Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers The Age of Industrialisation

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Online Education for The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 5

Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions Question 1.
Give two examples where modern development, as associated with progress, has created problems.

  1. Modern development, through industrialisation, has led to the destruction of the pre-industrial system. The Indian textiles industry has harmed artisans
  2. Industrialisation has created pollution and damaged ecological balance. Environmental problems are around everywhere.

The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes Questions And Answers Question 2.
Who had controlled the pro-industrial system?
Merchants used to control the pre-industrial system while the goods were produced by the peasants.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Questions And Answers Question 3.
Name some of the production process of the 18th century.
Carding, twisting, spinning and rolling.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions Question 4.
Who had created the cotton mill?
Richard Arkwright.

The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions Question 5.
Name the first leading sector of the first phase of industrialisation.
Cotton was the first leading sector of the first phase of industrialisation.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers The Age of Industrialisation

Age Of Industrialisation Extra Questions Question 6.
Why was in the first phase of industrialisation technological charges were not initially acceptable to the industrialists and the merchant?
The new technology was expensive. Hence the merchants and the industrialists were cautious about using it.

Class 10 The Age Of Industrialisation Important Question Answer Pdf Question 7.
Who had produced the steam engine and who had, and with what improved it?
Newcomen had produced the steam engine and James Watt improved it by planting the new engine in 1781.

Extra Questions Of The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Question 8.
Why did the upper-class people in Victorian Britain preferred things produced by hand?
Things produced by hand used to symbolize with the upper-class people, refinement, and clasy. Moreover, the handmade products were better finished and carefully designed and individually produced.

Extra Questions And Answer Of Age Of Industrialisation Question 9.
Why did the employment opportunities increase after 1840s?
As the building activity intensified in the cities, roads widened, new railway stations came up employment opportunities greatly increased.

Extra Questions Of Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Question 10.
Explain with an example that there was a decline in textile export in India during the first half of the 19th century.
The first half of the 19th century saw the decline of the textile export in India. In 1811-12, piece goods (textile) accounted for 33% of India’s export; by 1850-51, it was no more than 3%.

The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Questions And Answers Question 11.
What were the two significant problems faced by the cotton weavers in India?

  1. Weavers export market had collapsed; the British government did not allow foreign sale of cotton in the country.
  2. Their local market also shrank, Manchester imports were common.

The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions And Answers Question 12.
Why could not weaving industries survive?
By the end of the 19th century, there was a lot of machine-made goods available in India. This led to the destruction of the weaving, industries.

The Age Of Industrialisation Extra Questions Question 13.
From where did the workers come?
From Ratnagiri, villages of Kanpur district: United Provinces districts, surrounding areas near Calcutta.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers The Age of Industrialisation

Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Important Questions And Answers Question 14.
Why did the Indian industrialists shift from yam to cotton production in the early years of the 20th century?
Indian export of yarn to China declined. That is why the Indian industrialists shifted to cotton production.

Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 Extra Questions And Answers Question 15.
How are consumers created?
Consumers are created through numerous means. One such means is advertisements.

Question 16.
As numerous industries worked on seasonal labour, the industrialists preferred hand- labour. Explain.
In many industries, the demand for labour was seasonal Gasworks and breweries were especially busy through the cold months. So they needed more workers to meet their peak demand. Bookbinders and printers, catering to Christmas demand, too needed extra hands before December.

At the waterfront, winter was the time that ships were repaired and spruced up. In all such industries where production fluctuated with the season industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season.

Question 17.
How was the lives of the workers with the abundance of labour in the market?
The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers. As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the cities. The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks of friendship and kin relations. If one had a relative or a friend in a factory, one were more likely to get a job quickly. But not everyone had social connections. Many jobseekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in other shelters.

Question 18.
Why Bombay and Calcutta as new ports grew in place of Surat and Hoogly ports?
While Sural and Hoogly decayed, Bombay and Calcutta grew. This shift from the old ports to the new ones was an indicator of the growth of colonial power. Trade through the new ports came to be controlled by European companies and was carried in European ships while many of the old trading houses collapsed, those that wanted to survive had to now operate within a network shaped by European trading companies.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers The Age of Industrialisation

Question 19.
Which European agencies controlled the large sector of the Indian industries till the World War I?
Till the First World War, European Managing Agencies in fact controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Three of the biggest ones were Bird Heiglers & Co, Andrew Yule, and Jardine Skinner & Co. These Agencies mobilised capital, set up joint-stock companies and managed them. In most instances, Indian financiers provided the capital while the European Agencies made all investments and business decisions.

Question 20.
How do you say that despite the large-scale industries, there was the domination of the small-scale industries in India?
While factory industries grew steadily after the war, large industries formed only a small segment of the economy. Most of them about 67 per cent in 1911 were located in Bengal and Bombay. Over the rest of the country, small-scale production continued to predominate Only a small proportion at the total industrial labour force worked in registered factories. 5 per cent in 1911 and 10 per cent in 1931. The rest worked in small workshops and household units, often located in alleys and bylanes, invisible to the passer-by.

Question 21.
Look at Figs. 3, 7 and 11 (Textbook. Page 111) then reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny.
Source B: A magistrate reported in 1790 about an incident when he was called in to protect a manufacturer’s property from being attacked by workers. From the depredations of a lawless Banditti of colliers and their wives, for the wives had lost their work to spinning engines they advanced at first with much insolence, avowing their intention of cutting to pieces the machine lately introduced in the woollen manufacture; which they suppose, if generally adopted, will lessen the demand for manual labour.

The women became clamorous. The men were more open to conviction and after some expostulation were induced to desist from their purpose and return peaceably home.
J.L. Hammond and B. Hammond, The Skilled Labourer 1760-1832, quoted in Maxine Berg, The Age of Manufactures.

  • With the introduction of Spinning Jenny, productivity increased, as many spindles could be yarned at a time from one wheel.
  • This led to unemployment for many people. Their income also went down. So they opposed Spinning Jenny.

Question 22.
Explain how rapid was the process of industrialisation? Did industrialisation mean growth of factory industries only? Give reasons.
The process of industrialization can be stated as follows :
First; The most dynamic industries in Britain were clearly cotton and metals. Growing at a rapid pace. Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation up to 1840s. After that, the iron and steel industry led the way. With the expansion of railways, in England from the 1840s and in the colonies from the 1860s, the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1973 Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about £ 77 million, double the value of its cotton expert.

Second: The new industries could not easily displace traditional industries. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20th percent of the total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors. Textiles was a dynamic sector, but a large portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within domestic units.

Third: the pace of change in the traditional industries was not set by steam-powered cotton or metal industries, but they did not remain entirely stagnant either seemingly ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised. Sectors such as food processing building, rottery glass work tanning, furniture making and production of implements.

Fourth: technological changes curred slowly. They did my spread dramatically across the industrial landscape. New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists wife cautious about using it. The machines often broke down and repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers The Age of Industrialisation

Question 23.
Substantiate that silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market before the age of industrialisation.
Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Corser cotton were produced in many countries, but the liner varieties often came from India Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia.

Bales of fine textiles were carried on came back via the northwest frontier, through mountain passes and across desires. A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports. Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.

A variety of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of export trade financing production, carrying goods and supplying exporter Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions. They gave advances to weavers, procured the woven cloth from weaving villages and carried the supply to the ports. At the port, the big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.

Question 24.
Why did the industrial groups begin worrying about imports from other countries with the development of cotton industries in England?
As cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries. They pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles so that Manchester goods, could sell in Britain without any competition from outside. At the same time, industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British manufactures in Indian markets is well. Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the early nineteenth century.

At the end of the eighteenth century there had been virtually no import of cotton piece-get into India But by 1850 cotton piece-goods, constituted over 31 per cent of the value of non-imports and by the 1870, this figure was over 50 per cent. Cotton weavers in India thus faced we problems at the same.

Time their export market cold and the local market shank, being pulled with Manchester import Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them. By 1950s, reports from most weaving regions of India narrated stories on decline anil desolation.

Question 25.
Give a brief account of the role of advertisements in selling goods.
One way in which new consumers are created is through advertisements Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the mind of people and create new needs Today we live in a world where advertisements surround us. They appear in newspapers, magazines, hoarding streel walls television screens.

But if we look back into history we find that from the very beginning of the industrial age, advertisements have played a role in expanding the markets for products, and in shaping a new consumer culture. When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they pul labels on the cloth bundles The label was needed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer The Label was also to be a mark of quality.

Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers The Age of Industrialisation

Objective Type Questions

1. Choose the most appropriate Iterative:
(i) The following was the first symbol of new era of industrialisation
(a) cotton
(b) rubber
(c) iron
(d) silk
(a) cotton

(ii) Spinning Jenny was devised by
(a) Hargreaves
(b) Watt
(c) Newcomen
(d) Boulton
(a) Hargreaves

(iii) The first cotton mill was set up at
(a) Kanpur
(b) Ahmedabad
(c) Surat
(d) Mumbai
(d) Mumbai

(iv) The first jute mill was set up in:
(a) Jallandhar
(b) Kanpur
(c) Cochin
(d) Bengal
(d) Bengal.

2.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word:

(i) J.N. Tata set up the iron and steel factory at

(ii) Dwarkanath Tagore made profit from trade.

(iii) ………………… was, during the industrialisation days, the workshop of the world.

(iv) Jenny was devised by Hargreaves

Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science