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Nationalism in India Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 3
Mention the significance of the Home Rule Movement. State its two features.
The significance of the Home Rule movement in India’s freedom struggle cannot be denied. It gave the nationalist movement a boost needed at that time. The two features of the Home Rule Movement were:
- Demand for a dominion status.
- Demand for Home rule.
What do you mean by the Kakori Conspiracy Case? Name the two terrorists hanged in this case.
The British government struck at the workers of the Hindustan Republican Association by arresting a large number of terrorist youth and trying them in Kakori Conspiracy Case (1925) Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqulla were hanged in this case.
Why did the British government appoint Simon Commission? Why did the Indians boycott it?
The British government appointed the Simon Commission” in 1923 to examine the working of the Government of India Act, 1919.
The Indians boycotted the Commission because,
- it was appointed by the Conservative Party government, unsympathetic towards India’s cause,
- it consisted of all Englishmen.
What were the reasons for launching Civil Disobedience Movement by the Congress?
- The Indian National Congress had already resolved in the Lahore session of 1929 to launch the movement.
- The British Government was unwilling to solve the Indian”political problems, i.e., liberation of the country.
What were the two important decisions taken in the Lahore session of Indian National Congress of 1929?
A session of the Indian National Congress was held at Lahore in 1929. The two important decisions taken here were :
- Declaration of complete independence and its unilateral celebration on January 26, 1930.
- Launching of a civil disobedience movement in 1930.
What were the objectives of the Constituent Assembly (1946)?
The following were the objectives of the Constituent Assembly :
- To make the Constitution of India.
- To act as the Parliament of India When the British leave the country.
What do you know about the Montague’s Declaration?
The Montague’s declaration was made in August 1917. The British policy of administration was pronounced. It was said that the ultimate aim of the British rule in India was the establishment of responsible government in the country.
What was dyarchy in the context of the Government of India Act, 1919?
Dyarchy, in the context of the Government of India Act, (1919) was the introduction of the dual rule in the provinces: the reserved departments under the councillors, all Englishmen; the transferred departments under the ministers, all Indians.
Why is Dandi March important? Give reason.
Dandi March is important because it was at that place” that Gandhiji made all out of the seawater on April 6, 1930. It was the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
When and by whom was the Indian National Army (IN A) reorganised? What was its main purpose?
The Indian National Army was reorganised by Subhash Chandra Bose in Singapore in 1943. The main purpose of INA was to liberate India from the yoke of the British rule.
Who was the architect of the two-nation theory? What was its main object?
The two-nation theory was advocated by M.A.Jinnah The main purpose of this theory was to have two separate independent states for the Hindus and the Muslims.
Why did Gandhiji launch individual satyagraha? Why was the first satyagraha?
Gandhiji launched individual Satyagraha in 1940 with the object of dissuading the Indians in joining the war. Vinoba Bhave was the first satyagrahi.
How did the people discover their unity while fighting”against colonialism?
People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle against colonialism.
Why did forced recruitment cause widespread anger India on the eve of world war?
On the eve of World War I, the villagers in India faced hardships such as inflation, increasing custom duties, taxation sailing crops. When the British government began forced recruitment in the army, the villagers were angry.
When was the Khilafat committee formed and for what purposes?
The Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in 1919 to defend the temporal powers of the Khalifa, the spiritual head of the Islamic world.
Why was the Nagpur session of the Congress important?
The Nagpur session of the Congress (1920) was important because it was in this session that the non-cooperation programme was adopted.
Why was the rural India in turmoil by 1930?
The economic depression had its effect all over the world. Agricultural prices began to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930. The demand for agricultural products also fell leading to the decline of export. The peasants could not sell their products, nor could they pay their revenue.
Why was the Lahore session of the Congress (1929) important?
The Lahore session of the Congress (1929) was important because it was here that the Congress passed the “Purna Swaraj” resolution. The Indians had celebrated 26th January 1930 as the independence day.
Mention the social groups which were lukewarm to the civil disobedience movement.
The Dalits, the upper-caste Hindus, some Muslim organisations were lukewarm to the civil disobedience movement launched by Gandhiji.
It is said that the ideas of nationalism developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore? Give example.
It is true that the ideas of nationalism developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore, for example, himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movement for folk revival.
When and why was the Muslim League founded? What was the main idea which led to I the partition of India in 1987 Elucidate?
The Muslim League was founded in 1906 at Dhaka. Its”objectives included the following:
- To protect and promote the interests of the Muslims.
- To bring the Muslims and the British closer in each other.
- To foster friendship with other communities of India.
The main idea which led to the partition of India in 1947 was Jinnah’s two-nation theory and his direct action strategy (use of violence) to get Pakistan.
What was the contribution of the revolutionaries to the growth of Indian Nationalism?
The contribution of the revolutionaries to the growth of Indian nationalism canot be underestimated. They awakened the common masses and filled in them the spirit of nationalism. They attempted to highlight injustice metal out The Indians in India as well as abroad. They demanded supreme sacrifice from the people to get the country free from the British.
Describe the role of revolutionaries in the Indian National Movement.
The role of the revolutionaries in the Indian National Movement can hardly be denied. The revolutionaries had no faith in the British and hence wanted them to leave the country. For ousting the British, the revolutionaries did not hesitate in resorting to the extremist and revolutionary activities. In Punjab, Bengal, Maharashtra and Chennai (Madras), they followed policy of terrorising the British rulers. They were successful in generating”awakening among the people.
Discuss four important provisions of the Act of 1919.
- The Act of 1919 increased the membership strength of the legislative bodies: both at the centre as well as in the states.
- It enhanced the powers of the legislative bodies.
- At the provincial level, dyarchy was introduced.
- The Governor-General and the Governors got discretionary powers to override the decisions of the legislative bodies.
What was the Rowlatt Act? Why did the Indians oppose it?
The Rowlatt Act was an Act passed by the British Government in India. The Act authorised the police to arrest and imprison any person without trying him in any court. It was an oppressive Act. The Indians opposed the Ad because it was detrimental to the freedoms and liberties of the people. As it was also arbitrary and dictatorial; the Act was condemned by the’Tndians.
Why and by whom was the Khilafat Movement organised?
The Khilafat movement was organised by Ali brothers Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali. They launched this movement
- to prevent the possibilities of dis membership of Turkey following its defeat in the First World War,
- to ask the Muslims not to join the army on the side of the English,
- to strengthen Hindu Muslim unity.
- to establish the glory of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
Analyse the significance of the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement in India’s struggle for freedom.
The Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements had their special role in the history of India’s freedom movement. The Khilafat movement was launched by Ali brothers and the Non-Cooperation Movement, by Mahatma Gandhi The leaders of both the movements joined each other’s movement and shook the very foundations of the British Government. Both the movements laid stress on the Hindu Muslim unity, both brought the mass of the people in liberation struggle against the British imperialism.
Why did Gandhiji withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Gandhiji had launched Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. The movement went so well that the Britishers were shaken. The lawyers came out of the courts, the students from the schools and colleges. The Indians boycotted official functions. All of a sudden, there broke out violence in a place called Chauri Chaura where the mob had attacked a police station killing 22 police personnel. As Gandhiji wanted the movement to be non-violent the use of violence forced him to withdraw the movement.
What was the significance of 1931 Karachi session of the Congress.
Significant contribution of 1931 Karachi session:
- The Congress session at Karachi in 1981 approved the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
- The most significant contribution of the Karachi session was a resolution passed on Fundamental Rights and Economic policy
- The Congress suspended the civil disobedience movement and agreed to take part in Round Table Conference in London.
When and why did the Quit India Movement start? What were its effects on the national movement?
The Quit India movement was launched in August. 1942. It was launched so to ask the British quit the country, for their failure to grant independence to India. As the Indian leaders were arrested before launching of the movement, the movement came to be launched by the people.
The while country rose against the British. Despite the repressive measures of the British Government, the movement spread in the whole country. It shook the British rule.
In what way did communalism obstruct the growth of nationalism in India?
Communalism was a potent factor which had obstructed the growth of nationalism in India. It did so because it worked in the framework of the narrow interests. It separated one set of people from the other set of people. It created wide distances between the people belonging to one religion and those belonging to the other. It resulted in enmity and hatred among the different communities and led to communal riots. The communal enmity had ultimately ended in the partition of India into two dominions.
What was the role played by Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) in India’s struggle for freedom?
The role played by the Indian National Army in India’s struggle for freedom cannot be denied. In fact, the Indian National Army proved a serious external danger to the British. It forced the British to leave the country as early as possible. Subhash Chandra Bose gave the slogans of ‘Delhi Chalo’ and ‘Jai Hind’, to the Indians.
State briefly the effects of non cooperation on the economic front.
The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed. and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from ₹ 102 crore to ₹ 57 crore. In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Explain as to why the non-cooperation movement slowed down in the cities. Give reasons. ‘
The non-cooperation movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. Khadi cloth was ofter more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. How then could they boycott mill cloth for too long? Similarly, the boycott of British institutions posed a problem.
For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.
Who was Baba Ramchandra ?
Baba Ramchandra was a sanyasi who led the peasant movement in Awadh. The movement was against talukdars and landlords who demand high rents from peasants. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payment. As tenants they had no security of tenure, being regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land.
The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of legal, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked bazaars were looted, and grain hoards were taken over.
“Nationalism, in the early 20 century, came to be associated with the image of Bharat Mata”. Explain with illustration.
It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
How did the tribal peasants interpreted the message of Gandhiji and the satyagraha? Explain it with the Gudem revolt.
Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma”Gandhi and the idea of Swraj in yet another way. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, for instance, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s – not a form of struggle that the Congress could approve. Here, as in other forest regions, the colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and emits.
This enraged the hill people. Not only were their livelihoods affected but they felt that their traditional rights were being denied When the government began forcing there to”contribute begar for road building, the hill people revolted. The person who came to lead them was an interesting figure. Alluri Sitaram Raju claimed that he had a variety of special powers. He could make correct astrological predictions and heal people, and he could survive even bullet shots.
Captivated by Raju, the rebels proclaimed that he was an incarnation of God. Raju talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement and persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking But at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj. Raju was captured and executed in 1924, and over time became a folk hero.
What were the Khilafat and the Non- cooperation” movements? Name some important leaders of these movements.
Khilafat Movement: It was a movement launched by Ali brothers-Shaukat All and Mohammad Ali to oppose the British policy of dismembering the Turkish Ottoman Empire and the office of the Caliph in Turkey, the religious head of the Muslim community.
Non-Cooperation Movement: It was a movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 to protest against the British policy of repression through the Rowiati Act and the Jallianwala massacre in 1919.
Gandhiji launched the movement to demonstrate non-cooperation with the British Government by boycotting elections, schools and courts on the one hand, and on the other, attempting to bring about unity among the various sections of the Indian society by using Charkha and Swadeshi The movement was to be carried on through peaceful measures. But an accident occurred at Chauri-Chaura. The movement was withdrawn in 1922.
The leaders of the Khilafat movement were Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali. The leader of the Non-Cooperation Movement was Mahatma Gandhi.
What did the slogan of Swaraj mean? How was the slogan of Complete Independence different from it? When and where was the slogan of Complete Independence adopted?
Swaraj’ meant that the autonomy be given to the Indians. Following the Calcutta (now Kolkata) Congress session in 1905, the Indian. National Congress sought to demand Swaraj. What Swaraj meant was the freedom to rule ! which was to mean that the power to administer the affairs be handed over to the Indians.
In other words, it meant that the power to be given to the elected Indians who should be responsible to the legislature, and the legislature to be responsible to the people to be more specific, the rulers have to be Indians, and not the English.
Complete independence or what may be called the Purna Swaraj was to be different from the word ‘Swaraj’. Swaraj had the indication of internal autonomy, though the external autonomy was to be exercised by the British The Purna Swaraj or the complete independence, as a resolution was passed at the Lahore Congress Session of 1929.
Through the 1929 complete independence resolution, the Congress sought complete freedom from the British internal autonomy as well as freedom to act on its own in relation to the other countries. The complete independence resolution was passed by the Congress in 1929 at the Lahore Congress Session.
When was the Muslim League formed? Describe briefly the policies of the Muslim League from 1906 to 1940. When was the formation of a separate state of Pakistan adopted as the aim of the Muslim League?
The Muslim League was formed in December 1906 with the aim of seeking the Muslim representation in the government and bringing the Britishers and the Muslims, closer to each other, From the day one, the League thought of itself, though mistakenly, as the sole representative of the Muslims, and began projecting the Congress as the Flindu organisation.
From 1906 to around 1911, the Britishers supported the League and the league approved of the British policies in India. The League supported the proposal of the Bengal partition: it did not participate in the nationalist movement against the proposals of Bengal partition. But as the war aims of the British home Government against the Turkish Empire, dismembering it became clearer, the League and the British Government in India drew distant and consequently the League drew closer to the Congress.
The League and the Congress annual sessions began at the same time and in the same cities in 1914, 1915, 1916. There was the Lucknow Pact (1916) between the Congress and the League: the Congress agreeing the communal representation demands of the League, and the League supporting the Congress demand of Swaraj.
With the end of the war and with the rise of the modernist Kamal Pasha in Turkey, the League and the British, in India, had nothing against each other. So the League began going away from the Congress and began coming closer to the Britishers in India. Thereafter, started the dominance of the fundamentalists in the League, the distance between the League and the Congress kept widening.
Responding to the challenge posed by the Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead, the All-Party Conference (1928) prepared a Constitution for India which the League supported but which it rejected in the League’s son, there came up Jinnah’s 14 points. These 14-points constituted nothing but separate electorate representation. Their demand for separate electorate representation kept increasing year after year.
As the League’s public support was never strong, it did not obtain much electoral victories in the elections held in 1937 under the Government of India Act, 1935. The league had its government only in two provinces. When the Congress ministries resigned in protest against the Viceroy’s declaration of war in 1939, the League organised the day of deliverance. In 1910, the Muslim League encouraged by the Britishers, got passed the Pakistan resolution at its Lahore session in 1940.
Write notes on the following: Simon Commission; 26 January 1930; Ghadar Party; India League; the Indian National”Army; the Meerut and Lahore Conspiracy Cases.
Simon Commission: The commission, known as Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 which visited India in 1928 to enquire into the functioning of the diarchy as proposed by the Government of India Act, 1919. The Swaraj Party also hastened the appointment of Simon Commission.
The Congress boycotted the Simon Commission for it had no faith in it because it was wholly constituted by all-Englishmen. The commission was greeted by all black flags with slogans such as “Simon, go back”. However, the government came up with lathi blows against the demonstrators.
26th January 1930: This day has been an important day in the history of the Indian nationalist movement. It was on this day that the Indians celebrated the unilateral independence day and thereafter every year. In the Lahore Congress Session (1929) the Congress had fixed January 26, 1930 to celebrate the unilateral independence day. But when India became independent on August 15, 1947 the 26th January came to be celebrated as the Republic Day.
The Ghadar Party: The Ghadar, meaning the Rebellion Party was formed in 1913 by the Indian revolutionaries in the United States of America and Canada. Both the Hindus and the Muslims manned this party. The Ghadar party was pledged to wage the war of independence against the British rule in India. The Ghadarites decided to send money and aminurutions to India to help the revolutionaries fight the government. They were always ready to help the Indian revolutionaries.
India League: The Indians outside India, established the India League. The headquarter of the Indian League was at London its chief objectives were to raise the voice of India and her problems in England and create public opinion in India’s favour. Numerous Englishmen had supported the India League.
The Indian National Army (INA): The Indian National Army was reorganised by Netaji Subash Chandra Bose in Singapore in 1943. The army consisted of the Indians settled in southeast Asia and their soldiers who had left the British royal army in India.
Bose made the army strong and powerful and wanted to free India through armed forces. During the war and with the help of Asia (especially the Japanese) forces captured some areas in the North-East India He gave the Indians slogans such as Delhi Chalo’, ‘Jai Hind’, ‘Give me blood, I will give you freedom’. Some INA officials (Shah Nawaz, Sehgal and Dhillon) were tried after the war, but the Government had to bow to the rising and emotional nationalism created by the Hindu Muslim Sikh unity in 1945.
The Meerut and Lahore conspiracy cases: The Meerut conspiracy case was related to the arrest of some labour leaders in -1920s. The Lahore conspiracy case was related to two members of the Hindustan Republican Socialist Association – Bhagat Singh and B.K.Dutt in early 1930. The two cases aroused intense nationalism The Indian leaders provided legal assistance in both the cases. Whereas the Lahore leaders were freed, Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru were sentenced to death.
“The British were responsible for both the unification and the partition of India.” Explain this statement.
The British came to India as traders and became rulers. Following the revolt of 1857, the British Government took over the administration of India. The British rule, in India, was constructive as well as destructive. The British rule, in India, was constructive in the sense that it brought about political unity in the country.
Through uniformity of laws and through the use of English language, the British rulers brought the Indians on a common platform where they came to know the imperialist designs of the British rule in India, Through the English language, the Indians came together and shared their suffering.
But at the same time, the British rule in India was destructive It was destructive in the sense that it divided the communities among themselves. The Britishers exploited the Hindus against the Muslims, and the Muslims against the Hindus. They pursue the policy of divide and rule and encouraged the Muslim League to keep seeking demands after demands. The result was the partition of India.
What led to the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920? State as to how non-cooperation movement was effective?
The causes to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920 Gandhiji wanted that the national movement must be led by all Hindu and Muslims. He got an opportunity of making the national movement of Hindus and Muslims. The Muslims were also annoyed by the British Government.
The British government did not give proper treatment to Sultan of Turkey though Indian Muslim helped Britishers in the first World War Indian Muslims decided to agitate. Thus, along with Non-cooperation Movement, Khilafat Movement started.
The Non-cooperation Movement launched in 1920 was to be strictly non-violent. The people were asked to boycott the British goods, to use items made by Indians only, to boycott government jobs, government schools, colleges and courts.
The Congress in its Nagpur session advised the people to observe the following during Non-cooperation Movement:
- To surrender titles and honorary offices.
- To resign from nominated seats in the councils.
- To boycott government darbars and other functions.
- To withdraw gradually, children from the government schools and colleges.
- To boycott orders of the courts.
- To refuse to join British forces in Mesopotamia.
- To boycott election to the councils.
- To boycott foreign goods.
Explain the main features of the Non-cooperation Movement in India’s freedom struggle.
Gandhiji launched the Non-cooperation Movement in 1920.
The main features of the Non-cooperation movement can be stated as under:
- To boycott all the official functions of the Government.
- To surrender all titles bestowed by the Government.
- To ask the Indians to boycott British schools, colleges and courts.
- To denounce all the retrogressive measures adopted by the Government.
- To demand ‘Swaraj’ from the Britishers.
- To emphasise on the Hindu-Muslim unity.
The movement went very well. It shook the very foundations of the British rule in India. Following the use of violence in Chauri Chaura (Gorakhpur). Gandhiji withdrew the movement. The”movement was able to create awakening among the Indians.
Discuss the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34).
The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930 when he violated the Salt Law at Dandi. It was in accordance with the Poorna Swaraj resolution of 1929. As per the resolve of the Civil Disobedience movement, Gandhiji declared. Let every villager fetch or manufacture, contraband salt, sisters should picket liquor shops, opium dens and foreign cloth dealers’ shops. Foreign cloth should be burnt. Hindus should eschew untouchability.
Under the auspices of the movement, the Hartals were organised, foreign cloth dealers’ shops were picketed, opium and liquor dens were boycotted. As the movement progressed, the leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested.
The Government resorted to oppressive measures and came heavy on the demonstrators. The Indian National Congress boycotted the First Round Table Conference held in 1930. The movement was called off in view of the Gandhi- Irwin pact of 1931. The movement created political awakening among the Indians and brought independence close to them.
Prove by giving examples that the policy of non-violence adopted by Gandhiji was mainly instrumental in achieving Indian independence. (Any four).
- Gandhi’s policy of non-violence was supported by his urge for mass participation in the freedom struggle. He made the Congress a mass Congress. The Congress movement became a movement in which peasants, students, women and others came to participate in the liberation struggle.
- Gandhi’s non-violence meant non-cooperation. In all his movements, Gandhiji advocated non-cooperation and boycott of foreign-made goods.
- Gandhi’s non-violence also meant civil- disobedience. He launched civil disobedience movement in 1930 to press the fulfilment of his demands. He never confronted violence with violence
- Gandhi’s non-violence meant maximum inconvenience for oneself so to give the other maximum convenience.
Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the civil disobedience movement?
The following classes and social groups of Indians participated in the civil disobedience movement:
(i) In the countryside, rich peasant communities like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement. Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand and the refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment. These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(ii) The Indian merchants and industrialists had made huge profits and become powerful Keen on expanding their business they now reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce told Industries (FICCI) in 1927 Led by prominent industrialists like Pursholtamdas Thakurdas and GD, Birla, the industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
(iii) The industrial working classes did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region. As the industrialists came closer to the Congres workers stayed aloof. But in spite of that, some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement, selectively adopting some of the ideas of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions. There were strikes by railway workers in 1930 and dockworkers in 1932. In 1930 thousands of workers in Chotaragpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
(iv) Another important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.
In urban areas these women were from high-caste families; in rural areas, they came from rich peasant households. Moved by Gandhiji’s call they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
State the main features of the Indian National Movement from 1942 to 1947.
The main features of the Indian National Movement from 1942 to 1947 can be stated as under:
- The failure of the Cripps proposal (April 1942) disappointed many Indians. They thought of adopting harsher methods.
- The continuous failures of the Allied Powers and the success of the Axis powers, especially of japan in Asia gave the Indians enough courage to state their demands in clearer terms.
- The Quit India Resolution of August 1942, following the arrest of all the members of the Congress Working Committee, awakened tremendous consciousness among the people.
- The role of Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) led by Subhash Chandra Bose fought for India’s independence from abroad.
- The victory of the Allied powers and of the Labour Party in English elections created hopes among the Indians for an early resolution of India’s problems.
- The INA trials, the Mountbatten plan and the Indian Independence Act all brought the Indians close to their independence.
Why did the Indian National Congress change its goal from Swaraj to Complete Swaraj?
The Indian National Congress changed its goal of Swaraj (1906) to Complete Swaraj (1929) because of numerous reasons Some such causes can be summed up as under:
- The pressure of the younger generation of the Indian National Congress was mounting in favour of Complete Swaraj year after year.
- The British Government in India, kept pursuing the policy of divide and rule thus making, the Congress believe that it should launch a – movement for greater demand. Complete Swaraj instead of Swaraj.
- The demand of Complete Swaraj had the backing of the masses while that of Swaraj, the demand of the few English educated people.
- The demand of Complete Swaraj was the only alternative to the communalistic politics of the Muslim League.
Objective Type Questions
1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words:
The national song, ……………………… was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
……………………… was the architect of two-nation theory.
The Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed in
2. Match the following:
|Subhash Chandra Bose
|Azad Hind Fauj
|Civil Disobedience Movement
|Subhash Chandra Bose
|Azad Hind Fauj
|Civil Disobedience Movement
Choose the most appropriate alternative:
(i) The Rowlatt Act was proposed in:
(ii) One of the following was not the earlier satyagraha launched by Gandhiji:
(iii) Dr Iqbal presided the Muslim League session in:
(iv) A pact resolving the communal issue was undertaken in 1932. Where was the pact signed?
(v) Anandmath was written by:
(a) Rabindranath Tagore
(b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
(c) Abanindranath Tagore
(d) Debandranath Tagore
(b) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.