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Class 11 History Chapter 10 Important Extra Questions Displacing Indigenous Peoples
Displacing Indigenous Peoples Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Who had displaced the native peoples in North America and Australia?
Those were Europeans i.e. people from France, Portugal, England, Germany, Holland, etc. migrated there.
What were the reasons behind the large-scale migration of people from England, France, Germany, Sweden, Poland, and Italy?
Migrants from France and England were younger sons not inherited property there and people from other countries migrated to North America because their small landholdings were merged forcibly or bought in less payment by the manors to their estates in the wave of the Industrial revolution. People from Poland like Prairie grasslands purposeful as that of the Steppes in their homes.
Can we get historical data about the native people of North America and Australia at present?
Yes, there are presently established galleries of native art and museums which show the aborigine’s way of living.
When did France, Holland, and England begin to extend their trading activities and colony establishment in America, Africa, and Asia?
It was the period after the seventeenth century.
What is called European Imperialism?
To occupy and maintain under indirect control on the kinds outside one’s own country was imperialism. Actually, it was an instrument of sovereignty interfering with the Administrative machinery of the host country thereby getting and training them on slavery at physical, mental, and emotional levels Eg. “Sirji” in modem tone symbolizes the British period in India.
Mention the uses of the term “settler”?
Dutch were the sellers in South Africa, the British in Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, and the Europeans in America.
What was the official language in North America?
It was English but both French and English in Canada.
What is meant by the term “Native” at present and it was still the early twentieth century?
Till the early twentieth century, it was meant by the people of colonies established by Europeans. Presently, it is understood as a person born in the place he/she is living life long.
What were the basic occupations of native people in North America?
It was hunting, fishing, and agriculture.
Will you say native people in America sloth and snort?
Actually, as the historians state, they were complacent people. They had made a good cohesion or liaison with the natives and were happy with their existing simple means. However, we justify the above comment if we consider the dictum-“Satisfaction’s the end of life”. Once satisfied is never rectified.
What do you mean by aborigine?
It is a Latin word meaning-from the beginning. It was used for the native people of Australia.
What is the term used for native peoples of North and South Americas and the Caribbean?
It is American-Indian, Amerind, or Amerindian.
What was an important feature of the natives of North America?
Friendship and relations were formed on a formal basis and things were never sold but given as gift.
Who were First Nations Peoples?
It is a technical name given to natives of North America in the Canadian constitution. They were so scheduled in the constitution of that country.
Who were native Americans?
It is a commonly used word now for indigenous people of Americans but earlier, it was confined only to the names of North America.
Who were Red Indians?
The people living on the island of Guanhani in the Bahamas or Bajamar as the name was given by Colofnbus to it in Spanish because of being it an island surrounded by shallow seas. Red Indians i.e. brown complexion people.
Why were the native people in North America not interested in writing records of their time?
They relied on the basic doctrine that every skill, expertise, and general behavioral pattern transfers from one generation to another hence, why should they think of writing them.
Which skills were the natives of North America known to?
Craftmanship, textiles weaving, measuring land, understand climate, and know in-depth, the characteristics, composition, and effect of different landscapes.
When did the Hopis propagate that hard time had come?
In a stone tablet, it was written that Hopis (i.e. a tribe in California) took Spaniards as brothers but appearing with turtle movement. They extended their hands hoping for the handshake but those brothers (Spaniards) had arrested them. This treacherous event, they called hard-time.
What were the things attracted the European traders in North America?
The civilized behavior of native people and potentials for development of trade in furs and fish.
According to the Europeans, who were the civilized people?
Europeans were materialistic and consumerism bend of mind, hence/literacy, organized religion and urbanization were the three parameters of civilized individual and people.
Which will you say civilized: an individual or tribe extending hard to strangers treating as brothers to give a handshake or the strangers who shackle that hand in iron?
Definitely, the former who extends hand hoping for the handshake i.e native people of North America.
What cardinal difference in nature of a European and the native people have been marked by Washington Irving, a writer?
Non-whites (native people) keep aloof from the Europeans whose language they could not understand or another who is proved, a betrayer. However, Europeans kept them aloof in all matters.
What would an Indian (natives) say on Britishers when he was in his society?
He would laugh and joke at European and says that he had supposed European (white) impressed with profound respect for his grandeur and dignity.
Why did the natives feel Europeans were giving sometimes, more things in exchange while less at other times?
They were simple and complacent people. They had nothing to. bear with market functions, upheavals, and effects of demand and supply on the market for the things.
Why did Jefferson, the third President of the USA take native people as uncivilized?
He wanted to see a country populated by Europeans with small farms but the native people were satisfied with the subsistence agriculture and mere gave thought to area expansion in agriculture and gave thought to area-expansion in agriculture.
Which were the countries in the USA in 1783?
- New York,
- North Carolina,
- South Carolina,
- Georgia and
- New Jersey including Delaware and Mary land.
How did the landscapes of America receive changes?
A number of people migrated to America from the countries like Germany, Sweden, and Italy as also that of Poland, and people from Britain and France also occupied land in North America in an unauthorized and unfair way. It had changed the landscape into a number of colonies by those immigrants.
What was the problem with the Canadian Government unsolved for a long time?
Autonomous political status was demanded by the French settlers in Canada and raised their dissatisfaction through movements and processions. In 1867, Canada was made a confederation of autonomous states and only then the problem could be solved.
What heinous crime had the Europeans committed upon the native people of North America?
They snatched lands from native people by hooks and by crooks and displaced them to lands deserted and unknown till then called “Reservations”.
What does the reply from a native leader Chief Seattle to a letter of USA President in 1854 exhibit?
He shows great respect for the land as a mother for which the formation of parties like buyer and seller only would derogate the honor.
What was the mandatory condition in that replication?
Europeans can be given a piece of land as a gift but they and their forthcoming generations will deal with the land as serene as divine.
Why did the anthropologist in 1840 argue that as primitive people are not found in North America, the same way; native here would be forgotten shortly?
It was because the anthropologists found no records, reminiscence Literary-works in course of the surveys they made. These people were not interested at all in keeping contemporary events in records.
Why did a visitor Frenchman state that Primitive man will disappear with the primitive animal?
The primitive animal was bison abundantly found in the dense forests of North America. The nationals of Britain immigrated there and turned the Prairie grasslands into agricultural farms. They killed bison and exported its meat to countries in Europe. This species was finally got extinct and therefore, doubt about the extinction of primitive men in the hands of Europeans was raised.
Why did Andrew Carnegie, an immigrant from Scotland state that the old natives creep on a snail’s pace, the repeal thunders on the speed of an express?
Perhaps so stated because the people in North America were the simplest people, contented with the primitive manners of survival, treated the earth as a mother goddess, and maintained them in peaceful co-existence with nature. They did not want the expansion of their lands.
What type of revolution vis-a-vis the Industrial Revolution of England took place in North America?
It came in the form of infrastructural development i.e. construction of Railways, railway equipment, manufacture of agricultural tools so that field of farming could be expanded for exploitation on a commercial basis.
When had the USA’s continental expansion completed?
It was in 1892 with a division of the complete area between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Why did Karl Marx say American frontiers as the last positive capitalist utopia?
He took it as a balanced form of living manner between human beings and that of the environment. It was vulnerable to capitalism, so excess modesty and sincerity of the native people; hence, he had stated it Positr capitalist taking capitalism as an ailment or malaise and the polite and humble behavior of native people as positive to that malaise.
What was the USA? Whether it was favoring Monarchy?
The United States of America was a confederacy of states. No, 1 it was against the monarchy.
What was the discrimination made in the constitution of America?
Only white men were given the right to vote for a representative, to Congress, and for President and right to. property but non-whites or the people who migrated from South And Southeast Asia were denied those rights.
What has been pointed out by Daniel Paul, a Canadian native in 2000?
Daniel Paul has referred to Thomas Paire who had; remembered that it was the American war of Independence and the French Revolution which inspired Indians to run long freedom of s struggle and similar was the starting point of the American natives. Actually, he wants to say that do well even for those who pelt on one’s interests i.e. truth and non-violence in India, and gift land and goods to shrewd Europeans.
Who had highlighted the pains suffered by native Americans deported to virgin lands i.e. Reservations?
It was a survey made and get published by Lewis Meriam, a social scientist in 1928. It was “The Problem of Indian Administration”.
Which law had ensured American natives in reservations the right to buy land and take loans?
It was the Indians Reorganisation Act, 1934.
Why was prepared the Declaration of Indian Rights?
It was a document drafted by American natives who had stated that they can accept citizenship of the USA on condition that their reservations would not be taken away and their traditions would not anyway be interfered with.
Did the Government sanction the declaration of natives in Canada?
No, the government of Canada refused to accept their demands and it resulted in sharp demonstrations and debates by native people. The Constitution Act, 1982 had finally accepted the existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the natives.
Who were aborigines?
Those were a number of different societies that began to arrive in Australia over 40,000 years ago.
Why are past centuries called the Dream time?
It is because there is not a clear contrast between past and present when we study Australia on available historical and archaeological facts.
How is known a large group of Australian natives in the North of it?
It is called the Torres Strait Islanders. These do not fall within the periphery of the term aborigine because they accept their different race and migrated from elsewhere.
What had the natives (Daruks) done when Britishers inflicted pains upon them?
They left their house and Herth, the land and chattels behind, and ran to dense forests.
When did states in Australia unite and what was the name given to its capital?
It was in 1911. The capital name was Woolwheatgold called finally, Canberra i.e. meeting place.
What was established in Australia?
Vast sheep farms and mining stations.
Who had composed a lecture on The Great Australian Silence?
He was WEH Stanner who condemned historians for not making any records of aborigines.
From which decade, the historical inquiries and record-keeping have been started in Australia on aborigines?
Since 1970. It comprised distinct cultures of communities, legends, and tales, textile and painting skills, painting expertise of the aborigines.
How can you state that research work on cultures of aborigines started at a critical time?
It was because if the native culture had remained any more ignored, by this time; much of such cultures would have been forgotten.
What is multiculturalism?
It is an official policy in Australia being conducted for ensuring equal respect to native cultures and cultures of immigrants from Europe and Asia.
Who had written poems on the loss created by keeping the white people and the natives apart?
It was Judith Wright who condemned the Europeans for the expulsion of native people of Australia to the reservations i.e. deserted and virgin places.
Which two facts have been revealed from the movements launched by some groups of people in Australia?
- The natives had strong historic bonds with the land,
- Injustice had been done to children in an attempt to keep white and non-white people away from each other.
Displacing Indigenous Peoples Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Why would have the chief counted the river-water as the blood of his ancestors?
Adaptation with the environment when tends to harness inner conscience, the vicissitudes of nature and man are missed up. They are merged within one, the same way as at the moment of concluded research, a scientist bursts into ecstasy. He forgets even the outer senses. Such someway happens much or less is the long cohesion with the land or a particular landscape. Ancestors are in their memory even at the home appliances, the buildings, cow-sheds, each field in which they worked, etc. As reminiscence increases heart-beats owing to much blood required for regression or reopen the store-kit; hence, the larger flow of blood immediately, locks the ten apertures of the body, eg. eye, nose, ear, etc. in order to prepare the ground for inner musings.
It exemplarily exhibits how much, the people in past America had burning love’ and affection for the earth. The same land of North America through its inhabitants is now playing the game on its other side. Eg. Europeans looted Americans by their emotional exploitation in transactions of goods and lands and now it is America, a shrewd oppressor in the world playing with business ties including loaning strategy.
What are the important points, you consider in the history of North America and Australia?
These points are as under-
- Europeans were equally dominated on both continents.
- Europeans cheated the native people of North America and Australia and grabbed their lands and drove them to reservations.
- Native peoples in both lands were simple, god fearing, lovers of nature, self-restrained and sociable.
Discuss the changes in landscapes of North America during the nineteenth century?
The whole land of America was turned into estates and meadows. Being a variety of landforms here found people of European countries i.e. Germany, Sweden, Italy, etc., all suitable to their needs.
The people migrating to America were younger sons of the landlords there, who had no right to ancestral property, some others were those small farmers whose lands were merged with the big landlords under enclosure or consolidation of land and the citizens of Poland found grassland of Prairie similar to their characteristics of ‘ the Steppes grasslands. They cleared the forest land and started growing rice and cotton as commercial crops meant for export to Europe and fenced their farms with barbed wires.
What efforts did the natives of the northern states of the USA make to abolish slavery? Discuss.
There were no plantations in the Northern States of America hence, evils of slavery were at their climax. The native people there. condemned slavery as an inhuman practice. It caused strong protest between the states favoring and condemning slavery during 1861-65. Finally, slavery was abolished but discrimination between whites and non-whites could be ended, by the extreme efforts of the African- Americans in the twentieth century.
What was the case of the Cherokee tribe in North America?
This tribe was living in Georgia, a state in the USA. This tribe had made special efforts to learn English as also the American way of life but even so, the people of this tribe were not allowed the rights of citizens. In 1832, the landmark Judgment US chief justice, John Marshall sanctioned sovereignty of this tribe in its territory but US President, Andrew Jackson ordered the US Army to evict Cherokees from their land and drive them to the great American Desert. The people so driven out from their lands were succumbed, to several troubles.
What were the pleas of the European people justifying their usurp of natives’ land there?
These usurpers raised the pleas that the tribes were lazy and did not exploit the maximum potentials of the land. They argued taking over land from the people not exploited it properly, is not an offense but a right step towards development. According to them, the native people had not used their craft skills to produce goods for the market, they did not take interest in learning English or dressing properly. Thus, the grassland of the Prairies was cleared for farmland and wild bison killed off. A Frenchman once visited there had truly stated-Primitive man will disappear with the primitive animal.”
Discuss the different images that Europeans and native Americans had of each other and the different ways in which they saw the natives.
(A) Europeans’ perspective to native Americans
- They took native Americans an uncivilized and barbarous as also not amenable,
- According to them, the native people were unorganized and foolish.
- Europeans took them lazy, anti-development, and unwilling to won the nature hence, they took certain steps for reclamation and expansion in agriculture.
- Europeans wanted to exterminate and displace them.
(B) Native Americans perspective to the Europeans
- Native people surprised Europeans as they had cleared the forests, get the fields dugs and turn into large states with buildings and other structures constructed thereupon.
- They wanted to share their land with Europeans but they were insisting on selling the same.
- They thought that Europeans were committing wrong in dividing the land into smaller pieces under ownership.
- They took Europeans as friends. They introduced them to invisible tracks of forests and provided them things in the gift.
Different views on nature-
- Native people took nature as their mother, made certain rules maintaining the balance in the environment but Europeans relentlessly cut the trees, destroyed the natural beauty of the landscape, constructed a number of structures and super-structures, developed farms and plantations.
- The natives grew crops not for sale and profit but only to survive while everything was commodity worth value hence, selling and profiteering was Europeans’exclusive aim.
- Native people were extreme lovers of nature while Europeans took it only resource inert and lifeless. According to them, every resource is to be exploited for earning more and more profit from the products obtained by the application of labor and skill.
Comment on these two sets of population data-
Spanish America, 1800
|Natives||0.6 million||7.5 million|
|Whites||9.0 million||3.3 million|
|Mixed Europeans||0.1 million||5.3 million|
|Blacks||1.9 million||0.8 million|
|Total||11.6 million||16.9 million|
The above population’s data reveal the that-Sharp decline of 6.9 million (7.5-0.6) population of natives took place in a period of two decades i.e. from 1800 to 1820. However, when we observe the data pertaining to population change in whites, there had been a whopping increase from 3.3 million to 9.0 million during the period in question. It was an increase of 5.7 million in the whites population within a Spain of two decades.
- The natives were first cheated in transactions of fur and meat, then forced or induced to sign treaties as of selling their lands. They were driven to alien and virgin lands inaccessible to man. These places they called reservations.
- They were enslaved and badly treated while working.
So far as Blacks or non-whites population trend is concerned, we see it increased from 0.8 million of 1800 to 1.9 million i.e. an increase of 1.1 million in two decades under question. The population of mixed Europeans was decreased from 5.3 million in 1800 to 0.1 million in 1820.
Comment on the following statement by the American historian, Howard Spodek: “For the indigenous (people) the effects of the American Revolutions were exactly opposite to those of the settlers-expansion became contraction, democracy became tyranny, prosperity became poverty, and liberty became confinement.”
1. Expansion became contraction-It denotes and points out the event of Europeans’ (Germany, Sweden, Italy, and Poland nationals) arrival in North America and the estates they developed there but the movement of natives to reservations i.e. uninhabitable and inaccessible places, virgin lands.
Thus, they could get contractions through the hands of the people not of their motherland by the reason of their extra-faith on humanism and nature in its unmanipulated colors. Initially, all of them were troubled (convicts, a merger of land under enclosure policy of Government and expelled persons) hence, so trained were their minds in wrench and twist, whim-whams, betraying, defrauding, etc. devices.
2. Democracy became tyranny-In the state of democracy, it cannot be stated that natives were enjoying all political and other fundamental rights under democracy. They suffered ab-initio the cruel order of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the USA, and likewise other inhuman treatment. Even after the state became democratic, the discrimination between native tribes and Europeans seated coiled for aggravating the situation more bitter. Teaching institutions, religious places, public meetings alike places always neglected the native people. In view of no change in the condition of natives under democracy to some extent, can be said a tyranny under the arcade of democracy.
3. Prosperity became poverty-As the essence of this theme “Displacing Indigenous people” exhibits, prior to the arrival of Europeans, there was poverty shrouded land however, not so in the perspective of natives themselves because of their self-contented nature. They were simple people with limited needs for survival. The dense forests, the rivers, and the seas were their friends-like which they could not imagine were inert and natural resources made for relentless exploitations as the Europeans did. The so-called prosperity in a material sense came as poverty because for their no-fault, they were deported to lonely and virgin inhabitation places which the Europeans named as reservations.
4. Liberty became Confinement-It was confinement like to natives because a number of announcements were made, several laws passed all for detriment to their causes. For instance, the government announcement of 1969 exhibited refusal or denial of aborigine rights. Thus, liberty also became confinement to the native people.
In 1911, it was announced that New Delhi and Canberra would be built as the capital cities of British India and of the Commonwealth of Australia. Compare and contrast the political situations of the native people in these countries at that time.
Political Situations in India in the year of 1911-Morley Minto reforms or Indian Councils Act, 1861 received a protest from the moderate and radicals both in India. It was against democracy for India. Thus, the post-Morley-Minto Reform period (1909), witnessed several developments that resulted in a remarkable Hindu Muslim unity and friendship between the Moderates and the Radicals.
Muslim League had earlier appreciated these reforms but the British attitude towards Turkey in the Balkan war of 1912-1913 aroused discontentment among the Indian Muslims. Hence, Lucknow Pact, 1916 was signed between Congress and Muslim Leagues. As the Britishers had abled to create a cleft between Congress and Muslim League, they were all right in thinking that they would make Delhi the capital of British India. They had shifted their capital from Calcutta (Kolkata at present) to Delhi on 15th December 1911, with King George-V laid the foundation stone of New Delhi.
Political situations in Australia in the year 1911
- 90 percent of the total population of native people succumbed to exposure to germs while working in the forests.
- Daruk people of Sydney thought that cutting trees is a dangerous business hence, they ran from their lands towards the dense forest in order to save themselves from committing that sinful deed.
- They had to fight strong protest against Europeans.
- When the native people left the work undone, the Britishers allowed Chinese migrants to come and provide cheap labor.
- There were vast sheep farms and mining stations established in the year of 1911.
Discuss the thoughts of Judith Wright, an Australian writer on the basis of the poem given in this theme.
Lady Judith was a champion of the rights of the Australians and aborigines. She exhibits regret on writing a history of Australia so late i.e. from the decade of 1970. Owing to this, the modern people could not know earlier the distinct cultures, unique ways of understanding nature and climate, the skills in textile, painting, and learning as also the stories and legends of the native people in Australia.
How were Indians suffered under British rule? Discuss.
They texted arbitrarily in commodities including products manufactured in Indigenous factories/industries. They never treated Indians as equal to them and discriminated in schooling, traveling and denied them political, social, cultural, and religious rights.
What was the treatment of Europeans with natives in America and Australia?
They cheated them in the trade of fur and meat as also cereals. They forged the documents of sale and paid the cost of land less than as negotiated. They were driven to the great American deserts and reservations. They took them as sloth and dull. These people were displaced from their own lands and enslaved.
What difference do you see in the Industrial Revolution of England and its impulses in America? Discuss.
As the land and its utilization or exploitation, determine the material development i.e. prosperity and riches, the big Famers took the advantage of Enclosure or Consolidation policy made by so-called Parliaments where their own representatives were the members. They either bought land for negligible cost or practiced atrocities on small farmers so as they leave their claim on the land and flee to lands elsewhere. Thus, large estates and manorial estates were formed by the wealthy people and installed there, industries and manufacturing units.
Unlike England, the revolution entered with the USA and Canada as a result of displacement of native people to the reservation, expansion of farming land, clearance of forests, emphasis on the manufacture of railway equipment and Agriculture tools. The former for construction of railway lines covering the entire area extended by the eviction of native people and clearance of forests relentlessly and the latter for growing crops of rice and cotton to export in Europe and earn wealth.
Write a brief note on assimilation and percussion of two opposite natives of society/communities.
Actually, religion in a scientific way is an instinctive and intuitive power of discretion inserted into the individual in order to prepare a blue-print of the course of life taking in bits with understanding the causes and their effects. Realization is religion. It takes birth in the womb of circumstances and always decided amid questions of existence and that of determination.
When two opposite natures are eventually assimilated under circumstances as we see in the case of immigrants in the USA and Australia they collide with each other. They were mostly people evicted, displaced, denied inheritance rights and among them were convicts deported from England so that they begin a new life in the direct shelter of nature. However, once malaised mind, owing to pains being too physical existence, it was usual, if they exploited the land from natives for production of cereals and animal herding, as we see large sheep farms in Australia.
Their necessity was touched with material possession however, the native people were the true habitant to nature and their long-standing had made rhythmic relations with the chimes of native bells in the form of gargling rivers, the circulation of wind including natural resources. As hunger of existence looks never, the fair or unfair mean, they inflicted pain on man-power and natural resources.
Conclusion-It can be started in brief that collision and encounter is the only percussion of such assimilation of two just opposite to each other communities at the same place.
Displacing Indigenous Peoples Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
This theme in its entirety introduces us to the native people with their instincts, respect to life, the network of circumstances, their determination vis-a-vis troubled mind people (All Europeans) passionate to obtain land and become lord, the resultant collision and percussions apparent in the form of America, a superpower at present”-Are you agree to this statement. Discuss with reference to the melodrama of the location (land) and its results
I agree to the above statement on the following grounds-
1. Introduction with the native people-We observe in both continents i.e. North America and Australia, the native people were simple people and animists. They were so absorbed in nature that selling land in their view was an offense to the motherland. For an in¬stance, we can refer to the reply given to the offer of the treaty from the President of the USA in 1854 which was actually an agreement to sell off the land to the Government of America.
The native chief writes that land covers the freshness of the air, coolness of the water, shade of trees, etc. and it can neither be sold nor bought by any person. He tells the sap pouring from trees holds a quality of real man (Natives). However, he accepts the offer subject to congenial reservation given and treat the land so sold as sacred as they understand the water’s murmur as the voices of their fore-fathers. They would have published books and educate their children to honor this LAPD.
Wordsworth writes about the nature of these people as un¬touched by the corruptions of civilization. He describes their condition in a poem as-“They were living amid wilds where fancy hath small liberty to grace.”
Karl Marx, the great German philosopher describes the reservations provided by the Europeans to native people as the last positive capitalist utopia the limitless nature and space to which the limitless thirst for prompt adapts itself.
2. Introduction with Europeans-We come to know that Europeans had entered North America for trade in furs and fish. It was their trade that brought them nearer to the native people whom they cheated in exchange for things with them and obtained land and goods mostly in the gift. Then they displaced them to reservations. Lee Brown says the stone tablets exhibit how Hopi (a native tribe) was arrested by the Spaniards.
About 300 years after the Americas, the Euro¬peans started coming to Australia with the discovery made by Captain Cook. They had to fight wars with the aborigines there. However, they won and made them slaves. Here were the people mostly convicts deported from England. They shortly evicted the native people.
Hence, we see the collision of cultures and the resultant loss to native people. The natives took them greedy and deceitful and the Europeans criticized them as sloth, dull and uncivilized. The third President of the USA, Thomas Jefferson had stated-“This unfortunate race which we have been taking so many pains to civilize have justified extermination.”
The network of Circumstances :
(a) Native people-
- They were nature lovers, self-restraint, untouched by corruption, and complacent people. Rousseau of France said-“Such people were to be admired as they were untouched by corruption.”
- That was satisfied with their means and did not want the destruction of the beauty by cutting trees, cleaning the forest, build structures and super-structures thereupon.
- They were bestowed by nature with rivers like Mississippi, Ohio, etc., mountains like Appalachian, the great lakes, natural reservoirs but till then know to them as living with animation as the mankind/human beings.
(b) The Europeans-
1. These all were beaten-sold or in other words, victims of corruption in Europe. Some were younger sons to land-owners denied of inheritance, a few other convicts, sufferers of sectism in Christianity (i.e. Protestant and Catholics), victims of the Enclosure Policy and some were traders. They were known to the fact the selfish ends here others from their material possessions i.e. land, business, occupation and even of their lives.
2. It is stated that avarice and selfishness i.e. a malaise to the mental body that acts upon others like that of contagious nature. It spreads even through breathing and touch. The Europeans acted as the pathogens or carrier of the disease and communicated its bacteria to native people causing their displacement, oppression, suppression, extortion, in the hands of those pathogens. They were extorted and displaced from their own countries i.e. England, France, Spain, Holland, Germany, and on their part, they came to NorthAmerica and Australia in order to practice corruption and enjoy material possession.
3. They would not write their history because of their faith in the flow of usual learning from one generation to another. There were more than 300 languages yet no records until the early part of the twentieth century they maintained or preserved anyway.
4. Countries like Canada and the USA came into existence at the end of the eighteenth century as confederacies in North America and states in Australia united in 1911 with Canberra, as its capital. These governments also did not extend any favor to the native people. Slavery was banned but its actual abolition could possible only when the UNO was formed in 1945.
The phenomenon of Land-At this juncture, when we are going to set at rest the topic, it is noticeable that the land of the Americas (i.e. North and South-both continents) where Europeans stepped with the malaise of inflicting pains, atrocities on the native people, has now appeared as super-power of the world. Actually, it is triple-experiments of malicious which once communicated thereby Europeans as a pathogen.
It is so because seeds were sown in the land of Europe where scrape of inheritance was confined, enclosure policy made displacement, people kept in confinement and atrocities practiced on them to the extent that they compelled to leave behind their home and hearth, the and other properties and seek another place for living.
Did they bit them? native people and bacteria of that malaise inserted into their head and’’ heart. It developed there in a little more than self half and thus, fully, trained Americas with her citizens has become expert in adopting Sortne a century ultra-modem technique of trade and commerce and thus* has acquired the status of super-power in the world. If we could see’/ her treatment with Vietnam, Japan, Iraq, and Iran, etc. Countries including India and Pakistan it would easy to conclude her face that of the most expert Europeans of 30,000 years ago who looted her existence end the people there. Actually, it is turning of wheel systematically brought- by the phenomenon of land.
Conclusion-History is made by land and people. The land as a mute observer but the more sensitive as per William Wordsworth survives man and tries him by placing in a variety of circumstances, situations, his manner of adaptation, behavior, urge, emotions, passions, etc. and then the results, good or bad as perceived by mankind through History, take place in an interlude of decades, centuries and even that of an era.