Here we are providing Class 11 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 1 From the Beginning of Time. Class 11 History Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 History Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions From the Beginning of Time
From the Beginning of Time Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
When and where did the earliest form of human evolve?
About 5.6 million years ago (MYA) in Africa.
What are the main sources of information about the earliest forms of humans?
- Human fossils
- stone tools and
- cave painting.
What name to the genus of humans was given to the fossils found at Neander Valley?
Where are found earliest fossils of Homo erectus?
In Africa and Asia.
Write the names of the countries in Africa where the earliest human forms were found?
- Tanzania and
What similarities are found in humans and mammals (i.e. apes and monkeys)?
- Monkeys and humans know various uses of hands.
- Monkey can walk like man viz. bipedal.
- The shape of the skull, forehead, eyes, and ears are7 similar.
- Five fingers are found in the hands of humans and that of monkeys/apes.
On what grounds can you say Africa the first continent where the earliest human form was developed?
- African apes resemble more to hominids (earliest form)
- The fossils found in Africa relate to about 5.6mya.
Who had discovered the first Homo habilis in Tanzania?
It was Mary working under chairperson L.S.B. Leakey.
Why was the earliest species named Homo habilis?
It was because that species was associated with the Paleolithic age.
Name the place where evidence of flakes and hand axes are found.
At Kilombe and Olorgesailie in Kenya during the period 7 lakh and 5 lakh years ago.
When did the earliest man start living in the caves and open-air sites?
It was between four lakh and 1 – lakh years ago because a caveat Lazaret in Southern France has been discovered. Flere a shelter measuring 12 x 4metres was built against the cave wall.
What evidence had shown that the primitive man learned first the use of fire 1 – lakh years ago?
A Hearth, pieces of baked clay, and burnt bone and stone tools have been found at Chesowanja, Kenya, and Swartkrans in South Africa.
What is the controversy existed among archaeologists regarding the paintings discovered from the sites?
Some say the paintings of animals are associated with rituals because of the importance of hunting. Some others tell these caves as meeting places for small groups of people or locations for group activities. These paintings would have served as the media for pursuing information from one generation to another.
What period has been considered as a development of language among primates?
Some suggest the period of Homo habilis because of certain brain features developed till then. It means the language was developed about 21akh years ago. Some scholars say it developed around 40,000 to 35,000 years ago. They connect it with the time when primates learned art and painting.
What behavioral patterns or response was seen among hunting-gathering society living in Kalahari desert?
It was a hunting-gathering society named! Kung San visited by a member of an African pastoral group in 1870 at the Kalahari Desert. He saw the special features of their feet and found their villages empty as they are afraid of him and hid in the bush.
From the Beginning of Time Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What do you understand by the term Hominid? Explain.
It is a member of the Superfamily Hominoidea from which hominids evolved E.g. apes. Their body is larger, they are without tail, upright posture, bipedal locomotion, and expert hands in making and using tools.
What do you mean by the term “glaciations”? How was the period following glaciations suitable for the origins of Homo?
Glaciations in the period of the Ice age. The temperature receded and the larger parts of the earth were covered with ice. Periods of warm, wet, and cold dry climate have been known to alternate from the beginning of time. Grassland areas expanded owing to a sudden change in temperature, the earlier genus Australopithecus had got extinction due to the loss of forests. Thus, the species adapted to drier conditions originated among which Homo (i.e. modern-looking humans) was one of the species.
Why is Tanzania considered important from the angle of the discovery of the earliest societies’
It was Olduvai George or ravine located in the Serengeti plain of northern Tanzania in Africa where the archaeologists found the maximum amount of information about hominid activity over the last 2 million years. Olduvai is a deep ravine extended more than forty kilometers in length. Animal bones and remains of forty individuals . have been found here. There were also found traces of 150 species of extinct animals. Mary and Lousie Leakey had identified these fossils and remains of 1.85mya in the early twentieth century. They also found chopping tools and flake tools there.
What were the ways of obtaining food among early societies?
As per evidence obtained by archaeologists, there were four ways of obtaining food prevalent among early societies of primates. These were-
- scavenging and
Collection of edible seeds, nuts, berries, fruits, and tubers denote gathering activity. The archaeologists say, “there is very little evidence for gathering activity”. There is controversy about scavenging or foraging for meat and marrow activity adopted by hominids. The majority of opinions establish eating of the dead animals by them. It is equally possible that rodents, eggs, birds, reptiles, and insects may have been eaten by hominids. Hunting activity was adopted after a long period of scavenging activity. It came into existence around 5 lakh years ago. Evidence of hunting activity was collected from Boxgraove in England and Schoringen in Germany.
Whether modern humans originated from one region or several regions simultaneously? Explain logically.
There are two divergent views about the origin of modem humans:
- Regional continuity model (with multiple regions of origin) and
- Replacement model (with a single origin in Africa).
According to the former view, modern humans evolved at different rates in different regions. This is the reason, variations in the first appearance is found. It has been seen that there are differences in populations of Homo erectus and Homo Heidel biogenesis of the same region.
The latter view favors complete replacement everywhere of all older forms of humans with modem looking humansGenetic and physiological similarity supports this view. Fossils found at Omo in Ethiopia support this view.
Describe any aborigine society at present which can throw light on the hunting-gathering societies of the past.
The living memories of Hazda aborigine in Tanzania (Africa) throw light on the hunting-gathering societies millions of years ago. We see thorn scrub and acacia trees grown in Eastern Hazda, a dry land rocky Savanna. There is no dearth of wild foods in this Savanna. Animals live elephants, rhinoceros, buffalo, giraffe, zebra, wiser back, gazelle, warthog, lion, leopard, and hyenas are amply found here.
Apart from the flesh of these animals, Hazda society enjoys its food of roots, berries, baobab fruit, etc. Smaller animals for food are also available here. This are-porcupine, hare, jackal, tortoise, etc. Seven species of bees are also found here and honey is eaten. They make their home in the trees and caves in the rocks. They assert no rights over land and every individual of society is free to live where he desires. They do frequent change and shift in their camps or dwelling places.
Explain the physical features of Australopithecus, the genus of the earliest primate.
This name was given to the apes whose fossils found in South Africa. Their species is still found. This earliest form of human still retained smaller brain size, large back teeth, and limited dexterity of the hands. It is tough for them to walk regular bipedal. They still live in trees. They have long fore-limbs, curved hand and foot bones, and mobile ankle joints. With the course of time, they could have started making tools and exerted pressure on walking. This regular exercise of body parts should have brought them in modem looking man – it can be guessed.
Describe the gradual evolution of modem looking humans in the sequence.
While going over the pedigree of earlier societies, we observe that they are classified into the group, the superfamily, family, genus, and species according to gradual changes in their physical forms. The order of group contains primates in which the earliest apes/monkeys of the world in Africa and Asia are kept. At time scale, it refers to 36 – 24 million years ago (mya). The second step of evolution which took place during 24mya is put underclass – superfamily. It was the period of Hominids consisting of Gibbons, orangutan, and African apes (viz. gorilla, Chimpanzee, and bonobo or pygmy Chimpanzee).
The Hominoids thereafter classified in the family during 6.4mya. These were only early humans known as Hominids. The so-called time i.e., 5.6mya grouped as a genus consisting of Australopithecus and Homo. The change in their physical features and activities during the period 2.2mya, 1.8mya, and 0.8mya were grouped in species because “Homo” had got three simultaneous growing species i.e. Habilis, Erectus, and archaic Sapiens respectively. Finally, during 0.19 to 0.16mya certain specific changes in body, mind, motors, and instincts were seen, and the historians as also archaeologists had declared the resultant Homo as Sapiens sapiens or the modem-looking humans.
How can you say that the Homo heidelbergensis and Homo Neanderthalensis primates found in Germany were migrated from Africa?
The first and foremost ground is that the group of African apes is most closely related to hominids. Secondly, the earliest hominid fossils are present in East Africa from about 5.6mya. while those found outside Africa are no earlier than l.Omya. One more thing that supports our assumption is that the early hominid fossils belong to the genus Australopithecus. The fossils of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo Neanderthalensis of Germany pertain to 0.8 and 0.1 mya i.e. after 4 -mya of the fossils found in Africa. Fossils of Neanderthals discovered from Europe, Western and Central Asia belong to roughly 1,30,0 to 35,000 years ago. On these premises, we can state that the earliest societies migrated from Africa to other continents including Asia and Europe.
When did the primates begin the use of caves and open-air sites? Give your answer with archaeological evidence.
On the basis of archaeological evidence, it can be stated that the primates should have used to live in caves and open-air sites sometime between 4 and 1-j lakh years ago. Two hearths, shelter 12 x 4metre and flimsy shelters had been discovered. The sites from where artifacts and other things found are Kilombe and Olorgesailie in Kenya (dated between 71akh and 51akh years ago) and Terra Amata in France (Dated between 4 lakh and 1- lakh years ago).
Construction of huts, post holes, tents, storage pits and circular pattern of dwelling places started around 35,000 years ago as traces of likewise construction has been discovered by Archaeologists. The evidence of hearth can be understood as the best evidence for use of fire by primitive people during 1-lakh years ago. Such evidence is found at Chesowanja, Kenya, and Swartkrans in South Africa.
Write the stages of development of language in earliest societies? Do you think humans know a fully developed language from the outset?
We see every manner, effort, and application of physical organs as also mental intuitions/ instinct among primates started in a seriatim and never it got a windfall or phenomenon with the pace of increase in needs, the man had ab-initio did invention or forage. The exact time for spoken language cannot be stated as there is lying certain controversy. The fossils of Homo habilis (dated between 2.2 and 2mya) discovered from Omo in Ethiopia and Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (dated between 1.85 and 1.6mya) had certain features that would have made it possible for them to speak. Hence, we associate that period with the beginning of spoken language among primitive people.
The vocal tract was developed in them 21akh years ago. Some relate the beginning of spoken language to 40,000 to 35,000 years ago when they learned art and painting. Among hominids, the language was in the form of gestures and hand movements. According to some other scholars, the primates learned first singing and humming. It was vocal but non-verbal communication. It has been considered that humans may have possessed a small number of speech sounds in the initial stage and gradually, it would have developed in straight forward language.
Whether the information about living hunters and gatherers can be used to reconstruct the life of humans in the remote past?
Currently, there are two opposing views on this issue. A group of scholars applies existing data of hunting-gathering societies for interpretation of the remains of the past. They say the hominid sites dated 2mya of Turkana lakeside could have been dry season camps of early humans. Some other scholars refuse this view. According to them, likewise, ethnographic data cannot be used for understanding the past societies as the two are absolutely different e.g. present-day societies pursue some other economic activities simultaneous to hunting and gathering.
They do exchange and trade of minor forest produce or work as paid labor in the fields of neighboring farmers. There is also little consensus on the division of labor in food procurement. Somewhere we see women engage them in gathering and men hunt but at some other places, both of them are equally engaged in gathering, hunting, and tool making. However, we can say it with confirmation that women had a predominant role in contributing to the food supply in such societies. In such a circumvent position, it is difficult to make any such reference for the past.
What questions have been raised regarding printing, engraving, and female-male figurines discovered in remains dated 30,0 years ago? Write the explanations to them also.
We know that several remains of artifacts, including painting, engraving, etc. have been discovered in the cave of Altamira in Northern Spain, Dolni Vestonice, Predmosti, Lascaux cave, and Grotte Chauvet in France dated back 50,000 years ago.
The questions raised about them are-
- Why do some areas of caves have paintings and not others?
- Why some animals were painted and not others?
- Why men were painted individually and in groups?
- Why women depicted were only in groups?
- Why men were painted near animals but never women? And
- Why groups of animals were painted in the areas of caves where sounds carried well?
- Paintings of animals were associated with ritual and magic because of the importance of hunting,
- It might have possible that those caves were meeting places for small groups of people or locations for group activities,
- It is difficult to tell something certain about the function of female figurines.
Mention the name of sites and the period, the earliest fossils of modern humans discovered by archeologists.
The human fossils were found first in Ethiopia (Africa) at Omo Kibish I. These fossils relate to the period 1.951akh to 1.60lakh years ago. The fossils found in Border cave, Die Kelders, and Klasies River mouth (Africa) are of 1.201akh – 50,000 years ago. Human fossils discovered at Dares Solton in Morocco relate to 70,000 – 50,000 years ago. Similarly, the fossils at Qafzeh Skhul in Israel relate to the period 1 lakh – 80,000 years ago. Fossils found at Niah cave in Borneo dated to 40,000 the others at Lake Mungo in Australia dated to 45,000 – 35,000 years ago, that of Liujiang and Zhoukoudien in China dated to 20,000 – 15,000 years ago and that of Cro-Magnon (near Les Eyzies) in France dated to 35,000 years ago.
What do you understand by the term Paleolithic?
The term Paleolithic is derived from the Greek terms Palaios meaning ancient and Lithos meaning stone. Archaeologists refer to the period between 2.5mya and 9000 years ago as the Paleolithic or the old stone age in Europe. Stone tools were used first dated to 2.5mya and agriculture began dated to 9000 years ago.
From the Beginning of Time Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
When did the earliest form of humans evolve and where? Why are there opposing views about the time period of evolution of the earliest form of human^, the ways of their obtaining food, certain changes in physical features, etc.?
Human fossils, stone tools, artifacts, and paintings are the only source of information regarding the beginning of human existence. It has been estimated on the basis of these sources of information that the earliest form of humans had evolved from chimpanzees in Africa. Different sites were excavated under the supervision of archaeologists in Africa. These were –
- Bahr el Ghazal, Chad
- Hadar and Omo in Ethiopia,
- Laetoli, Tanzania
- Allia Bay and Kanapoi in Kenya and
- Lothagam in Kenya.
The fossils found in Lothagam (Kenya) are dated to 5.6mya. On the basis of this information, it has been estimated that the earliest human form would have evolved in 5.6million years ago. Excavation of sites started in the year 1859 when Charles Darwin’s works – “On The Origin Of Species” got published. It had clarified the evolution of humans from animals a long time ago and it was not at all God’s specific creation.
The gradual process of evolution started as early as 24 mya from the old world monkeys of Asia and Africa. They were called Primates.
Hominids (comprising gibbons, Asian orang-utan, and African apes) evolved during 24mya. Hominids (early humans) evolved far back 6.4mya named as family. Australopithecus evolved from hominids 5.6mya and named Genus. Then there evolved Homo which took certain physical changes in three stages i.e.; Habilis, Erectus, and archaic sapiens. Finally, dated to 0.19 – 0.16mya, the sapiens or modern-looking humans came into existence.
Reason for Controversy- An investigation on primal forms of humans started in 1859 with the publication of Darwin’s book. Till then, nothing was done as the man had been considered specific creation. of god. Hence, it is usual to construct divergent views on several aspects relating to the evolution of human forms. The fossil of the earliest human was discovered on 17th July 1959 at Olduvai George in Tanzania by Mary and L.S.B. Leakey. Maximum information was thus, gathered from the human fossils found there. There are divergent views on the integration of the genus Australopithecus from Africa to Europe and Asia.
This genus was of an earlier time than Homo habilis but there is sufficient resemblance in two. Homo erectus resembles Homo sapiens and it was found both in Africa and Asia. On the V basis of that resemblance, some scholars confirm their migration from Africa to Asia while some others argue that Homo erectus did not leave Africa until one million years ago. They assume it automatic change in archaic forms of Homo sapiens after 0.5mya. Again, we see divergent views about the origin of modem humans (i.e. Homo sapiens sapiens). Some scholars say its evolution at one place i.e. Africa while some others say its simultaneous origin in several countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and Europe.
In a nutshell, we would like to state that owing to the most ancient period when the evolution process of humans started, the different missions of archaeologists to investigate about past history of humans, certain study manners on the fossils, artifacts, tools, and many other diverse pieces of evidence gathered by them are the causes for divergent views on each aspect of the earliest human societies. However, it remains to state that proper analysis has been made and a generalized view is supported in the process. The generalization of views finalliy leads us to the facts about the earliest human forms. Hence, divergen1 views are all possible while working out the things of so longer past