Students can access the CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science with Solutions and marking scheme Term 2 Set 9 will help students in understanding the difficulty level of the exam.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Term 2 Set 9 with Solutions
Time allowed: 2 Hours
Maximum Marks: 40
- The question paper has three sections as A,B and C.
- Section A has 8 questions of 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 50 words each.
- Section B has 3 questions of 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 100 words each. Answer of map question should be attempted accordingly.
- Section C has 2 question of 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should be completed within 170 words each.
“SAARC comprises 3% of the world’s area, 21% of the world’s population and 3.8% of the global economy”. Inspite of that there are limitations of SAARC. Discuss. (2)
What were the impacts of China’s New Economic Policy?
- SAARC is growing at a slow pace due to the political differences among its member states.
- Conflicts between India and Pakistan led to bilateral issues like Kashmir issue.
- India’s neighbours feared that India to dominate them by influencing at the political and societal level.
- SAARC members in majority belong to developing or least developing countries which creates insufficiency of funds.
The impact of New Economic Policy of China were as follows
- The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to deal with stagnation.
- Privatisation of agriculture resulted in rise of agricultural production and rural incomes which helped the rural economy growth at a faster pace.
- The new trading laws and creation of Special Economic Zones attracted foreign players and foreign trade.
- China has become an important place for Foreign Direct Investment in the world. Now, China has large foreign exchange reserves which allow it to make big investments in other countries. China’s accession to the WTO in 2001 also helped its opening to the outside world.
What are the factors which affect the stability of democracy in Pakistan? (2)
Several factors that led to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy were as follows
- Social dominance of military, clergy and landowning aristocracy were responsible for the frequent overthrow of elected government and establishment of military governments.
- The pro-military groups became more powerful over India-Pakistan’s conflict. These groups are against the principles of political parties and democracy.
- There has been a strong sense of pro-democracy sentiment in the country.
- Absence of genuine international support for democratic rule has further encouraged the dominance of military. Like for instance, USA and other Western countries have encouraged the military’s authoritarian rule for their own reasons.
Although India and Bangladesh has a good relation over the past few years but there are few difference between them. Discuss. (2)
Further, the Government of India has differences with Bangladesh due to the following reasons
- Illegal immigration of Bangladeshi people majorly in the North-East and West Bengal which destablise the demographic dividend.
- Bangladesh’s support for anti-India Islamic fundamentalist groups.
- Bangladesh’s refusal to allow India troops to move through its territory to North-Eastern India.
- Its decision not to export natural gas to India or allow Myanmar to do so through Bangladeshi territory.
Discuss the relationship of India and Maldives. (2)
India and Maldives Shares a warm and cordial relationship. In November, 1988 when some Tamil mercenaries from Sri Lanka attacked the Maldives, the Indian Air Force and Navy reacted quickly to the Maldives request to help and stop the invasion. India has also contributed to wards the island’s economic development, tourism and fisheries.
What is meant by ‘Era of Coalition’ in India?What circumstances led to this change and how? (2)
After 1989, the emergence of several political parties was in such a way that no single party secured a clear majority in the Lok Sabha and therefore the era of coalition government started at the centre. This change come due to the following reasons
(1) In the election in 1989 the ruling party ‘Congress Party’ was defeated but no single party got the majority of seats to form the government. The Congress Party decided to sit in the opposition.
(2) The National Front an alliance of Janta party decided to form the government with the help of two important parties i.e. BJP and the Left Front.
(3) Although the BJP and the Left Front did not join the Government, they supported the National Front led by VP Singh from outside.
Describe any two outcomes of the Naxalite movements. (2)
Two outcomes of the Naxalite movements were
(i) Naxalite movement was strong, particularly in West Bengal spread to the different parts of India. Nine states had been affected by their activities.
(ii) Human rights activists declared government for using violent and harsh measures against them and criticised government for violating the human rights.
“In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are no longer aligned on ideological grounds.” Explain. (2)
Three features of the coalition government has been given in which we have to understand the not aligning and re-aligning on the basis of ideologies. These are
(i) Unstable Government The coalition government has its own interest and they fight for their own self interest. This leads to the breakup of not only of various fronts, but of governments as well.
(ii) Political Opportunism Government formed on the basis of coalition becomes selfish, as opportunist, power hungry and unscrupulous politicians focus on the self-interest only.
(iii) Lack of Polarisation The coalition governments are formed not on the basis of polarisation of political forces, but for the sake of capturing power and vested interest. There have been no sincere urge even among the parties of same ideology for political polarisation.
Examine the basis for China’s estimate that it would overtake the United States as the world’s largest economy by 2040. (2)
China is viewed to dominate the US by the year 2040. The basis of the projection are
- China is considered as the driver of East Asian growth because of the economic integration into regions.
- China is considered to be very powerful and factors such as population, land mass, resources, regional location and political influence add to its strength.
- China announced ‘Open Door Policy’ in 1978 which aimed at a generation of high productivity by investments in capital and technology from abroad.
Explain the reasons that have contributed to China’s economic growth. (4)
China is the third major alternative centre of power. It is the fastest growing economy. China at one time was based on the Soviet model and at that time, it broke all the links with the capitalist world. Following are the factors responsible for the rising of the Chinese economy
(i) Use of Soviet Model China accepted the Soviet model and relied on its resources. China decided to substitute imports by domestic goods and create state-owned heavy industries from capital produced by agriculture.
(ii) Development of Industrial Economy China used all its resources to develop an industrial economy. All citizens were provided with education and health programmes. Relationship with USA, China established a relationship with the USA in 1972.
(iii) Modernisation in the field of agriculture, industry, military, science and technology were proposed.
(iv) Major policies announced ‘Open Door Policy’ was announced by Deng Xiaoping in 1978, which aimed at a generation of high productivity by investments in capital and technology from abroad.
(v) The era of Privatisation, Privatisation of agriculture in 1982 and privatisation of industry in 1998 was done.
(v) Establishment of SEZ’s Special Economic Zones was set up. The state had a centralised role in setting up of China’s economy.
Describe the Congress dominance in the first three general elections. (4)
The result of the first general election did not surprise anyone. The Indian National Congress was expected to win this election. Congress evolved from its origin in 1985 as a pressure group of newly educated, professional and commercial class to a mass movement in the 20th Century. It was the only party having an organisation and having most popular leader like Jawaharlal Nehru.
(i) The legacy of the freedom movement was an important reason of Congress dominance in General Election.
(ii) Congress was very organised and had organisational presence across India along with organisational network to the local.
(iii) Its inclusive nature made it popular among all sections of society. Thus, all these factors led to the dominance of Congress party. However, in the first decade of electoral competition, the Congress acted both as the ruling party as well as the opposition. Therefore, this period of Indian politics has been called as the Congress System.
In the given map of India four states have been marked A, B, C and D. Identify these states on-the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in respective serial number. Information given about the Lok Sabha elections result 1977. (4)
(i) The state where Indian National Congress (INC) was in majority.
(ii) The state where Janta Party was in majority.
(iii) The state where other parties were in majority.
(iv) The state where left parties were in majority.
|Sr. No. of the Information Used||Alphabet Concerned||Name of the State|
|Sr. Number of the information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of the State|
Define Globalisation. State any four Globalisation causes of it. (6)
Explain the three advantages of Globalisation with the help of suitable examples.
Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished. The factors responsible for globalisation are:
(i) Globalisation is not caused by a single factor. Now-a-days technology is the most important element. The invention of the telegraph, the telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors and hence, invention of printing laid the basis for the emergence of nationalism. The technology affects both our personal and collective lives.
(ii) The technology has made it easier to exchange ideas, capital, commodities and people from one place to another. The transfer of capital and commodities is likely to be wider and quicker, than the transfer of people across different parts of the world.
(iii) It is not just the availability of improved communication which led to the emergence of globalisation, rather the role of people in different parts of the world is also significant who recognise these interconnections with the rest of the world.
(iv) The events taking place in one part of world have an influence, on the other part of the world. Here, we can take an example of bird flu or tsunami, which is not confined to only one nation. It has affected the world as whole. Similarly, any major economic event would have an immediate impact on the local, national or regional environment at the world level.
The three advantages of Globalisation are as follows
- It involves greater economic flows among various countries.
- It has enhanced trade in commodities among countries.
- The restrictions on the imports and movement of capital have also been reduced.
- This has spread internet and computer related services across national boundaries.
Technological equipments as telephone, internet, telegraph and microchip have contributed to globalisation by exchanging ideas, capitals and people to make convenient to move from one place to another at a fast pace under the process of globalisation.
- The primary status remains unchallenged basis of political community.
- States have received a boost under globalisation to become more powerful and strong.
Who has formed Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist)? Discuss the reason for the Naxalite Movements in India and what were the methods adopted by Naxalites? (6)
“Different people have different views of Emergency”. Discuss.
In 1969, one branch broke off from the CPI (M) and a new party, Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) was formed under the leadership of Charu Majumdar. The reason behind the Naxalite Movements were
(i) In the areas of Orisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal the sharecroppers, under-tenants and small cultivators were denied their basic rights with regard to security of tenure or their share in produce, payment of fair wages, etc.
(ii) Forced labour, expropriation of resources by outsiders and exploitation by money lenders were also common in these areas. These conditions lead to the growth of Naxalite Movements.
The methods adopted by Naxalites were
- The Naxalite Movements has used force to snatch land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor and the landless.
- Its supporters advocated the use of violent means to achieve their political goals.
- The Naxalite Movement split into various parties and organisations. Some of these parties like the CPI-ML participated in open, democratic politics.
- Many districts in nine states are affected by Naxalite violence. Most of these are very backward areas inhabited by adivasis.
Views in favour of Emergency
(i) In a democracy the government argued that, opposition parties must allow the elected ruling party to govern according to its policies.
(ii) It felt that frequent recourse to agitations, protests and collective actions are not good for democracy.
(iii) Congress contended that use of extra-parliamentary methods hindered development and lead to instability as all energy had to be spent on maintenance of law and order.
(iv) In this regard, Indira Gandhi wrote to Shah Commission that Emergency was implemented as subversive forces tried to dislodge the government by using extra-constitutional methods.
(v) Some parties like CPI backed the Congress during emergency and said there was an international conspiracy against the unity of the India.
Views against the Emergency
(i) Leaders like JP felt that since independence people had a right to protest. Movements of Bihar and Gujarat were peaceful. Those arrested were never tried for anti-national activities. There was no need to implement measures like emergency to curb such protest.
(ii) Critics of emergency argued that India had history of such movements including freedom and also people had the right to protest against government in democracy.
(iii) Even the Home Ministry which was monitoring the internal situation of the country did not express any concern about law and order situation in the country.
(iv) Even if some agitations had overstepped their limits, there was no need to suspend the democratic functioning of the country.
(v) Critics also held that Indira Gandhi had misused constitutional provision for saving her personal power instead of saving the country.