Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 3 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 3 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- The question paper has three sections as A,B and C.
- Section A has 8 questions of 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 50 words each.
- Section B has 3 questions of 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 100 words each. Answer of map question should be attempted accordingly.
- Section C has 2 question of 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 170 words each.
How do we know that Russia has become a New Centre of Power in the twenty-first century? (2)
What is SAARC? Why it is so importance?
Russia has emerged as a new centre of power in the 21st century due to the following reasons.
1. Russia has been the largest part of the former Soviet Union even before its disintegration. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Russia emerged as the strong successor of USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic).
2. Russia’s GDP is currently 11th in the world. Russia has reserves of minerals, natural resources and gases that makes it a powerful country in the global world. In addition, Russia is a nuclear state with a huge stock of sophisticated weapons. Russia is also a permanent member of the UN Security Council, called P-5.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an association of eight countries of South Asia. It was established in 1985. It is an initiative by the South Asian states to evolve cooperation through multilateral means.
The SAARC is important because of the following reasons:
- It work for people’s welfare and to improve their standard of living and to promote cooperation with other developing countries.
- To cooperate with international and regional institutes to accomplish the objectives of SAARC.
In the context of Defection what step has taken by the Parliament. Discuss? (2)
After the 1967 elections, the important role was played by defections in the making and unmaking of governments in the states. Defection means an elected representatives leaves the party on whose symbol he/she was elected and joins another party.
This took place when an MLA from Haryana Gaya Lai in 1967 changed his party thrice in a fortnight from Congress to United Front back to Congress and then within nine hours to United Front back to Congress again.
Thus, the Constitution was amended to prevent defections. Parliament introduced 52nd Amendment Act which introduce the Anti-Defection Law and also inserted 10th Schedule in the Constitution to prevent defection.
When was Election Commission came into force? What were the problems faced by the Election Commission? (2)
The Election Commission of India was set up in January, 1950. Sukumar Sen has been appointed as the first Chief Election Commissioner. For holding free and fair election in a country, the Election Commission was faced several problems which were as follows.
- Holding an election required delimitation or drawing the boundaries of the electoral constituencies. It also required preparing the electoral rolls, or the list of all the citizens eligible to vote.
- The vast size of the country was a big challenge. Election Commission has never experienced conducting the election before and that too in the whole country.
What do you mean by alliance politics? (2)
During the period of 90s, many powerful political parties emerged, which played an important role in the formation of government at centre. During this period any government could be formed only with the participation or support of several regional parties. This phase of politics is called alliance politics.
During 1990s what were the two issues faced by Indian politics? (2)
Two issues faced by the Indian politics during the 1990’s are discussed below:
Ayodhya Dispute This dispute arose due to the demolition of Babri Masjid and rise of Hindutva Politics. A number of events resulted in the demolition of disputed structure known as Babri Masjid in December, 1992.
This event brought various changes in the politics of the country and intensified debates on the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism. These developments led to rise of BJP and politics of Hindutva.
Mandal Issue The rise of Mandal issue is one of the major challenges that Indian politics has faces during the 1990’s. The new National Front Government in 1990 implemented the recommendation of the Mandal Commission.
It held that jobs in Central Government should be reserved for the OBC’s. This caused violent anti-Mandal protests in different parts of the country. The dispute was evident among the supporters and the opponents of OBC’s reservation which came to be known as Mandal Issue. This issue helped in shaping the Indian politics since 1989.
“In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have merged among most of the political parties”. In the light of the above statement highlight any four points of consensus. (2)
Four points of consensus related to given statement are
(i) A consensus on economic long some are opposed to the changes, majority of the parties agree and support these policies.
(ii) Most parties accept the political and social claims of the backward classes. Most parties support ‘reservations’ in education, employment and share of power.
(iii) The growing role of state level parties and their growing role in governance of the country. State level parties are playing a central role in the country’s politics.
(iv) In this era of coalition politics, ideology has long. Political alliances are based on power sharing arrangements rather than ideological considerations. e.g. many members parties of NDA did not agree with ‘Hindutva’, yet they formed an alliance with the BJP.
Write any two significant points about Sri-Lanka. (2)
The significant points about Sri Lanka are:
- It ranked as 99th country out of 177 countries of the world in terms of human development.
- It is successful in controlling the rate of population growth.
How have technological advancement and recognition of inter connectedness affected globalisation? (2)
Technology remains an important factor with regard to globalisation. The technological inventions such as telegraph, telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors.
Hence,invention of printing laid the basis for the creation of nationalism. Thus, technological advancement and recognition of interconnectedness affected globalisation.
Distinguish between the European Union and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) as emerging power centres. (4)
The difference between European Union and SAARC are discussed below:
|1. It was established in 1992 after the collapse of Soviet bloc. It was founded by the group of European capitalist countries.
|It is a major regional initiative by the South Asian states to evolve cooperation through multilateral means. It was founded in 1985.
|2. It was founded for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs. It also led to the creation of a single currency.
|It has seven members with the aim to encourage collective self-reliance, trust and understanding between the members.
|3. It was started as an economic union but over time it has evolved from an economic union into a political one.
|SAARC has become a forum for facilitating economic cooperation among the South Asian countries.
|4. It also functions as an important bloc in international organisation.
|The existing international economic order has been operating against the basic interest of the poor or developing countries, SAARC has provided a ‘collective economic security system’ by starting SAFTA and SAPTA.
When did India enter its long period of coalition politics? Also explain the reason behind it? (4)
The long period of coalition politics began in India in 1989 because:
1. No political party able to get majority despite of Congress being the largest party in Lok Sabha elections. So in 1977, the Janta party formed government with the support of many non-Congress parties.
2. United Front Government was formed under Prime Ministership of Chandra Shekar, then under HD Deve Gowda and finally IK Gujral with the outside support of BJP and leftists.
3. In 1999 to 2004, NDA run the government under Prime Ministership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. It was the first coalition government which completed its full term.
4. In 2004 to 2014, UPA run the government under Dr. Manmohan Singh, it is another coalition government which run for two terms. Thus, coalition governments were not stable in earlier times, but after 1999 they emerged as a stable governments.
In the given outline map of South Asia, five countries have been marked as A, B, C, D and E. Identify them on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer book with their respective serial number of the information used and the alphabet concerned as per the following format. (4)
|Sr. No. of the Information Used
|Name of the Country
(i) The country has experienced civilian as well as military rule both.
(ii) Democracy was restored in this country in 2006.
(iii) This country is still a monarchy.
(iv) This country is a part of India’s ‘Look East Policy via Myanmar’.
|Sr. No. of the Information used
|Name of the Country
|(i) The country has experienced civilian as well as military rule both
|(ii) Democracy was restored in the country in 2006.
|(iii) This country is still a monarchy.
|(iv) This country is a part of india’s ‘Look East Policy through Myanmar.’
What is Political Party? Explain different functions of the Political parties. (6)
Analyse the issue ‘Indira vs the Syndicate’. What type of challenges did the issue pose before Indira Gandhi?
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good. The main functions of political parties are discussed below:
1. Contesting Elections Political parties contest election by nomination its candidate for the electoral contest in various constituencies.
2. Policies and Programmes Political parties put forward different policies and programmes so that the voters can choose from them.
3. Making Law Political parties play a decisive role in making laws for the country. Most of the parliamentarians belong to political parties, so a political party has direct said in law making of the country.
4. Formation of Government Political parties form and run governments. The executive body is formed by people from the ruling party.
5. Playing Opposition A party which does not get majority or come under the majority coalition, needs to play the role of the opposition. It keeps an eye on the ruling government, criticises them and mobilises opposition to ruling party.
6. Shaping Public Opinion Political parties share public opinion. They do so by raising and highlighting issues in the legislature and in the media.
7. Providing Access to Government Machinery Political parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implements by the governments. Parties need to be responsive to people’s needs and demands.
After 1967 elections, the real challenge to Indira Gandhi came not from opposition but from within her own party. ‘Syndicate’ was a group of powerful and influential leaders within the Congress. The Syndicate had appointed Mrs. Gandhi as the Prime Minister but soon she started asserting her independence and sidelined the Syndicate. She chose her trusted group of advisers from outside the party.
Slowly and carefully, she sidelined the Syndicate. At this point, Indira Gandhi faced two challenges. She needed to build her independece from the Syndicate. She also needed to work towards regaining the ground that the Congress had lost in 1967 elections. Indira Gandhi adopted a very bold strategy to face this challenge. She converted a simple power struggle into an ideological struggle.
Describe the political consequences of effects of globalisation. (6)
What was the different concepts of cultural manifestations of globalisation. Explains in detailed?
The political consequences of globalisation on the world is discussed below:
1. Globalisation results in the erosion of state capacity i.e., the ability of the government to do what they do. In place of welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
2. Increased role of multinational companies all over the world leads to reduction in the capacity of government to take their decisions on their own. Some governments are forced to do away with certain rules and regulations which safeguard the rights of working people and environment.
3. On the other hand, it may be stated that globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be the unchallenged basis of political community. The state continues to discharge its essential function and consciously withdraws from certain domain which it wishes to.
4. The supporters of globalisation believe that in some respect the state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens and can rule in a better way. As a result of technology, the states have become more powerful than they were earlier.
The cultural manifestations of globalisation consists of two concepts. These are
1. Cultural Homogenisation: It is an important aspect of cultural globalisation. It refers to the rise of uniform culture or different cultural practices into one common culture. Although, rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of a global cuture.
For instance, the popularity of American culture like McDonalds, blue jeans and Hollywood movies has been dominant across the globe. It somehow leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
But cultural manifestations of globalisation are not always negative in nature as sometimes external culture influence simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without posing any real challenge. Like for example burger is not a substitute for a masala dosa.
2. Cultural Heterogenisation It is an aspect of globalisation which also generates an opposite effect. The process leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive in nature. This phenomenon is defined as cultural heterogenisation.