Humanism enhances not only political but also economic and social democracy and freedom. As it seeks to promote diversity, it is best suited for a country as diverse as India. The philosophy of Integral Humanism is based on the following principles:
- The Primacy of Whole
- Supremacy of Dharma
- Autonomy of Society
Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya opposed both Western ‘Capitalist Individualism’ and ‘Marxist Socialism’. According to him, capitalist and socialist ideologies only consider the needs of human body and mind, so they are based on materialistic purpose, whereas spiritual development is equally considered important for the complete development of human beings which is missing in both capitalism and socialism. Basing his philosophy on the internal conscience, pure human soul to be called Chhitti, he envisaged a classless, casteless and conflict free social system.
The Indian Government had many differences with the Judiciary. There was a long drawn conflict between Parliament and Judiciary over each other’s roles. There were three issues which emerged.
- The Supreme Court said that the Parliament could not abridge Fundamental Rights including Right to Property.
- The court said that the Parliament could not amend in such a way that rights got curtailed.
- The Parliament amended the Constitution on the ground that Fundamental Rights could be abridged for implementing Directive Principles. The Supreme Court rejected this proposition.
All three factors sustained the relations between the government and the judiciary. Further tension was added between executive and judiciary by the two developments. A vacancy of Chief Justice of India arose in 1973. As per practice, the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court was appointed as the Chief Justice.
But in 1973, AN Ray was appointed as the Chief Justice removing the seniority of three judges which generated a political controversy. Political ideology and constitutional interpretation got mixed up rapidly. People close to Prime Minister started questioning the need for a Judiciary and the bureaucracy committed to the vision of executive and the legislature.
Analyse the basis of projection of China to overtake the US as the world’s largest economy by 2040? (6)
What impact did the Fourth General Election (1967) have on Indian politics?
China is viewed to dominate US by the year 2040. The basis of the projection are:
(i) China is considered as the driver of East-Asian growth because of the economic integration into regions. China is considered to be very powerful and factors such as population, landmass, resources, regional location and political influence adds to its strength.
(ii) China announced ‘Open Door Policy’ in 1978 which aimed at generation of high productivity by investments in capital and technology from abroad. In economic sector, various steps were taken to encourage investment by Western entrepreneurs for modernisation of industry, science and technology, agriculture and military. In 1980, China became the member of World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
(iii) Privatisation of agriculture and industry helped in growing economy rapidly. Foreign trade grew with the creation of SEZs and new trading laws. This resulted in high foreign exchange reserves. In this way, China became most significant for FDI.
The above points show China’s ability to overtake US as world’s largest economy by 2040.
There were following impacts of Fourth General Election 1967 have on Indian politics
1. Many contemporary political observers described the 1967 election’s results as a political earthquake because in Lok Sabha, Congress got majority, but with its lowest seats since 1952.
2. An important feature of the politics was defection. It played an important role in making and unmaking of a government.
3. Half of the ministers of Indira Gandhi’s Cabinet and the political stalwarts like Kamraj in Tamil Nadu, SP Patil in Maharashtra, Atulya Ghosh in West Bengal and KB Sahay in Bihar were defeated and lost their constituencies.
4. In Madras state (now called Tamil Nadu), a regional party came into the power by securing a clear majority. This was the first time any non-Congress party had secured a majority of its own in any state.
5. In the other eight states i.e. Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa (now Odisha) and Kerala had non-Congress government. Therefore, coalition government consists of different non-Congress parties. So, the domination of the Congress was over.