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Development Class 10 Extra Questions Economics Chapter 1
What do you mean by economic development?
Economic development is meant a process whereby the real per capita income of the country increases over a long period of time along with improvement in the material welfare.
What do you mean by sustained development?
Sustained development is the development which takes care of the needs of the present generation without compromising with the needs of the future generations.
Name the three sectors of economy?
- Primary sector,
- Secondary sector,
- Territory sector.
Point out the main activities that constitute the Primary sector.
The primary sector is constituted by the following activities-
- Logging etc.
What is meant by the Secondary sector?
Secondary sector constitutes the sectors that are dependent on the primary goods. In other words, preparing goods from the primary goods are the secondary activities. For example, making bread from wheat is a secondary activity. The sectors engaged in these type of activities are known as the secondary sectors.
What is mixed economy?
Mixed Economy is the economy that has the characteristics of both capitalist economy as well as socialistic economy.
What is meant by consumption?
Taking and using the goods and services by the people is consumption.
What do you mean by production of services?
The production of services refers to the activities such as transportation, medical treatment, postal services, courier telephone services, washing of clothes etc.
What is meant by the territary activities?
The territary activities are the support services, these are the activities which link the producers and consumers. Banking, Insurance, retail stores, communication, teaching, all are the examples of the territary activities.
Which of the countries are considered as developed countries?
Developed countries are those countries where the per capita income is high. These are the countries where people are less engaged in primary activities. U. S. A, U. K., Canada, Japan are some of the examples of this type of countries.
Define national income?
National income may be defined as the total value of all the goods and services produced within a country plus the income that is coming from abroad.
What is per capita income?
Per capita income is the total national income that is divided by total population.
Which are low-income countries?
Countries with S 825 and less per capita income are called low-income countries.
What is Body Mass Index (BMI)?
The BMI is an index which helps us calculate whether the adults are nourished or undernourished.
What is meant by renewable resources?
Resources which can be renewed are called renewable resources. Groundwater is an example of renewable resource.
What is reserve/production ratio?
Reserve/production ratio is one through which one is able to know the number of years that the reserves will last if production and use continue at current rates.
What do you mean by the term economic development
Economic development is the system of earning and spending well in order to raise the living standards. Economic development in fact is the progress that a country makes in the field of economy. If in a particular country the people earn higher income and are able to satisfy all their needs, it is said that the country is a developed country and its economy is developed economy.
On the other hand, where people are not able to earn a higher income and are not able to get all the facilities requires for their satisfaction, then we say that such an economy is a developing economy.
Point out the main features of the mixed economy?
The main features of the mixed economy are the following
- It is a combination of free-market economy and government planned economy.
- In this type of economy production activities are carried out by individuals as well as by the government.
- In this type of economy, the prices of goods and services produced by individuals are decided by market forces but the goods produced by the government are decided by the government itself.
- The involvement of the government in production level ensures the welfare of the people rather than the profit.
(i) Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because life situations of persons are different.
(ii) Do the following two statements mean the same? Justify your answer.
(a) People have different developmental goals.
(b) People have conflicting developmental goals.
(iii) Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
(iv) Explain some of the important ideas of the above section in your own words?
(i) Because people are different, that is why they have different notions of development. At times, they have conflicting nations of development.
(ii) The two statements are different. People have different developmental goals. Our development goals may be different than what may be the goal of my Neighbour. It is also possible that people with different goals may have conflicting developmental goals.
(iii) In addition to the factor of income, there are numerous other factors which are important in our lives. Some such examples are
- level of health care,
- level of education,
(iv) Development is what everyone seeks. It is because of the developmental goals that we are able to seek facilities and goals. Indeed, different as we are, we have different goals as well. At times, our developmental goals clash with each other.
(i) Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations.
(ii) Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
(iii) Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two Or more societies?
(iv) Suppose records shows that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
(v) From the text, find out the per capita income level of middle-income countries as per WDR- 2006.
(vi) Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country.
(i) Average is used in
- calculating the monthly income of citizens;
- in calculating the monthly expenditure of four individuals,
- in calculating the life expectancy of a fixed number of Individuals
As the average income increases, this indicates that there is a consequent development in respect of income.
The size of import and export is also an important component for comparing the two or more countries.
Not so; there may be more income obtained by the business class, and less for the salaried oiie, though the average income may increase.
Not so; there may be more income obtained by the business class, and less for the salaried one, though the average income may increase.
Students may do it with the help of the teachers.
Students may do it with the help of the teachers: Hints
- More educational facilities in the rural areas.
- More health facilities in the rural areas.
(i) Look at data in Table A and B. Is Punjab as ahead of Bihar in literacy rate etc. as it is in terms of per capita income?
(ii) Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision.
(iii) Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities? What other factors could be relevant? ‘
(iv) In Tamil Nadu, 75% of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in Jharkhand only 8% of rural people do so. Where would people be better off and why?
(i) Yes, Punjab is ahead of Bihar in literacy rate (Punjab 70%, Bihar 47%) as it is in per capita income (Punjab ₹ 26000/- Bihar ₹ 5700/-)
(ii) Students may do it with the help of their teachers.
(iii) Though money can buy facilities, yet money alone is not the sole factor. The other factors which can buy goods and services may include literacy and health rates.
(iv) Ration shops do help people obtain basic necessities at reasonable rates. What needs to be done is efficient working system.
(a) Is crude oil essential for the development process in a country? Discuss.
(b) India does not have enough reserves to meet its present needs. It has to import crude oil. What problems do you anticipate for the country looking at the above, situation?
(a) Crude oil helps in generating energy and in transportation. These help in the developmental process of a country.
(b) India imports crude oil and spends a lot of foreign exchange. The rise in the prices of crude oil leads to inflation.
Assume that there are only four families each in two countries. Study the table on the right carefully and answer the questions that follows
(a) Fill in the blanks in a way that both country X and country Y have the same average income.
(b) Now say, which country is better off and why.
Country X is better of: because there is almost an equal average income (or equitable distribution of income) of the four families. But in country Y there is a lot of difference in the income of the four families. Family D has seven times more income than the income of family A, more than 8 times of family B, and about six times more of family C.
Describe the different factors of production?
The main factors of production are the different factors of production include the factors that are essential for the production of goods and services. These factors are in fact the resources that are essential in order to carry out various economic activities. In economic terms, these factors are called inputs of factors of production.
These are the factors which help in production of commodities. These are also known as resources. These factors of production or the resources are owned by the individuals, Community government or
by the combination of any two or all the three of them.
The main factors of production are as follows Land :
- It is used for getting all the natural resources. It is the land that provides us with wood, crop, cotton, tea, or other things to Promote our industries.
- Moreover, we also need land to establish industries and factories.
- Land is also required to make the the living places for workers.
- Hence it is the most important factor and resource without which we even cannot imagine about economic development.
Labour: It is also one of the most significant factors of production. Without labour the economic activities cannot take form. All physical and manual efforts of mankind which are used in production or earning money are called labour.
Capital: It is that part of wealth which has been produced by man in his past and which is being used in production nf other goods and services presently. Capital is very essential for production. because without capital one would not be able to buy land or raw material. Neither the labour would be a available without money. Hence without money, no production activity will occur.
Distinguish Between Developed and Developing Economies.
manual efforts of mankind which are used in production or earning money are called labour.
Capital: It is that part of wealth which has been produced by man in his past and which is being used in production of other goods and services presently.
Capital is very essential for production because without capital one would not be able to buy land or raw material. Neither the labour would be a available without money. Hence without money no production activity will occur.
|1. The standard of living of the people in this type of economy is very high.||In this type of economy the standard of the people is comparatively low.|
|2. Per capita income in this economy is very high.||Per capita income is quite is low.|
|3.The countries with this type of economy is very developed in industrial sector.||Countries with this type of economy are not so developed in industrial sector.|
|4. In this type of economy people are engaged more and more in secondary and terriatry kind of economic activities.||Here people are dependent more and more on the primary sector.|
|5. The per capita income of this type of economy is $10000 or even more. (2004)||The per capita income in this type of economy is $ 825 only or even less. (2004).|
Distinguish between Economic and Non-economic activities.
|Economic activities||Non-economic activities|
|1. It includes all the activities which give money in return.||In this type of activity, money is not paid.|
|2. Teaching in schools, selling vegetables, providing legal services are the examples of economic activities.||Painting for hobby, teaching as providing social services, watching movies are examples of non-economic activities.|
|3. These type of activities play a direct role in the development of a nation.||These type of activities also plays a role in the development of the nation, but indirectly.|
|4. Economic activities are productive type.||These activities represent consumption.|
|5. Economic activities are included in national income.||These are not included in national income.|
How do you find out undernourishment among the adults?
One way to find out if adults are undernourished is to calculate what nutrition scientists call Body Mass Index (BMI). This is easy to calculate. Take the weight of the person in kg. Then take the height in metres. Divide the weight by the square of the height.
If this figure is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered undernourished. However, if this BMI is more than 3 then a person is overweight. This criterion is not applicable to growing children. This also indicates that such a person’s economics background is not sufficient enough to obtain nourishment diet.
Objective Type Questions
Fill in the blanks
The proven reserves (bn tonnes) of crude oil of the World is ………………………. . (137.3,133.7)
The reserve/production ratio in terms of years with regard to crude oil is in the world is ……………………… . (93.4, 43.0)
India’s HDI (2004) rank in the 177 countries is ……………………… .
Life Expectancy at birth in India (2004) is ……………………… .(64, 74)
Literacy rate for 15+ years population (2004) in India is ……………………… . (48,60)