Here we are providing Class 11 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization. Class 11 History Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 History Chapter 11 Important Extra Questions Paths to Modernization
Paths to Modernization Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Why was China a source of Culture and ideals to Japan?
It was because of China’s being a large nation and Japan, a small island country, and proximity of both nations brought in perpetual intercourse of cultures.
Why did the Chinese react slowly?
They found difficulties in redefining their traditions to cope with the modem world, in rebuilding its national strength, and in winning freedom from British and Japanese rule.
What did the Chinese leaders feel by the end of the 1970s?
They felt the ideological system was retarding economic growth and development.
When did a more democratic political system begin in Japan?
It was just after the US occupation which enabled Japan to emerge as a major economic power by the decade of 1970.
Who is considered the greatest historian of early China?
It was Sima Qian (145-90 BCE).
Why did the Meiji Government in Japan appoint a bureau in 1869?
It was appointed for the collection of records and to write a victors version of the Meiji Restoration.
Mention the range of written material found in Japan?
It is in the form of official histories, scholarly writings, literature, and religious books.
Write the names of historians famous in China and Japan.
- Kume Kunitake,
- Marco Polo,
- Mateo Ricci (Jesuit Priest) and
- Luis Frois. These were written in Chinese.
What is a physical contest between China and Japan?
China is a vast continental country while Japan is a string of islands. China is having stable landforms while Japan is a country vulnerable to earthquakes. China has three river systems while Japan has no such drainage system. China has several nationalities i.e. Uighur, Hui, Manchu, and Tibetan but Japan has a single majority of Japanese.
What kind of regional diversity in Chinese food is seen?
Chinese food is in variety. Generally, there are four types / of dishes:-
- Cantonese Cuisine,
- Staple food like wheat,
- Fiery Cuisine and
- Rice and wheat.
Write the names of four large islands forming Japan?
- Shikoku and
Who had held the position of Shogun in Japan and when?
The members of the Tokugawa family held the position of Shogun (regent) from 1603 to 1867 in Japan.
Who was Samurai?
It was the warrior class who served the Shoguns and Daimyo (the ruler of a domain).
Which measure had proved good to check frequent Chaos within Japan?
Earlier, the farmers had to participate in defense sendees hence, arms were supplied to them by the administration. However, those arms and weapons were used in internal conflicts. The peasantry ’ was disarmed and it proved non-repetition of those internal clashes ‘ and conflicts.
What was the achievement of Japan by the mid-seventeenth century?
Japan had grown in the three most populated and vast cities viz. Edo (Presently Tokyo), Osaka, and Kyoto.
How can you state that Japan achieved economic growth during the regime of Shoguns?
It is because
- Silk Industry was developed in Nishijin,
- Use of money increased,
- The stock market in rice created,
- Theatres and movies established,
- Books were published.
What does the Tale of Genji reveal?
It reveals that Japanese culture was more ancient or older than that of Chinese. It was a fictionalized diary written by Murasaki Shikibu.
What is assumed about the origin of Japan?
It was assumed that Japan was created by God and its emperor was a descendant of the Sun goddess.
Why would the USA have seen Japan as a major market?
It was because Japan falls on the route to China.
Describe the commotion created in Japan when China, was defeated by the British?
The news of China’s subordination by the British generated, a wave of fear among the Japanese. They sent some people to Europe to study Imperialism and its strategies.
- They were ready to adopt
- Modern military force was developed.
- The legal system for political groups, public gatherings, and scrutiny of all affairs.
- Japanese students were sent abroad to develop their technical know-how in the institutions there.
- Subsidies and tax benefits are given to shipbuilding companies.
Why did the Meiji Government face opposition?
It was because the military and bureaucracy were kept outside the Constitution. Hence, these organs of government began to give stiff opposition.
What acts did exhibit the modernization of the Japanese economy?
- Agriculture tax was imposed for capital-formation.
- Railway line laid between Tokyo and Yokohama.
- Textile machinery was imported from Europe and foreign technicians were appointed in order to impart education in technology.
- Japanese students were sent abroad to develop their technical know-how in the institutions there.
- Subsidies and tax benefits are given to shipbuilding companies.
What measures did the government of Japan adopt for the reduction Of population pressure?
- Allowed migration to Hokkaido (an island), Hawaii, and Brazil.
- Launched war-campaigns to establish colonies in other countries.
Mention the pace of population increase in Japanese cities during 1925-1935?
It was 21 percent of the total population in 1925 but within a span of a single decade, if increased to 32 percent (22.5 million) in 1935.
Write the series of increases in the number of factories in Japan between 1909 to 1940.
A number of factories employing more than one hundred workers-was 1,000 in 1909 spurt up to 2,000 by 1920, 4,000 by 1930, and 5,50,000 by 1940.
Mention the main characteristics of the Meiji Constitution?
- It was based on a restricted franchise.
- Parliament (Diet) was not given wider powers/
Who was Tanaka Shozo and why is he so popular in Japan’s politics?
- He participated in the Popular Rights Movement in 1880.
- He was elected member of the first Diet (Parliament).
- He forced the in charge of The Ashio Mine to use – pollution-control devices in order to protect the Watarase river from pollution.
What were the major background factors responsible for the strengthening of the military and expansion of Japan’s colonial empire?
- the Army and Navy were given independent control,
- Services as generals and admirals in the past were made a condition to become a minister,
- Higher Taxes imposed to compensate for the expenditure on defense.
Who was Fukuzawa Yukichi?
He was a leading Meiji intellectual who advocated westernization for Japan. He was from Samurai (warrior) family. He had established Keio University and served as a translator for the first Japanese embassy to the U.S.A. He promoted western learning.
Who was opposite to the complete westernization of Japan in line with the USA and Western European countries?
Those learned people were-Miyake set Suri and Ueki Emon, a leader of the Popular Rights Movement. They were demanding a constitutional Government. Their statements were-” To devote oneself to one’s country is to devote oneself to the world.” “Japan should be based not on the military but on democracy. ”
What were the effects observed in Japanese society with the adoption of modernization?
These effects were-
- Joint family system dissolved and nuclear family system preferred,
- Demand for housing, consumer goods, domestic appliances, etc. increased and industries concerned had prospered,
- New forms of travel (trams line) developed, Departmental stores opened and public parks were opened,
- Radio Station opened, movies began to be made and traditional norms gradually disappeared.
How had Nishitani Keiji defined the term “Modem”?
This term was defined as the unity of three streams of Western thought-
- the Renaissance,
- The Protestant Reformation and
- The rise of natural sciences.
Why did Nishitani Keiji state Japan’s moral energy helpful to escape colonization?
Japan’s moral energy was nothing else but her strong faith in indigenous norms of society. She studied western culture, strategies, policies, and manners of living but adopted only useful in the situations of Japan. He further says that a fine blend of science and religion will help her in establishing a greater East Asia.
What was discussed in Japan in a symposium on “Overcoming Modernity” in 1943?
The measures decided were pertaining to modernize with tools taken from Western Countries but apply them consciously and cautiously on Japanese land viz. affirming with the real situations in Japan.
What was the essence of the new constitution formed in Japan after her defeat in the hands of the USA?
- No war clause was introduced in state policy,
- Agriculture will be made a priority area for reclamation and investment,
- Trade unions will be re-established,
- The monopoly of Zaibasth or industrial Houses holding control on economy shall be checked,
- The election shall be held in 1946 with men as well as women voters.
What will you say to a post-war miracle in Japan?
It was Japan’s age-long experience of struggles, a historic tradition, and intellectual pursuits.
Which are the premier or cardinal points of China’s modern history?
- Region of sovereignty after long strife,
- Get-rid of humiliation caused by foreign rule,
- Measure to bring about equality and development.
Who has ascribed fame for the modernization of China?
Those learned people were-
- Kan Youwei and Liang Qichao.
- Sun-Yat-Sen and
- Mao-Zedong. Kan Youwei used traditional ideas in new and different ways. Sun-Yat-Sen establishes the first republic and whose middle-way of Japan and the western traditions and practices. Mao-Zedong fought for the removal of inquiries and foreign rule. He was the great leader of C.C.P.
How could England gather the courage to force the opium trade in China?
England had pre-planned in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when missionaries were sent to China. They collected information on the weaknesses of China and reported them in their country. On the basis of it, England could gather the courage to challenge China in the opium war which had run continuously for three years i.e. 1839-1842.
What style of the opium trade was adopted by the British?
Opium was collected by East India Company and issued a letter of credit to her agent against the payment, they had received ‘ in China and the silver was used to buy tea, silk, and porcelain for export in Britain. It was a triangular trade between Britain, India, and China.
What did Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao realize in respect of the developments in China?
In order to protect China from colonization, they felt the need for a modem administrative system, a new army, and educated. system and setting-up of local assemblies to establish constitutional government.
What were the three essential factors of Confucianism?
- good conduct,
- practical wisdom and
- proper social relationship.
What was the outcome of sending students of Japan, Britain, and France to study?
The Chinese could understand the implication of justice, rights, and revolution and they used them to reverse traditional relationships.
Why did the examination system in China meet to abolition?
The only literary skill was required to attend these exams for Civil Services resulting in a rapid increase of unemployment problem c for the educated youth. Hence, this system was abolished.
What was the program implemented by Sun-Yat- Sen, the founder of modem China?
It was called San-min-Chui or Three principles. These were
- To overthrow foreign dynasty (Manchu)
- To establish democratic government or democracy and
- To bring socialism to regulate capital and equalize landholdings.
What were the avowed aims of revolutionaries when China was made a colony by the British?
- To drive out the foreigners from China,
- To remove inequalities and
- to reduce poverty.
What were the reforms necessary as per the revolutionaries in China?
According to revolutionaries, the reforms needed were-
- Use of Simple language in writing,
- Abolition of the practice of foot-binding and subordination of women,
- Equality in marriage,
- Economic development to end poverty.
What for a military campaign was launched by Chiang- Kai-Shek?
He was the leader of NPP or Guomindang. after Sun-Yat- Sen. He wanted to control the warlords and powerful regional leaders and to eliminate the communists.
What were the views of Chiang-Kai-Shek for women’s welfare?
According to Chiang-Kai-Shek, women should cultivate in themselves, the four virtues i.e. Chastity, appearance, speech, and work, and recognize their role as confined to the household. A dress code was also suggested by him.
Who were the supporters of Guomindang (NPP)?
These were slum dwellers (Xiao-Shimin), traders, and shopkeepers in cities.
Which were the factors bringing in social and political change?
These factors were-
- The spread of schools and colleges,
- Journalism preferred by the mass,
- The activities of Mahatma Gandhi and Kernel Ataturk (the modernist leader of Turkey) as a stimulus to follow for the independence of China.
Why did Buck Clayton extend his favor to the Chinese in their fight for discrimination against white Americans?
Actually, Buck Clayton was black-American, and once some white Americans assaulted him in Shanghai. That event melted his heart for black-Chinese and being resourceful, he had assisted those people in the removal of likewise discrimination.
Write the causes of failures faced by the Guomindang?
- Overlooked mass problems,
- An imposed military order,
- Neither capital was regulated under socialism nor land holdings distributed equally.
Why did Comintern or the Third International Organisation constituted by Lenin and Trotsky meet to dissolution?
It was made a tool for soviet interests otherwise, it could support Communist Party in China.
What were the thoughts of Mao Zedong?
He was a great and veteran leader of C.C.P. and his thoughts were-
- Party should make its rural base,
- Independent government and Army to be organized,
- Women associations to be formed in order to forbid arranged marriages, abolish marriage contracts, and process of divorce to be made easier than existing.
What was new democracy and when was it established in Japan?
New Democracy was Communism but women dictatorship of the proletariat. It was an alliance of all social classes. Core areas of the economy were put under government control and private enterprise and private ownership of land were gradually ended.
What were Communes?
Communes were formed in rural areas where a group of people began forming inland collectively owned by them. There were 26,000 communes in 1958 covering 98% of the farm population.
Why did Mao launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1965?
Among some Chinese, there were critics of the.CCP and its leader Mao-Zedong. They did not like the commune system, steel production in the backward furnaces, and the organization which was constituted by him. In order to satisfy through dialogue or face to face debate, Mao launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
What were the Four Modernisations of the Communist Party of China?
Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, the Communist Party of China introduced a socialist market economy. Four modernizations were the four thrust areas i.e. Science, industry, agriculture, and defense. The aim was to promote these areas for modernization.
What had happened on the seventieth anniversary of the May Fourth movement?
The Chinese populace was raising demands continuously for several years in the past but left without explanation thereon by the Party. When the people demonstrated at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, they were mercilessly beaten.
What was the political status of Taiwan?
It was transferred to the sovereignty of Japan after the 1894-95 war with China but subsequently, the Cairo Declaration of 1943 and the Potsdam Proclamation of 1949 gave it back under the sovereignty of China.
Who had founded the Republics of China in Taiwan?
It was Chiang Kai-Shek the leader of N.P.P. or the Guomindang. It was in the year 1942 when Taiwan was under China’s Sovereignty.
What was done by GMD Under Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan than the republic of China?
- It repressed mercilessly, the demonstrations in, Feb. 1947.
- It prohibited freedom to press and political opposition as also declined authorities of people in higher positions were thrown to demotion, humiliation. Carried out land-reforms that had modernized the economy.
- Helped in creating an environment in which the gap between rich and poor sharply receded. It was only good the Party had done.
What has been done in Taiwan after the death of Chiang Kai-shek in 1975?
- It is climbing on democratic steps.
- Martial law was lifted in 1987.
- Opposition parties are legally permitted.
- The election has been conducted beyond any reservations or restrictions or discrimination with the local people.
Do you think Taiwan will get merged with China?
It is the demarcation of a strait between China and Taiwan. Taiwan is a semi-autonomous state under China. There is an improvement in relations, trade and investment have been improved and travel has also become easier i.e. free from acute inquiries by authorities.
Paths to Modernization Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What were the questions in debate ringing in the minds of the populace in China?
- Whether Party’s strong political control, economic liberalization, and integration into the global market have not generated the virus of inequalities between social groups, between regions, and between men and women resulting in mass tension.
- Whether heavy emphasis on market and open sanction would not crush the recognition of Chinese culture and manners as well?
- Whether copying others is not suicidal China should better peep into Confucianism containing and concerned with good conduct, practical and proper social relationship.
Do you think modernization can be brought in personality, in ways of thinking, in appearance, in behavioral pattern, etc. merely by direct copying siblings, great men, etc? Discuss.
When we see, the children taught by a single teacher, appear with different portfolios in their youth, any society maker should not think that his speech/action and temperament is equally accepted by all the populace amid which he is heard, behaved, and faced. Modernization in western countries should be first studied from electronic and print media and observed with its common reflection on the masses and the thorough cycle of study not less than a decade and situations at one’s home, village, town, and a country worth reminiscence or worth recollection. An introspection and review comparative are then made before framing generalization and riding at the stair of conclusion.
“Copying is fatal and suicidal” one should keep in mind or be ready to repent after three or four decades, as it is an inevitable after-effects/strokes.
Why d,o you think Japan is progressing?
Each progress stands on degrees to the existing systems. It depends on the adoption of that change, to what extent observation is made, experiments/trials are done and its generalization X-rayed. Japan is an export country brimmed with actual intellectual property, not pseudo stifling minds, hence, tangible progress of Japan is owed to that intangible property, she had. We can highlight some tangible attitudes of Japan as under-
- Japan cooked the bread of her modernization program on the heat of Imperial powers galloping and gobbling the sovereignty of countries like China and India, both her neighbors. It was the challenge where she had to make her way to keep its sovereignty intact.
- It proceeded on sending students abroad, promoting an atmosphere of reading-habits, setting-up up libraries, licensing associations, symposiums, seminars, summits frequently, and allowing the press to come for public awareness.
- Japanese ancient literature, remains, scriptures, etc. were made subject to the curriculum for schools and colleges.
- Give special emphasis on industrialization with Research and Development infrastructure made available. Science and technology began to be taught by experts from abroad. Thus, Japan had arranged the men, machines, and means with skilled enterprise, hence, she is duly progressing.
Analyze the path chosen by China for her modernization?
Existing situations and circumstances-
- China was under British rule,
- Japan also had defeated China,
- Qing dynasty had weakened the control.
Result-Political and Social order failed to keep the masses at ease and with comforts. Situations had taken a toll of several thousand lives in the course of internal (civil) unrest and invasion by foreign powers. Epidemics had further aggravated the pains of the public.
Owing to these circumstances, China could see the light of progress later than Japan.
- Only literary meaning, not an implication of the doctrines or principles were taken care of.
- CCP and N.P.P. irrespective of almost equal aims generated internal unrest for several years.
- The general public took the negative example of colonized countries. They could understand slavery only when the British used Indian soldiers in the opium war with China.
- China could see reformers like Sun-Yat-Sen, politicians, and revolutionaries like Mao-Zedong (CPP) and Deng Xiaoping only in the nineteenth century.
Do you think old traditions and habits were the main deterrents to the modernization of China? Discuss.
Old Traditions and Habits-
- Confucianism was concerned with good conduct, practical wisdom, and proper social relationship.
- Customs which were painful to the woman.
- A Socialist man was taken to a person who has five loves: fatherland, people, labor, science, and public property.
Confucianism, no doubt a great stimulus but not understood in its implied meaning. It was taken as a synonym to cowardice, loathsome and a device to intrigue Eg. Two parties conflict with each other. Hence, the above were the traditions that could not modernize China.
Give a brief account of C.C.P?
- It was founded in 1921.
- Initially, ft followed the organization Comintern propounded by Lenin and Trotsky.
- Mao-Zedong was the leader of CCP who studied levels of exploitation practiced on the masses in Xunwn and some other places. His base of program was rural.
- He organized a strong peasant’s council (Soviet) united through confiscation and redistribution of land.
- Under his leadership, CCP faced NPP boldly and on strong ground. Finally, it was won.
- CCP fought against foreign rule, carried out land reforms, and took stem action to end warlordism.
Who were the leaders of the Guomindang or N.P.P. and C.C.P. What they did?
CCP’s founder was Mau-Zedong and other leaders were Liu- Shao-chi and Deng Xiaoping. It was founded in 1921.
NPP’s founder was Sun-Yat-Sen who had to establish the first republic of China. Its other leader was Chiang Kai-Shek.
Activities-C.C.P.-It organized a strong peasant’s council (Soviet) between 1928 to 1934. It stressed the need for an independent government and army. It needed the women’s problems and in order to empower them, he made their associations. It also took causes of child labor and other issues. Under C.C.P, All-China Democratic Women’s Federation and All-China students Federation became popular. This party students Federation became popular. This party won the NPP and Chiang-Kai-Shek had to slide at Taiwan, a territory semi-autonomous under China’s sovereignty. Its leader was Mao Zedong.
N. P. P.-It was based on the principle of Confucious followed by Sun-Yat-Sen the republican. Chiang-Kai-Shek was another leader. It identified four needs i.e. clothing, food, housing, and transportation. It was against landlords, regional leaders who had usurped authority and to eliminate the communists. It made Confucianism rational and secular and thought better, the military rule for the country. Schools and Universities were opened in China/women’s rights were advocated and the working-class in factories increased in number.
Contrast the encounter of the Japanese and the Aztecs with the Europeans.
Encounter by Japan-
- (i) Propagated information on European Imperialism and Colonies formed under that approach.
- A number of articles written, magazines published, and public awareness was created.
- Students were sent to Britain, Germany, and France to study politics, ethics, social affairs in those countries.
- Employed foreign experts for teaching science and technologies in schools and colleges.
- Took technical know-how on installation and operations in factories in Japan.
- Slogans like Fukoku Kyohei (rich country, strong army) were sounded among the masses.
- Created a sense of nationhood among citizens.
- European system understood consisting of emperor, bureaucracy, and military.
Encounter by Aztecs-
- They (the Tax clans) fought bravely but massacred by Cortes and his soldiers as Totonacs, an organization, an enemy to the Aztec dynasty but under her rule that time was befriended by Spaniards.
- Montezuma was god-fearing King of the Aztec dynasty as he took Cortes reincarnation of an exiled god and thought, he had reappeared to take revenge.
- The King allowed Cortes to enter the capital and gave him grand reception so that he would return without bloodshed but he remained there in months, interfered with the administration, and one day detained him. It ashamed the King and he committed suicide.
Would you agree with Nishitani’s definition of “Modem”?
The term “Modern” as defined by Nishitani, a philosopher was composed of crystal of the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the rise of natural sciences all western thought.
In my opinion, that scholar was all true. It was actually, an exercise to integrate science and religion. These two things are as essential and inevitable as the relation of the body (a crystal made of matters i.e. solid, liquid, and gas) and the soul (emotions, instincts, temperament, and discretion). Science is boon and curses simultaneously depending on its application and, that is possible only when the individual is abreast with biology, botany, environment, the ethics, interrelation of human beings with the environment, etc. On one side, science provides the populace with comforts and ease, while on the other, it spreads devastation; if applied in the manufacture of hydrogen, nuclear bombs. The consequence of the renaissance, the protestant reformations, and the contribution of science to them were, therefore, worth noticing and comparing with the circumstances that existed in Japan.
Does the following painting give you a clear sense of the significance of the opium war?
The Opium Trade
The demand for Chinese goods such as tea, silk, and porcelain created a serious balance-of-trade problem. Western goods did not find a market in China, so payment had to be in silver. The East India Company found a new option – opium, which grew in India. They sold the opium in China and gave the silver that they earned to company agents in Canton in return for letters of credit. The company used the silver to buy tea, silk, and porcelain to sell in Britain. This was the ‘triangular trade’ between Britain, India, and China.
Visible things in the paintings
- A huge fleet of ships on the sea.
- Some ships are immersed and some others almost drown in the sea.
- There appears an explosion perhaps that of cannons exploded. Its reflection can be seen on the surface of the sea-water. Smoke shows arson and loot.
- There are ripples up and down on the surface of sea-water. It shows an acute commotion as generally takes place when war is fought.
- Lastly, we see soldiers on Plymouth or small boats rowed from all directions.
Conclusion-On the basis of the above five visions/pictures that are seen on this painting, depicting a war being fought from the sea.
How does a sense of discrimination unite people?
1. As the development and destruction run simultaneously, equality and discrimination are like two aspects of the same coin. For instance, Buck Clayton in this theme has been told a black American but a wealthy man. By chance, he had to meet insults and humiliations in the hands of White Americans in Shanghai. The apology was, however, asked by them in his matter but he since that day, became a friend to all Chinese and protested against that discrimination viz. he was united with the entire community of black-people.
2. Discrimination is that pleasing thing that receives a wider response from the person who is discriminated against. On such occasions, boundaries of territories, differences due to Social and Economic status are forgotten and the man discriminated against intakes the issue in-depth and joins himself with the community, so discriminated.
Why did the Guomindang fail in China?
- Its base was confined to the urban population and never raised the issues pertaining to the common masses.
- Its political vision was very limited as Chian-Kai-Shek wanted his rule in China. His visit to Taiwan and the Constitution of the Republic of China there is all apparent.
- It favored military campaigns against foreigners as also against CPP who was also dedicated to win freedom for China and modernize her. It reveals the narrow-mindedness of Guomindong under Chiang-kai- Shek.
- It sought military rule for China which was never possible in the prime of democracy.
- It never took positively, the women’s cause. It instead, made some stiff rules for women and favored their confinement within four walls of the house.
Why did the examination system in China appear as a barrier to the development of Science and Technology?
The examination system till 1850 in China had the following characteristics-
- It was arranged for the selection of top-class officials and bureaucrats.
- The examination was held twice every three years.
- There were different levels.
- It could be passed only by 1-2 percent of the total examinees.
- There were 27,000 official positions but the degree holders were about 5,26,869 civil and 2,12,330 military provincial degree holders. It caused gross unemployment.
- It demanded only literary skills that had no use in science and technology. Owing to the above characteristics, this system was abolished in 1905.
Give a brief account of Fukuzawa Yukichi?
He was one of the highest intelligent members of the Meiji family. He is born in a poor Samurai family. He acquired higher education in Dutch, western sciences, and English in Nagasaki and Osaka. He was a translator for the first Japanese embassy to the USA. He had composed a hook on The Encouragement to Learning (Gakumon no Susume) not in classical but in the spoken style that became extremely popular. He established a school promoted today as the Keio University. He was a member of the society Meirokusha, engaged in the promotion of Western learning. He had advocated not just modem factories and institutes but the cultural essence of the west, the spirit of colonization. His doctrine was-Heaven did not create men above men nor set men below men.
Paths to Modernization Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Describe the theme “Paths to modernization” taking two countries i.e. China and Japan, striving for modernization. Mention „ the political thoughts, society and law and orders, and essence of modernization adopted by Japan a smaller country than China.
|Pathfinders social reformers and revolutionaries in japan.||Two Countries i.e. Japan and China.Social reformers Murasaki Shikibu (an author of Tale of Genji), Commodore Matthew Perry (the messenger from the USA), Fukuzawa Yukichi, Miyake Setsurei, Ueki Emori, and Nishitani Keiji.|
|Social reformers in china||Kang Yonwai, Liang Qichao, Sun- Yat-Sen, (the first President of a republic), Chiang- Kai-Shek, Mao- Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, and Liu Shao-chi.|
Views of Japanese reformers and revolutionists
(a) Murasaki Shikibu-She had written a fictionalized diary of
the Heian Court. She wrote in Japanese. She had raised the issue of women’s rights and the ways for their empowerment.
(b) Commodore Matthew Perry-He was an ambassador sent from the USA in order to persuade the Japanese for making bilateral trade ties. He guided the emperor of Kyoto and he became able to overthrow the Shogun dynasty from power. Edo was renamed Tokyo and made the capital.
(c) Fukuzawa Yukichi-He wrote a book The Encourgenent Of Learning which proved very useful in the propagation of westernization in Japan. He thought the USA and Western European Countries at the highest point of civilization. He had suggested Japanese shed their Asian characteristics and become part of the west.
(d) Miyake Setsurei-He stated that each nation must develop its special talents in the interests of world civilization. He added that to devote oneself to one’s country is to devote oneself to the world.
(e) Ueki Emori-He was the leader of the Popular Rights Movement. He demanded constitutional government, favored the natural rights of man as per the French Revolution. He told that democracy is a must for wealth development in all fields and liberal education will able to generate intellectuals. He emphatically declared-“Freedom is more precious than order.”
(f) Nishitani Kaiji-He was a philosopher and defined the term modern as the unity of three streams of western thought viz. Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the rise of natural sciences. He put his feet in the shoes of a German Philosopher when saying that Japan’s moral energy had helped it to escape colonization and it was its duty to establish a new world order, a greater East Asia but it will possible only when science and religion are duly intertwined.
Views of Chinese reformers and revolutionaries
(a) Kang Youwei-He tried to use traditional ideas in new and different ways to meet the challenges posed by the west.
(b) Lian Qichao-He also realized the need to strengthen the system and initiated policies to build a modem administrative system, a new army, an educational system, and the setting-up of local assemblies to establish constitutional government.
(c) Sun-Yat-Sen-He was the first Republican leader and regarded as the founder of modem China. He had acquired education from a missionary school hence, democracy and Christianity were in essence known to him. His three principles were-Nationalism, Democracy, and Socialism interpreted as overthrowing the Manchu (looked as foreign dynasty) and other imperialists, establishing democratic government and regulating capital, and equalizing landholdings. Fie identified four needs i.e. clothing, food, housing, and transportation.
Under his leadership, reforms such as the use of simple language in writing, the abolition of the practice of foot-binding and the subordination of women, equality in marriage, and economic developments to end poverty, were made.
(d) Chian-Kai-Shek-He was the leader of N.P.P. or the Guomindang. He favored military rule for China and put a check on Warlords, the pressure groups, and the elimination of the communists. He was favoring secular and rational Confucianism but thrusting military power in its womb. NPP does possible attempt to unite the country but failed due to the narrow-mindedness of its leader, social base being confined to urban people, and passion to establish a military rule. N.P.P. aroused tensions in China as it took CPP as its rival while so far their objectives were concerned, those were identical. Finally, Chiang-Kai-Shiek had. to leave China and settle in Taiwan, the semi-autonomous state under China, and established the Republic of China there.
Percussions of the efforts made by revolutionaries and social reformers:
- Studies of ancient Japanese literature proliferated and people could know that their culture is older than China.
- Schools and Colleges were opened and scholars were sent abroad to study politics especially, imperialism and its consequences or its after-effect.
- Emperor system adopted. The Government had thus, three components i.e. the emperor, the bureaucracy, and the Army.
- Two phonetic alphabets (Hiragana and Katakana) were developed.
- Military being made an integral part of the govt., it posed hurdles for some years in the spread of democracy.
- A textile industry developed, cities’ population – increased and Railway lines were laid.
- Fear of falling into the trap of Imperial power gave birth to aggressive nationalism.
- Westernization put its step in Japan as leading Meiji intellectual Fukuzawa Yukichi said-“Japan must expel Asia”.
- The joint family system dissolved and nuclear families gathered momentum.
- A turn of thinking for the populace as to how to combat the West while being modern came in offing. Refer to Nishitani Keiji’s statement.
1. Modernisation began with the arrival of Jesuit missionaries who entered China and opened Schools there.
2. Missionaries took notice of China’s territories and administrative processes which encouraged Britishers to push the opium trade into China. It resulted in three opium wars between 1839-42. These were fought between China and England (Britain). China defeated and made a colony by Britain.
3. Two countries i..e India and China, both British colonies were befooled by Britain in opium trade resulting in Britain’s coffer grew fat win hard currency.
4. Missionaries injected the virus of rabbles into the veins of the Chinese as they acclaimed the British when Poland was partitioned.
5. Gradually, the. the populace could understand the reality of the British when schools and colleges were opened and a number of students were sent to Britain, Germany, America, France, and Russia in order to understand the lands and people with their diversities in physical forms, as also temperature and temperament (of people).
6. Examination System for civil and military officials was withdrawn as classical learning was found unsuitable to administrative and regularity authorities.
7. Manchu empire was overthrown and a republic came into existence in 1911. Sun-Yat-Sen was its founder.
8. Post-war peace conference could not provide China with liberty for which anti-war was promised by Britishers. Hence, revolution and movements came in offing and shortly swung on and against Britishers.
9. N.P.P and CPP formed, stood as a rival, NPP caused several encounters with CPP. Finally, CPP won
and NPP sheltered to Taiwan, a quasi-autonomous territory under China. Thus, Chiang-Kie-Shek formed the Republic of China there.
10. The Peoples’ Republic of China government was formed in 1949 and called New Democracy in which critical areas handled by the Government, Private ownership of land, and private enterprises were ended-up.
11. Mao-Zedong got acclamation for his expertise and enterprise to the Communist Party of China as its founder leader.
12. Traditional views and values recently, are reviving since last a decade and modernization reconciled with specific recognition to China’s traditional moral values being given.
13. CCP under the Leadership of Deng Xiaoping declared. its goal as the four modernizations i.e. Science, industry, agriculture, and defense will be the thrust or priority areas.
14. Without Democracy, the other modernizations would do no good, was the thought echoing in the minds of the populace and it had been accepted as the Fifth Modernisation. Demands were, crushed but the administration was challenged again on the seventieth anniversary of the May Fourth Movement.
Conclusion-An X-ray on this entire theme makes it ex -facie that a drive to modernization was rationally and the scientific way [Thorough observation, experiment (trial application), generalization and conclusion] adopted by Japan while China, on the other side, a larger and continental country with mushrooming population could understand the real meaning of the term “modem” in 1978 i.e. 35 years later than Japan. Japan rose like a rocket but dashed with USA body, lost Nagasaki and Hiroshima parts, shortly repaired in her ‘workshop during the post-war period and with precautions and invincible speed; ag^in took-off at the stratosphere.
It’s all phenomenon of the genesis of thoughts and thinkers, their experiments with the masses, coordinating and annihilating, selection of potentials and means at the national level and get it done by masses with success, always invincible when scientific way conclusion on the project arrives as we could learn this fact by virtue of this theme.