Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Gender Religion and Caste

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Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Extra Questions Civics Chapter 4

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions Question 1.
Define gender division.
Gender division refers to the unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women.

Gender, Religion And Caste Class 10 Notes Questions And Answers Question 2.
What is the result of the sexual division of labour?
The result of sexual division of labour is that women have been confined to the private domain of family, while the public domain has been monopolised by the men.

Important Questions Of Chapter Gender, Religion And Caste Class 10 Question 3.
Why does girl child gets dropped out from the school as compared to male child?
Because parents prefer to spend their resources for their boy’s education rather than spending equally on their sons and daughters.

Gender, Religion And Caste Class 10 Questions And Answers Pdf Question 4.
What is the sex ratio in India?
Sex ratio means number of girl child per one thousand boys. According to census of India 2001, the sex ratio in India was 927:1000.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Important Questions Question 5.
What were Gandhiji’s views on religion?

  • Gandhiji did not consider religion as Hinduism, Islam or Christianity. To him, every religion was based on some belief system supported by rituals. He tried to get rid of rituals as far as possible.
  • To him religion was a human institution that helped people solve practical affairs. He believed that the moral values drawn from all the religions should be used to guide the political system.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Gender Religion and Caste

Gender Religion And Caste Extra Questions Question 6.
Write down Human Rights Groups views about religious minorities.

  • Human rights groups in India have argued that most of the victims of communal roits in our country are people from religious minorities.
  • They have demanded that the government should take special steps to protect religious minorities.

Gender Religion And Caste Class 10 Extra Questions And Answers Question 7.
Why was India declared a secular state?
Communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in our country The makers of our Constitution were aware of this challenge. That is why they chose the model of a secular state.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions And Answers Question 8.
Name a few leaders who worked for ending casteism in India.
Political leaders and social reformers like Jotiba Phule, Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswami Naicker advocated and worked to establish a society in which caste inequalities are absent.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Question Answer Question 9.
“Exclusive attention to caste can produce negative results also.”. Explain.

  • As in the case of religion, politics based on caste identity alone is not very healthy in a democracy.
  • It can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, development and corruption.
    In some cases casteism leads to tensions, conflicts and even violence.

Gender Religion And Caste Class 10 Extra Questions Question 10.
What do you mean by the term ‘Secular’.
It means being neutral or matters of faith and having no special preference to any religion. It involves giving freedom to people to follow religion of their own choice. The state treats every religion equally.

Gender Religion And Caste Class 10 Important Questions Question 11.
Define family laws.
The family laws are related to families. They apply differently to different religions. They deal with family-related issues such as inheritance, marriage, adoption, divorce etc.

Gender Religion And Caste Class 10 Questions And Answers Question 12.
How can women’s representation be increased in politics?

  • One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies.
  • This is what the Panchayati Raj has done in India. One-third of seats in local government bodies – in panchayats and municipalities-are now reserved for women.
  • Now there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies.
  • Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and the state assemblies for women.

Gender Religion And Caste Class 10 Questions And Answers Question 13.
Can religion be used positively in politics? How?

  • Gandhiji always preached for using the moral values of all the religions as a guide to the political system. He believed that all the religions have some belief system and the ethics. It should be used in politics as a guide.
  • Ideas, ideals and values should have a place in politics. People should be able to voice their needs and interests as a religious community. Also, the leaders should regulate the religion to ensure that it is not used for discrimination and oppression.
  • However, the use of religion in politics should be done with careful thought and analysis. No religious demand or interest should be raised if it is against any other religion.
  • Religion should be used to bind the people together and not arouse feelings of distrust and suspicion.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Gender Religion and Caste

Gender Religion And Caste Class 10 Questions And Answers Pdf Question 14.
Why is the work done by the males more visible than the work done by the females?

  • The work is generally divided on the basis of the gender of a person. The women of the family are supposed to do all the household work and the men are supposed to go out for work.
  • The work done by women is generally unpaid for like cooking, cleaning, washing clothes and taking care of children. Also, no specific skill is required to do the household work.
  • While the male members earn money for their work and some skills are needed for the work. Due to this, the work done by men is respected more in the society and hence, considered as more visible than the work done by females.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Questions And Answers Question 15.
When does the problem of communalism become acute?
Communalism creates an acute problem when:

  • Religion is used in politics as an exclusive factor where people belonging to different religions are treated differently
  • Demands of one religion are against the demands of another religion and there is feeling of distrust among the people of different religions
  • Beliefs and ideas of one religion are shown to be superior to the beliefs and ideas of another religion.
  • Various religious groups are in opposition to each other and the winning or defeat of a particular group is associated with respective religion’s winning or defeat.

Question 16.
Explain “political mobilization on communal line”.

  1. Communalism means promoting the ideas of one religion within a particular group and undermining the ideas of other religions. It becomes a problem when religion is used to divide the society.
  2. It believes that people belonging to different religions form different communities and cannot live together as one nation.
  3. Communalism in politics sometimes takes the shape of political mobilization on communal lines. It means that political leaders appeal to people of different religions to gain votes. It involves the use of sacred religious symbols and religious leaders to appeal to the people of that religion.
  4. It attempts to bring all the people of one religion together. The political leaders pay special attention to the demands of one religion at the cost of the other religions.

Question 17.
What do you mean by caste inequalities?

  • Unlike gender and religion, the caste division is special to India. All societies have some kind of social inequalities and some form of division of labour.
  • In most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another. Caste system is an extreme form of this.
  • What makes it different from other societies is that in this system hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
  • Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practiced the same or similar occupation married within the caste group and did not eat with members from other caste groups.

Question 18.
“Caste and caste system in India have undergone great changes.” Explain.

  1. Caste and caste system in modern India have undergone great changes. With, economic development, large scale urbanization, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and the weakening of the position of landlords in the villages the old notion of caste hierarchy are breaking down.
  2. Now, most of times in urban areas it does not matter much who is walking along next along next to us on a street or eating at the next table in a restaurant.
  3. The Constitution of India prohibited any caste-based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system.
  4. If a person who lived century ago were to return to India, he/she would be greatly surprised at the change that has come about the country.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Gender Religion and Caste

Question 19.
“Caste can take various form in politics.” How?
Caste can take various forms in politics:

  1. When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections. When the governments are formed, political parties usually take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
  2. Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to caste sentiments to muster support. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen as their representatives.
  3. Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote compelled the political leaders to gear themselves up to the task of mobilizing and securing political support. It also brought new consciousness among the people of castes that were hitherto treated as inferior and low.

Question 20.
How does politics influence caste?
It is not politics that gets caste-ridden, it is the caste that gets politicised. This takes several forms:

  • Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighbouring castes or sub-castes which were earlier excluded from it.
  • Various caste groups are required to enter into a coalition with other castes or communities and thus enter into a dialogue and negotiation.
  • New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arenas like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups.
  • Thus caste plays different kinds of roles in politics. In some ways, it is a routine factor that works all over the world mobilise social groups and communities in order to get their votes.
  • In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand share of power. In this sense caste, politics has helped people from Dalits and OBC castes to gain better access to decision making. Several political and non¬political organisations have been demanding and agitating for the end of discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.

Question 21.
“Case continues to be very strongly linked to economic status in many important ways.” Explain.
As the evidence from the National Sample Survey shows, caste continues to be very strongly linked to economic status in many important ways:

  • The average economic status (measures by criteria like monthly consumption expenditure) of caste groups still follows the old hierarchy – the ‘upper’ castes are best off, the Dalits and Adivasis are worst off, and the backward castes are in between.
  • Although every caste has some poor members, the proportion living in extreme poverty (below the official ‘poverty line’) is much higher for the lowest castes and much higher for the upper castes, with the backward castes once again in between.
  • Although every caste has some members who are rich, the upper castes are heavily over-represented among the rich while the lower castes are severely under-represented.

Question 22.
Explain the concept of sexual division of labour.

  • Gender division does not mean the biological difference between men and women. It refers to the unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women.
  • Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is housework and bringing up children.
  • This is reflected in a sexual division of labour in most families: women do all work inside the home such as cooking, cleaning, washing clothes, tailoring, looking after children, etc. and men do work outside the home.
  • It is not that men cannot do housework; they simply think that it is for women to attend to these things. When these jobs are paid for, men are ready to take up these works. Most tailors or cooks in hotels are men.
  • Similarly, it is not that women do not work outside their home. Women fetch water and collect fuel in villages, they work in the fields, they often do shopping and are increasingly taking up paid jobs. But their work is not valued and does not get recognition.
  • The result of this division of labour is that women have been confined to the private domain of family, while the public domain has been monopolized by the men.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Gender Religion and Caste

Question 23.
“Women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways.” Give some instances to support the statement.
In our country, women still lag much behind men despite some improvement since independence. Ours is still male-dominated, patriarchal, society.

Women face disadvantages, discrimination and oppression in various ways:

The literacy rate among women is only 54 per cent compared to 76 per cent among men. Similarly, a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies. When we look at school results, girls perform as well as boys, if not better in some places. But they get dropped Out because parents prefer to spend their resources for their boys education than spending equally on their sons and daughters.

No wonder the proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small. On an average Indian woman works one hour more than an average male every day. Yet much of her work is not paid and therefore often not valued.

In many parts of India parents prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted before she born. This has led to a decline in child sex ratio (number of girl child per thousand boys) in the country to merely 927.

There are reports of various kinds of harassment, exploitation and violence against women. Urban areas have become particularly unsafe for women. They are not safe even within their own home from beating and other forms of domestic violence.

The Equal Wages Act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work. However, in almost all areas of work; women are paid less than men, even when both do exactly same work.

Question 24.
Write a note on communal politics and its consequences.

  • Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community. Communalism involves thinking along the following lines.
  • The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life
  • It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community.
  • If the followers of different religions have some commonalities these are superficial and immaterial.
  • Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.

Question 25.
How can you say that communalism can take various forms in politics?
Communalism can take various forms in politics:

The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. These routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions. This is so common that we often fail to notice it, even when we believe in it.

A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. For those belonging to majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance ‘For those belonging to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit

Political mobilisation on communal lines is another frequent form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. In electoral politics, this often involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others.

Sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. India and Pakistan suffered some of the worst communal riots at the time of the partition. The post-independence period has also seen large scale communal violence.

Question 26.
“India is a secular state”. Justify.

There is no official religion of the Indian state. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, that of Islam in Pakistan and that of Hinduism in Nepal till recently, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.

The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.

The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.

At the same time the Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.

Understood in this sense secularism is not just an ideology of some parties or persons. This idea constitutes one of the foundations of our country.

Communalism should not be seen as a threat to some people in India. It threatens the very idea of India. That is why communalism needs to be combated. A secular Constitution like ours is necessary but not sufficient to combat communalism. Communal prejudices and propaganda needs to be countered in everyday life and religion-based mobilization needs to be countered in the arena of politics.

Question 27.
“The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that elections are all about caste and nothing else. But that is far from true.” Justify.
The focus on caste in politics can sometimes give an impression that elections are all about caste and nothing else. That is far from true. Just consider these examples:

  • No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. So, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections.
  • No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or – community. When people say that a caste is a vote bank’ of one party it usually means that about two-thirds of the voters of that community.
  • The ruling party and the sitting MP or MLA frequently lose elections in our country. That could not have happened if all castes and communities were frozen in their political preferences.
  • The voters have strong attachment to political parties which is often stronger than their attachment to their caste or community. People within the same caste or community have different interests depending on their economic condition.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Gender Religion and Caste

Multiple Choice Questions
Four choices are given to the following questions.
Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
Ours is a …………………… society.
(a) Matriarchal
(b) Patriarchal
(c) Feminist
(d) Elders
(b) Patriarchal

Question 2.
The literacy rate among women in India is:
(a) 54%
(b) 65%
(c) 48%
(d) 55%
(a) 54%

Question 3.
The literacy rate among men in India is:
(a) 54%
(b) 65%
(c) 76%
(d) 80%
(c) 76%

Question 4.
On an average an Indian woman works – how much more than an average man every day:
(a) 1 hour more
(b) 2 hours more
(c) 3 hours more
(d) 4 hours more
(a) 1 hour more

Question 5.
Child sex-ratio in India is:
(a) 935
(b) 952
(c) 980
(d) 927
(d) 927

Question 6.
Now, there are more than elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies:
(a) 2 lakhs
(b) 5 lakhs
(c) 7 lakhs
(d) 10 lakhs
(d) 10 lakhs

Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Gender Religion and Caste

Question 7.
How many seats is local government bodies are now reserved for women?
(a) 1/3
(b) 2/3
(c) 3/4
(d) none
(a) 1/3

Question 8.
India is a:
(a) Religious state
(b) Secular state
(c) Autocratic state
(d) None of these
(b) Secular state

Question 9.
In 2001, population of STs in India was:
(a) 0.8%
(b) 16.2% .
(c) 19%
(d) 8.2%
(d) 8.2%

Question 10.
Who are majority in India?
(a) Muslim
(b) Hindus
(c) Christians
(d) None of these.
(b) Hindus

Question 11.
Shift of population from rural area to urban areas is called:
(a) Urbanisation
(b) Rural Migration
(c) Dwelling
(d) None of these
(a) Urbanisation

Question 12.
BPL for rural areas was fixed at spending of:
(a) ₹ 454
(b) ₹ 550
(c) ₹ 327
(d) ₹ 800.
(c) ₹ 327

Question 13.
BPL for urban areas was fixed at spending of:
(a) ₹ 800
(b) ₹ 327
(c) ₹ 550
(d) ₹ 454
(d) ₹ 454.

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science