Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 6 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 6 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- The question paper has three sections as A,B and C.
- Section A has 8 questions of 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 50 words each.
- Section B has 3 questions of 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 100 words each. Answer of map question should be attempted accordingly.
- Section C has 2 question of 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 170 words each.
What is the political and diplomatic influence of the European Union? (2)
Describe briefly about economic model of India.
The political and diplomatic influence of European Union is discussed below
1. One member of the European Union France, holds permanent seat in the United Nation Security Council with several non-permanent members.
2. The European Union is enabled to influence some United States policies such as the current US position on Iran’s Nuclear Programme.
3. Its diplomacy, economic investments and negotiations have been effective with China particularly on issues of human rights and environmental degradation.
India has emerged as an important global power in the 21st Century. The world is experiencing the power and rise of India in a multidimensional way.
From the economic perspective, targeting the goal of a $5 trillion economy 2024-25, a competitive huge market, an ancient inclusive culture with 200 million people of Indian Diaspora spreading across the globe impart distinct meaning and silence to India as a new centre of power in 21st century.
The military of India is self sufficient with indigenous nuclear technology making it another nuclear power from a strategic perspective. Projects like Make in India sets another milestone in India economy. Therefore, all these changes are making India an important power in the present world.
State the political impact of globalisation on the world? (2)
The political impact of globalisation on the world are as follows
- It eroded the capacity of the state by reducing the ability of the government to do what they want.
- The concept of welfare state has been reduced to a more minimalist state all over the world.
- Market becomes a prime determinant to settle down social and economic priorities is place of welfare.
- The increased role of MNC all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decision on their own.
How Globalisation is different from internationalism? (2)
Globalisation is different from internationalism on the basis of the following points:
1. Internationalism believes in the integrity of community, whereas globalisation believes in one umbrella concept and sharing of ideas between other states.
2. Internationalism believes in the use of resources of all the world equally for the benefit of mankind, but globalisation emphasise on the development of resources for the welfare and support of community.
3. Internationalism also believes in the universal brotherhood and international peace, whereas globalisation believes in the concept of flow of ideas, people and commodities throughout the globe. It also encourages the richer countries to support the poorer countries’ economy.
Explain the term non-Congressism keeping in mind the fourth general elections in India, 1967? (2)
Non-Congressism referred to the non – Congress parties along with their different programmes and ideologies together to form anti – Congress fronts. After the fourth general elections in 1967, opposition parties were in forefront of organising public protests and pressuring the government.
Parties opposed to the Congress realised that the division of their votes kept the Congress in power. Thus, parties that were entirely different and disparate in their programmes and ideology got together to form anti – Congress fronts in some states and entered into electoral adjustments of sharing seats in others.
They felt that the inexperience of Indira Gandhi and the internal factionalism within the Congress provided them an opportunity to topple the Congress. The socialist leader Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia gave this strategy the name of non – Congressism.
He also produced a theoretical argument in its defence : Congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interests of ordinary poor people, therefore, the coming together of the non – Congress parties was necessary to reclaim democracy for the people.
Who founded the Swatantra Party in 1959? Describe any three policies and programmes of this party? (2)
Swatantra Party was founded by C. Rajagopalachari in 1959. Three policies and programmes of party were:
- The Swatantra Party wanted the government to be less and less involved in controlling the economy. It believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom.
- It was critical of the development strategy of state intervention in the economy, centralised planning, nationalisation and the public sector. It instead favoured expansion of a free private sector.
- The Swatantra Party was against land ceilings in agriculture and opposed cooperative farming and state trading.
How has the method of voting changed in India after the first two general elections and until 2004? (2)
The following changes introduced in the voting methods in India after 1952
(i) During the first general election a box was placed in each pooling booth with the election symbol of candidates. Each voter got a blank ballot paper and had to drop into the box of the candidate they wanted to vote for. Initially about 20 lakh steel boxes were used for this purpose.
(ii) In 3rd to 13th general election, ballot paper carried the names and symbols of all the candidates and voters had put a stamp on the candidatures’s name. This technique worked for 40 years.
(iii) In the end of 1990s, the Election Commission introduced Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) and in 2004 it was used extensively all over the country.
“In the new era of coalition politics political parties are not aligning on the basis of ideology’. Explain. (2)
In the new era of coalition politics political parties are not aligning on the basis of ideology. Following points explain the given statement
(i) Unstable Government: The coalition government has its own interest and they fight for their own self interest. This leads to the breakup of not only of various fronts, but of governments as well.
(ii) Political Opportunism: Government formed on the basis of coalition becomes selfish, as opportunist, power hungry and unscrupulous politicians focus on the self-interest only.
(iii) Lack of Polarisation: The coalition governments are formed not on the basis of polarisation of political forces, but for the sake of capturing power and vested interest. There have been no sincere urge even among the parties of same ideology for political polarisation.
Why did the anti-Muslim riots take place in 2002 in Gujarat ? What were the outcomes of these riots? (2)
In February-March 2002 large scale violence took place against Muslims in Gujarat because
(i) At Godhra station a bogey of Sabarmati Express train was set on fire which was full of Karsevaks. They were returning from Ayodhya.
(ii) Suspecting the hands of Muslims in setting fire to the bogey large-scale violence against Muslims began in Gujarat from the next day. The outcomes of these riots were
(iii) This violence continued for almost a whole month. Nearly 1100 persons, mostly Muslims were killed.
(iv) The National Human Rights Commission criticised the Gujarat Government’s role in failing to control this communal violence, providing relief to the victims and prosecute the perpetrators of this violence.
Mention any four significant changes in Indo-China relations that have taken place after the Cold War? (4)
End of the Cold War marked various changes in the relationship between India and China.
Four significant changes in Indo-China relations took place after the Cold War was.
(i) Both India and China consider themselves as rising powers in international politics. After the visit of Rajiv Gandhi in 1988, both governments tried to maintain ‘peace and silence’ on the border.
(ii) Agreements regarding cultural exchanges and cooperation were signed. Four border posts were also opened.
(iii) Trade between India and China grew at 30 percent per year since 1999.
(iv) An increase in bilateral trade from 18 billion in 2006 was seen. India and China are following the same policies in international economic institutions like the World Trade Organisation.
(v) Leaders from both countries frequently visit each other’s nation and this way they get familiar with each other. Through an increase in transportation and communication links and working on common economic interests development of sound economic relationship has been taking place.
When and why did a long phase of coalition politics begin in India? (4)
The long phase of coalition politics began in India in 1989 because:
(i) No political party able to get majority despite of Congress being the largest party in Lok Sabha elections. So in 1977, the Janata party formed government with the support of many non-Congress parties.
(ii) United Front Government was formed under Prime Ministership of Chandra Shekhar, then under HD Deve Gowda and finally IK Gujral with the outside support of BJP and leftists.
(iii) In 1999 to 2004, NDA run the government under Prime Ministership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. It was the first coalition government which completed its full term.
(iv) In 2004 to 2014, UPA run the government under Dr Manmohan Singh, it is another coalition government which run for two terms. Thus, coalition governments were not stable in earlier times, but after 1999 they emerged as stable governments.
In the given political outline map of South Asia, four countries have been marked as (A), (B), (C) and (D). Identify them on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names along with their respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabets as per the following format. (4)
|Sr. No. of the Information Used||Alphabet Concerned||Name of the Country|
(i) An important country but it is not considered to be a part of South Asia.
(ii) The country has a successful Democratic System.
(iii) This country has had both Civilian and Military rulers.
(iv) This country had Constitutional Monarchy.
|Sr. Number of the information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of the Country|
Highlight the issues of cooperation as well as confrontation each between India and Bangladesh? (6)
Analyse the common problems of South Asian countries.
The issues of tension (negative aspects) between India and Bangladesh are
- Dispute over sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters.
- The Indian Government is not happy with Bangladesh’s refusal to act on unlawful immigration to India.
- Bangladesh’s support to anti-Indian Islamic fundamentalist groups.
- Bangladesh refused to allow Indian troops to move through its territory to North-East region.
- Bangladesh refused to export natural gas to India and allow Myanmar to do so through its territory.
The areas of cooperation (positive aspects) between both the countries are
- From the last decade, economic relations have been strengthened.
- India’s ‘Look East Policy’ does involve Bangladesh that links South-East Asia via Myanmar.
- Both countries are cooperating on the grounds of disaster management and environmental issues.
- Area of cooperation is being broadened by identifying areas of common threat and by responding sensitively to each others needs.
South Asia includes countries like India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Maldives and Sri
Lanka. The various natural areas such as the Himalayas, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean are part of this region. The common problems among them are:
- Poverty All countries of South Asia suffer from large masses living in poverty. In India, nearly 38 percent of people are living in poverty.
- Violation of Human Rights There exists a great threat to human rights from anti-social elements, communalist and from people with a negative attitude, thinking and approach.
- A Problem Faced by Democracy Several countries of South Asia aspire to be a democratic country but face a problem of stable democracy.
- Women Employment Women are generally seen at a lower position in most of the South Asian nations. They are restricted and are not as free as their counterparts.
“Towards the end of the 1980s, five major changes took place in Indian political system.” In light of this statement, examine any three changes. (6)
“Sometimes the period after 1989 is seen as a period of decline of Congress and rise of BJP. Despite severe competition and many conflicts, a broad consensus emerged on many crucial issues.” Explain.
For major development in Indian politics towards the end of 1980s, country saw five major
development which are as follows
(i) End of Congress System mean dominance of Congress for two decades. But the most important event was the defeat of Congress party in the 1989’s elections. The party had won only 197 seats, which was very low in comparison to 1984 elections where party won 415 seats.
The Congress boosted up its performance and finally it came back to power in 1991, after Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination. But the elections of 1989 marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system’, congress remained as major party but it lost its dominance as it enjoyed earlier in the party system.
(ii) Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi: There was a change in leadership due to assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991. He was assassinated during his election campaign in Tamil Nadu by a Sri Lankan Tamil linked to the LTTE. The elections of 1991 witnessed Congress party emerging as the single largest party. Though death of Rajiv Gandhi led to the appointment of Narsimha Rao as the Prime Minister.
(iii) Ayodhya Issue: The Ayodhya issue was started with the demolition of Babri Masjid in December, 1992. This, incident led to violence and many questions were raised about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism. This issue exemplified and provoked various changes in the politics of the country and guided the rise of the BJP and the politics of Hindutva.
Despite of severe competition and many conflicts, a broad consensus emerged on many crucial issues. These are discussed below.
(i) First agreement was on new economic policies. Most political parties have consensus about the new economic policies despite the fact many groups opposed this. As it was believed that these policies will bring prosperity and help the country to be an economic power in the world.
(ii) Second was the acceptance of political and social claims of the backward castes. Most of the political parties accepted and supported the reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment. Political parties also ensure that the OBC’s get adequate share of power.
(iii) The third acceptance was the role of regional parties. The role of state level parties in governance of the country is accepted by all major parties. Regional parties are sharing power at the national level and has been playing central role in the politics of the country for twenty years.
(iv) The fourth emphasis was on pragmatic considerations rather than the ideological. Most of the political parties’ emphasis on practical considerations rather than ideological positions. The coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements. For instance, most parties of NDA didn’t agree with the Hindutva ideology of BJP but they came together to form government.