Here we are providing Class 11 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation. Important Questions for Class 11 Geography are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Important Questions for Class 11 Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation
Natural Vegetation Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is natural vegetation?
Natural vegetation means a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long period of time, so as to allow its species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible. Natural vegetation is found in mountain regions,
How many types the natural vegetation in India can be classified into?
Based on the structure, physiognomy and florists nature of the | plants, the natural vegetation in India can be divided into:
- Tropical evergreen forests
- Tropical dry deciduous and evergreen forests
- Semi-desert and desert vegetation
- Wetlands littoral and swamp forests
- Montane vegetation
- The grasses
What is boreal?
The species which are brought from outside are known as exotic and about 40% of the plant species in India are found to be exotic. The plant species which are brought from the Sino-Tibetan area are known as ‘boreal’.
Describe the vegetation in central parts of the plateau.
In the central part of the Indian plateau dry tropical or deciduous
and thorny vegetation is found. This region receives less than 70 cm. rainfall and is covered with thorn forest type of vegetation. This part! presents vast undulating poor grassland. Summer is very long and dry,
the landscape changes to the pale carpet of grasses with grey stone surfaces.
Give any three characteristic features of tropical deciduous forests.
- TheyarefoundonfoothillsofHimalayasandmanyparts of peninsular plateau.
- During the dry season, they shed their leaves. Teak, Shisham, sal, rosewood are the main species.
- They have important economical significance.
What do you mean by biosphere reserve? Where and when was the first biosphere reserve of India developed?
The vast areas which have been reserved for the preservation and protection of flora and fauna of the country in their natural form are known as bio-reserves. In these areas, the plants and animals are kept to protect for the future generation. The first Biosphere in India was developed at Nilgiri.
Describe the location and characteristic features of Kaziranga National Park.
Kaziranga National Park is located inNagaonandGolaghatdistricts on the southern bank of Brahmaputra river at the foot of Mikir hills. It lies in the flood plains of the Brahmaputra river. The riverine habitat consists primarily of tall, dense grasslands interspersed with open forests. One homed rhinoceros and elephants are the main inhabitants of this park.
Write a short note on Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve.
It is located in the swampy delta of the two great Indian rivers the Brahmaputra and the Ganga in West Bengal. It extends over a vast area of mangrove forest, swamps and forested islands, covering over 1300 sq. km. Sunderban is the home of nearly 200 Royal Bengal Tigers. Adapting themself to the saline and freshwater environment, the tigers at the park are good swimmers.
How can we utilise our forests resources for the future? Give three methods.
- We have to stop the reckless cutting of forests.
- To reduce the pressure on forests, the substituent of timber should be found out.
- To fulfil the basic needs of fuel and fodder of the people, social forestry and farmer forestry should be introduced.
- More and more trees should be planted.
Name the various Bio-reserves in India.
- Nilgiri (Karnataka)
- Nanda Devi (Uttranchal)
- No Krek (Meghalaya)
- Andaman Nicobar
- Valley of flowers (Uttranchal)
- Gulf of Mannar (Tamil Nadu)
- Rann of Kutchh (Gujarat)
- Kaziranga National Park (Assam)
What are the characteristic features of the tropical evergreen forests?
- There is a dense growth of vegetation which causes difficulty. of accessibility. A number of species are very large.
- There is a lack of pure stands.
- High temperature and heavy rainfall make conditions unsuitable for living.
What is the difference between National parks and Sanctuaries?
|(1) This is an area of multi ecosystems.||(1) The area of wildlife sanctuaries are also dedicated to protecting wildlife and species.|
|(2) This area has not been materially altered by human occu¬pation.||(2) There is no entry without permission.|
|(3) This is dedicated to protecting wildlife.||(3) Hunting and grazing are prohibited.|
|(4) Plant and animal species, for scientific education, recreation and geomorphological sites are present.||(4) Man’s activity is allowed in the sanctuaries.|
How vegetation is different from forests?
Vegetation is not limited to forests only. It is something more than the forests. Vegetation includes trees, grasses, shrubs, etc. Vegetation gives a distinct type of landscape to the region as grassland, woodland.
Forests are all type of vegetation. It refers to the society of trees in close growth. Forests are very useful for mankind.
Define reafforestation and afforestation.
Reafforestation is the saplings of two plants which are planted to replace every felled tree. It is practised to avoid the evils of Jumping.
Afforestation is the planting of one sapling to get one tree. It is practised to bring more area under forest.
Natural Vegetation Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Why have certain species of animals become extinct in our country? What is being done to preserve wildlife?
Wildlife has a very important role for mankind. But we have depleted its habitat, the forests, very fast. We have hunted wild animals and poached them indiscriminately. The result is that many of these wild animals face the danger of extinction. The major animals which face extinction are antelopes, lion, tigers, blackbuck, bustard, etc. Hence, to see the future need, there is an urgent need to conserve them.
Steps to be taken to preserve wild-life:
- Hunting and poaching of wild animals have been banned.
- Strict and severe punishment is accorded to defaulters.
- National parks, zoos, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set up more and more in number all over the country.
- Maintenance of the existing trees.
- More and more birds and animals are being declared national birds and animals.
- ‘Project Tiger’ and ‘Project Elephant’ programmes have been ‘ launched to preserve and conserve wildlife.
Describe the various regions of concentration of forests in varying degrees in India.
On the basis of the percentage of the actual forest cover, the states have been grouped into four regions. They are:
- The region of high concentration
- The region of medium concentration
- The region of low concentration
- The region of very low concentration
1. The region of the high concentration-This region includes the states where the percentage cover of the forest is more than 40%. All the eastern states except Assam fall in this category. Favourable climate, especially rainfall and temperature, is responsible for the high concentration of forests. There is variation in forest cover in the region. In the states of Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh and in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, forests occupy more than 80% of the geographical area. Manipur Meghalaya, Tripura, Sikkim and Dadra and Nagar Haveli have a percentage of forest between 40 and 80.
2. The region of moderate concentration – It includes the states of Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Goa, Kerala, Assam and Himachal Pradesh. Goa has the lightest (33.79)% of the actual forest followed by Orissa and Assam. Rest of the states have less than 30% of their area.
3. The region of low concentration – This region is also not continuous. The states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu form peninsular sub-region while those of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar form the northern sub-region.
4. The region of very low concentration – The northwestern part of India falls in this category. The states included are Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Chandigarh and Delhi. West Bengal in the east also comes under this region. Physical and human factors have been responsible for a very low concentration of forests in these areas.
Write a short note on the strange creatures of India.
The strange creatures of India are Gangetic dolphin, Civets, Indian Pangolin, GreatlndianHorbill, Indian giant squirrel, mouse, deer and flying-fox.
Gangetic Dolphin – It lives in the Ganga river. It is born blind and lives sightless for the rest of its life.
Civets- It is a cat I like creature, lives solitary, comes out at night to hunt small birds, mammals and reptiles. It remains hiding during the day.
Indian pangolin – It has a scaly body. As protection against predators, it rolls itself into a ball and raises its sharp scales.
Great Indian Hornbill – It is a large bird with strange nesting habits; the female seal herself into d hollow in a tree and the male dutifully brings her food during the entire period of incubation.
Indian giant squirrel – It is a large nocturnal rodent which lives in the upper canopy of trees. It flaps between its body and its extremities act like parachutes and enable the large mammal to glide from tree to tree.
Mouse deer-This is a deer of 30 cm. in height. To evade predators, it hides beneath the low bushes and vegetation.
Flying fox – It is one of the world’s largest bats and is found all over India. Its wingspan is more than 1.5 m. and can fly over 220 km.
What is a Biosphere reserve? How many Biospheres are found in India? Describe in short.
A Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’S Man and Biosphere Programme.
There are 4 biosphere reserves in India. Four biosphere reserves namely
- Nanda Devi,
- Gulf of Mannar has been recognised by UNESCO on world network.
1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve- It is the first of the fourteen biosphere reserves of India and was established in September 1986. The total area of the biosphere reserve is around 5520 sq. km. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve possesses different habitat types, unspoilt areas of natural vegetation types with several dry and moist deciduous, semi-evergreen and wet evergreen forests, evergreen sholes, grasslands and swamps. It includes the largest known population of two endangered animal species, namely the Nilgiri Tahr and the Lion-tailed Macaque. About 80% of the flowering plants reported from the Western Ghats occur in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
2. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve – It is situated in Uttranchal, includes parts of Chamoli, Almora, Pithoragarh and Bageshwar districts. The major type of the reserve is temperate forest. A few important species are silverweed, orchids, Latifolie and rhododendron. The biosphere reserve has a rich fauna, for example, snow leopard, black bear, brown bear, musk deer, snow-cock, golden eagle.
3. Sundarban Biosphere Reserve – This reserve is located in the swampy delta of the river Ganga in West Bengal. It spreads over a vast area of 9,630 sq. km and consists of mangrove forests, swamps and s- forested islands. It is a home of nearly 200 Royal Bengal Tigers.
4. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve – It covers an area of 1,05,000 hectares on the south-east coast of India from Sri-Lanka. The biosphere reserve comprises 21 islands with estuaries, beaches, forests of the nearshore environment, seagrass, coral reefs and mangroves.
Describe the importance of social forestry in India.
The social forestry was used for the first time by the National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 to denote tree raising programmes to supply firewood, small hunters and minor forest produce to the rural population. Ambitious social forestry programmes have been launched by several state governments. The forest departments in most states have set up separate social forestry wings.
Social forestry programmes have mainly three components viz., farm forestry, wood lots and community wood lots. Farm forestry encourages farmers to plant trees on their own farmer; wood lots are planted by the forest departments for the needs of the community especially along roadsides, canal banks and other such public lands, and community wood lots are planted by the community themselves on community lands, to be shared equally by them.