Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 4 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40

General Instructions:

  • The question paper has three sections as A,B and C.
  • Section A has 8 questions of 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 50 words each.
  • Section B has 3 questions of 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 100 words each. Answer of map question should be attempted accordingly.
  • Section C has 2 question of 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 170 words each.

Section A

Question 1.
What do you mean by ASEAN? Mention any of its objectives. (2)
How far is it correct to describe ASEAN as a New Centre of Power in the world?
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 with the signing of the ASEAN declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by its founding countries. The founding members of ASEAN are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Over the years, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Cambodia also joined ASEAN taking its strength to ten members. Therefore, ASEAN is a regional organisation which was established to promote political and social stability amid rising tensions among the
Asia-Pacific’s post colonial states. The motto of ASEAN is ‘One Vision, One Identity, One Community’.

The objective behind the formation of ASEAN are as follows

  • Territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontation.
  • To accelerate economic growth through social progress and cultural development.

‘While the ASEAN region as a whole is a much smaller economy compared to the US, the EU and Japan. Its economy is growing much faster than all these. This accounts for the growth in its influence both in the region and beyond.

1. ASEAN is rapidly growing into a very important regional organisation. Its vision 2020 has defined an outward-looking role for ASEAN in the international community. This builds on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiation over conflict in the region. Thus, ASEAN has mediated the end of Cambodian conflict and the East Timor Crisis.

2. The current economy strength of ASEAN especially its economy relevance as a trading and investment partner to the growing Asian economy such as India and China makes this an attractive proposition.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Question 2.
“Within the Congress there were different groups of different ideologies”. In the light of the given statement explain how coalition-like character of Congress made it stronger and inclusive? (2)
Many of these groups either merged their identity within the Congress or continued to exist within the Congress holding different beliefs. Thus, Congress became an ideological coalition as well.  The coalition like character of Congress made it stronger and inclusive in the following ways:

1. A coalition accommodates all those who are part of it and strike a balance on almost all issues. Compromise and inclusiveness are the basic characteristics of a coalition. This strategy made opposition difficult to be developed because all issues and concerns find a place in the programme and ideology of the Congress.

2. Coalition nature of Congress developed a greater tolerance of internal differences and accommodated the needs and aspirations of various groups and leaders. Congress did both these things during the freedom struggle and continued doing this even after independence.

Question 3.
Write a short note on different party system? (2)
There are majorly three types of party systems that are One-party System It refers to a political framework where one or single political party forms and runs the government. For example, in China all powers are vested with the Communist Party of China.

Bi-party System It refers to a political framework where two major parties dominate voting at all levels of government. For example, the United States is an example of a two-party system in which the majority of elected officials are either Democrats or Republicans.

Multi-party System A multi-party system is where many parties compete for power and government will often pass between coalitions formed by different combinations of parties. India is an example of Multi-party coalition system.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Question 4.
What are four characteristics of the Communist Party of India? (2)
The four characteristics of the Communist Party of India are:

  • The Communist Party of India is inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and advocated socialism as the solution to problems affecting the country.
  • Soon after Independence, the party thought that the transfer of power in 1947 was not true independence and encouraged violent uprising in Telangana.
  • The basic question that troubled the party was the nature of Indian Independence.
  • In 1951 the communist party abandoned the path of violent revolution and decided to participate in the approaching general elections.

Question 5.
Write a short notes on era of coalition? (2)
With 1989 elections, an era of coalitions came up with the beginning of third electoral system. This era is built around the core principles that include a sharp rise in political competition at the national level and declining margins of victory in parliamentary races.

With the defeat of Congress Party in the 1989 elections, no other party emerged in majority at the Central level. Congress was the largest party in the Lok Sabha but as it didn’t got clear majority so it decided to sit in the opposition.

The National Front (an alliance of Janta Dal and other regional parties) got support from BJP and the Left Front. On this basis, the National Front formed the government but BJP and Left Front did not join this government.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Question 6.
Examine the impact of India’s Other Backward Classes’ political development. (2)
The impact of political rise of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in India is
1. When the support for the Congress among many sections of the backward castes had declined, this created a space for non-Congress parties to get the support of OBC’s.

2. Many of the constituents of the Janta Party like the Bhartiya Kranti Dal and Samyukta Socialist Party had a powerful rural base among some sections of the OBC.

3. In the 1980’s, the decisions of the National Front Government to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission further helped in shaping the politics of the OBC.

4. 1980’s saw the emergence of many parties like Bahujan Samaj Party that sought better opportunities for OBC’s in education, employment, adequate representation in administration.

Question 7.
“Globalisation has affected India economically, socially and culturally”. Discuss. (2)
India removed restrictions on imports of goods after adopting New Economic Policy in 1991; which also boosted the investees to invest in India.

1. Foreign Direct Investment has increased the production of goods and services and it has also enhanced foreign exchange reserves.

2. The European and USA culture spread in India after adoption of globalisation which bring about changes in food habits and dressing style.

3. Information technology and space technology have been enhanced after globalisation.

4. India have been also participating in trade and commerce with other nations. India plays a
leadership role at many other places. (Any two) However, in India resistance to globalisation has come from various quarters like Trade Unions of industrial work force and through social movements.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Question 8.
Evaluate India’s role in ASEAN. (2)
India is a Member of ASEAN, East Asia Summit has been pushing for the growth of trade relations. It is increasing its significance as a trading and investment partner to Thailand, Myanmar and Sigapore.

India is looking forward to creating an are for free trade, investment provision of labour and services. The agreements signed between India and ASEAN are India signed Free Trade Areas (FTAs) with two ASEAN members i.e. Singapore and thailand. India is trying to sign on FTA with ASEAN itself.

Section B

Question 9.
How did China become a global economic power? Examine. (4)
China had adopted Soviet model of economy. Despite development, China faced economic crisis as industrial production was not growing fast, international trade was minimal. Under these situations some major policy decisions were taken

  • China established relations with the US in 1972.
  • China proposed four areas of modernisation as agriculture, industry, science and technology in 1973.
  • Open door policy was introduced to generate higher productivity by investment of capital and technology from abroad.
  • Privatisation of agriculture and industry in 1982 and 1998.
  • China set Special Economic Zones to remove trade barriers.
  • The integration of Chinese economy and inter-dependencies has enabled China to have considerable influence with its trade partners.
  • The open door policy has established the ASEAN economy.

China’s outward looking for investment and aid policies in Latin America and Africa are projecting China as a global player.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Question 10.
Describe any three elements of growing consensus among most of the political parties of India after 1989. (4)
Elements of growing consensus are as follows:
1. Agreement on New Economic Policies Most parties were in support of the new economic policies and believed that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and a status of economic power in the world.

2. Acceptance of the Political and Social Claims of the Backward Castes Political parties had recognised that the social and political claims of the Backward Castes need to be accepted and support reservation of seats for OBC in education and employment.

3. Acceptance of the Role of State Level Parties in Governance of the Country State level parties were sharing power at the national level and had played a central role in the country’s politics.

4. Emphasis on Pragmatic Considerations Rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement as most parties of NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutava’ ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Question 11.
In the given political outline map of Europe, four member countries of the European Union have been marked as A, B, C and D. Identify them with the help of information given below and write their correct names in your answer book along with their respective serial numbers and the alphabet concerned. (4)

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions 1

Sr. Number of the information used Alphabet concerned Name of the Country

(i) An older member of the European Union located between Portugal and France.
(ii) An older member of the European Union located near Belgium and Netherlands.
(iii) Two new members of the European Union.

Sr. Number of the information used Alphabet concerned Name of the Country
(i) A Spain
(ii) B Luxembourg
(iii) C and D Bulgaria and Romania

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

Section C

Question 12.
What was the main reason and how Bangladesh was formed from Pakistan? (6)
“India and Bhutan have a good relation between them inspite of that there are some challenges between both the nations”. Discuss.
Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan from 1947 to 1971, which comprises of the partitioned areas of Bengal and Assam from British India. Western Pakistan domination such as in the form of imposition of Urdu was resented by the common people of Bangladesh.

Protests were evident in the country since the partition against the unfair treatment towards the Bengali culture and language. A demand for fair representation and a fair share in political power was also demanded.

1. Sheikh Mujib-ur Rahman was a leader who led the popular struggle against the domination of West Pakistan and demanded independence for Eastern region.

2. During the 1970’s elections, the Awami League under Sheikh Mujib-ur Rahman won all the seats in East Pakistan and secured a majority in the constituent assembly. But the government under West Pakistan leadership refused to call up the assembly. After this, Sheikh Mujib was arrested.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

3. Under the rule of Yahya Khan, thousands of people were killed to suppress the mass movements. Problems like large scale migration towards India emerged and it created a refugee problem for India.

4. The people of East Pakistan were supported financially and militarily by the Indian Government for their independence. This led to a war between India and Pakistan in December 1971. The war ended with the surrender of Pakistan forces in East Pakistan and Bangladesh was formed as an independent nation.
Some of the challenges faced by both India and Bhutan are discussed below
1. For internal security perspective, illicit development of camps by militants in the dense-jungles of South-East Bhutan is a cause of concern for both the nations.

2. Bhutan’s concern regarding profitability of its Hydropower projects in the wake of India’s shift to renewable sources of energy like wind, solar, etc.

3. India and Bhutan enjoy a special relationship despite of major conflict. The effort of the Bhutanese Government to weed out the guerrillas and militants from North-East India has proved to be helpful to India.

4. India is involved in big hydroelectric projects in Bhutan and remains its biggest source of development aid.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

5. India has various problems with its neighbours and given the size and power of India, they are bound to be suspicious of India’s intention.

6. The Indian Government often feels exploited and does not like the political instability in these countries which may provide platform for the outside powers to gain influence in the region.

Question 13.
Examine the legacy of the Emergency of 1975? (6)
As a student of political science, which three lessons do you learn from the Emergency imposed in 1975?
The legacy of emergency was felt in every sphere of people’s life and politics.

  • Between the elections of 1977 and 1980, Congress identified itself with a particular ideology, claiming to be only socialist and pro-poor party.
  • The concept of non-Congression was created among oppositions parties.
  • The issues of welfare of backward classes began to dominate politics i.e. Northern states elected non-Congress leaders of backward class since 1977.
  • This period of emergency saw the period of constitutional crisis to lose its origin in the constitutional battle over jurisdiction of Parliament and judiciary.
    This period created a political crisis also as the party in power enjoyed the absolute majority, still decided to suspend the democratic process.
  • The emergency tensed between institution-based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation for which party system was to be blamed.


The three lessons of Emergency were:

(i) Though many observers who thought that India ceased to be democratic during the Emergency but it proved wrong and normal democratic functioning reduced within a short span of time and in this context it is said that it is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.

(ii) Secondly, it highlighted some ambiguities regarding the Emergency provision in the constitution that have been corrected. Now ‘internal’ Emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of ‘armed rebellion’ and advice to President to proclaim Emergency must be given in writing by the Council of Ministers.

CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 4 with Solutions

(iii) Thirdly, Emergency made everyone realised the value of the civil liberties. The court too have become active after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals.