Here we are providing Class 11 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 6 The Three Orders. Class 11 History Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 History Chapter 6 Important Extra Questions The Three Orders
The Three Orders Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What were three orders in European Communities?
These were like limits of administration of the government. There were social categories-
- Christian Priest,
- nobility and
- peasants under the feudal system of governance.
What was the achievement of Marc Bloch?
He had composed a book on “The Feudal Society”. Here he gives a detailed account of social relations, hierarchies, land management, and culture of the French society between 900 and 1300 CE.
How did European historians become successful in writing the histories of regions even that of individual villages?
It would possible because of the availability of a number of documents, details of landowners’ life, prices, and legal cases. Eg. Churches records of births, marriages, and deaths.
What do you understand by the medieval era?
It is the period between the fifth and the fifteenth century i.e. history of above 1000 ( a millennium) years.
What is a Feudalism?
This German word had been used by historians to describe ‘ the economic, legal, political and social relationship that existed in Europe in the medieval era.
Why did the social organization was centered on the control of land in Europe?
- There was a lack of any integrated political force.
- Continuous military conflict was witnessed.
- Fencing became important in order to protect one’s land.
What features the feudal system had derived from the past?
- Traditions descended from the Roman empire and
- Customs observed by Germans.
What was the role of Christianity in the feudal system of society in Europe?
- It was the religion when had survived the collapse of Rome.
- It was pervaded throughout Europe.
On this basis, a priest (Clergy) was the first order of feudal society in Europe. Pope was the supreme head of the Catholic Church and Christians in Europe were guided by Bishops and clergies. The church was the law-making body and independent from the king.
What is the meaning of feudalism from an economic angle?
It was based on the relationship between lords and peasants.
Lords were the nobles with large estates, joined by the whole. Peasants were owners of smallholdings and they had to cultivate the land owned by their lords and military protection was given to them in exchange for such services to the lords.
How can you say that feudalism had covered social and political aspects of life also?
Social aspect-Render services to lords in order to receive military protection.
Political aspect-Peasants were subordinated to judicial provisions made by lords.
Describe the typography of Gaul or France.
It was a province of the Roman empire. It had two coastlines, mountain ranges/long rivers, forests, and large tracts of plains.
Why was Gaul renamed as France?
On the decline of the Roman empire, Franks, a German tribe renamed it France for their tribe name being Franks.
Where was the island of England-Scotland located?
It was located across a narrow channel in Normandy province of the French empire.
What was the source of origin of the three orders?
It was the speech of a bishop which stated that here below, some pray, others fight, still others work i.e. the elegy, the nobility, and the peasantry.
Mention the essence of an article composed by Abbess Hildegard of Bingen in the twelfth century?
She had mentioned that as cows, donkeys, sheep, goats have certain different characteristics and cannot be put in a single enclosure, human being similarly; require different settings in society.
What was the first order?
As the Catholic Church was the law-making body in the feudal system, Pope was the head of the western church in Rome. Bishops and Clerics used to guide the Christians in Europe therefore; they were the first order in feudal society.
What were the criteria for the eligibility of a priest?
- He should be physically and mentally sound.
- He should neither be a woman nor a peasant.
- He will observe celibacy throughout life.
What was the posture while offering pray at the church?
The devotee would kneel (sit on the knee, bent), Hands clasped and head bowed.
Why was the nobility called lord?
It was a replica or copy of the formality in the Church. It was meant by the one who provides bread.
Who were the monks?
These were the groups of deeply religious people who choose to live isolated lives. Their community was Abbey or monastery.
Whether there were conditions of eligibility for the monks?
Yes, these conditions were-
- He would take vows to remain in the abbey for the rest of his life.
- He would spend this time in prayer, study, and manual labor.
- Women and men both were eligible to become nuns and monks respectively.
- They i.e. monks and nuns would pass their lives in celibacy.
Why are monasteries called Benedictine monasteries?
The first monastery was established by St. Benedict of Italy in 529 CE. Hence, these are so addressed.
How many chapters of rules were composed and abide by monks in Benedictine monasteries?
These were with 73 chapters. Chapter 48 states that the monastery should be laid out in such a way that all necessities be found within its bounds i.e. water, milk, garden, and workshops.
How can you say that corruption had gripped the monasteries?
- The poem “Piers Plowman” by the poet Langland of England.
- Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales-are the sources that confirm this fact of growing corruption in monasteries.
Who were the people or section of society put under second-order?
It was nobility or the large estate owners. This section of society was the vassal of the king. Under a mutual promise, the king was accepted as seigneur or lord by the nobility and they would remain loyal to the king.
What was the mutual promise between lord and nobility?
- The vassal (nobility) and the king (lord) would do the exchange of vows taken on the Bible in a Church.
- The vassal (nobility) would be given a-written charter or a clod of earth as a symbol of the land (estate).
What were the privileges with the nobility or the second-order?
- Absolute control over the property in perpetuity.
- Conferred with rights to raise troops (feudal levies)
- Right to own court of justice for disposal of disputes, duels, among peasants.
- Right to coin this other money.
What were the major features of the estate owned by nobility?
- A manor,
- private fields and pastures,
- homes and fields of tenant-peasants.
Whether the nobles cultivate their private fields themselves?
No, these also will be cultivated by the tenant-peasants. The peasants would also act as infantry if any battle is waged there.
Describe a small and a large estate?
In a small estate, there were a dozen families while in a large estate, more than fifty families apart from manor residents were living. There were fields, meadows, pastures, forest-land in an estate with Church and a castle for defense.
Whether craftsmen besides tenant-peasants were also accommodated in an estate?
Yes, there were families of carpenters, blacksmiths, etc. craftsmen apart from the peasants.
Whether families (women and children) dwelling in an estate were also engaged with the work?
Yes, the women would spin and weave cloth and children would work in the lord’s wine-presses.
Do you say the manorial estate was self-sufficient?
No, the items like salt, millstone, metalware, furniture, musical instruments, and ornaments were obtained from outside sources.
Why were Knights accommodated under an award of a fief in memorial estates?
It was because-
- Peasants as soldiers were inefficient to warcraft.
- Internal wars in Europe were fought regularly.
What was Fief?
It was a smaller estate measuring between 1,000 and 2,000 acres awarded by the lord of a manorial estate i.e. nobleman. It was consisting of structures like a house for the knight and his family, a church, houses for dependents, a water mill, and a wine-press.
What services promised by the knights to their lords (noblemen)?
- He will pay a fixed amount periodically as agreed to in the form of a fee to his lord.
- He will fight for him with his soldiers in the war.
- He will remain loyal foremost to his own lord if owing to certain necessities, he may serve under more than one lord.
What was the third order of feudal society in Europe?
It was consisting of two kinds of peasants viz. some were owning their land while the other was serf or slave who had to cultivate lord’s land.
Describe the works done by serfs.
- Cultivate the fields that belonged to the lord but assigned to them from which they were given a minimal share of produce.
- Cultivate the fields that belonged exclusively to the lord for which no wage was given.
- Do all other works as desired from time to time by the lord but all without wage (Begar).
How do you think England would have so named?
The Angles and Saxons tribes of Central Europe settled here hence, the initial “Angle-land” subsequently, called England.
With what even the feudalism had developed in England?
It was the eleventh century when the Duke of Normandy, William crossed the English channel with the army and occupied England after defeating the Saxon king there.
Whether agriculture was the mainstay at Europe’s economy? If not why?
No, the agricultural land was limited during the fifth to tenth centuries. Entire Europe was covered with dense forests. The intense cold climate was the next barrier to agriculture operations because prolonged winter had shortened the growing season for crops.
Describe primitive manners of agricultural operations?
- Wooden plow used,
- bullock was the only source for plowing,
- manpower was used for almost and in all operations,
- fields had to be dug by hand once in four years because wooden plow was unable to fully draw out the natural productivity of the soil.
What was the primitive crop rotation?
The land was divided in half and one field was planted, in autumn while the other field was left fallow. Similarly, rye was grown in the first year’s fallow field but the other was left fallow.
Describe some features of new agricultural technology?
- Heavy iron-tipped plows and moldboards were used,
- Shoulder-harness of bullock came into use,
- Shod were fitted with horses to prevent their foot decay,
- Water and canal powered mills were set-ups,
- Three field system of land-use followed,
- Peas and beans were given preference,
- Arable land was used for growing crops.
What changes were brought about by the increased use of money in transactions?
- Lords asked rent to be paid in cash.
- Peasants preferred selling their crops to the traders.
- Inflation took place in times of poor harvests.
What was the fourth-order in the feudal society of Europe?
A new type of economic organization consisting of merchants, traders, craftsmen guilds, etc. was the fourth-order of that society. In brief, we can state that towns and towns’ people were the fourth-order.
Which three areas were developed with the expansion in agriculture?
- trade and
What were the main items of trading in the eleventh century?
These were-Fur, tin, hawks, and cloth.
Who had contributed to the construction of Cathedral towns?
These were large churches and rich merchants contributed to their construction. Similarly, different groups of people contributed with their own labor, material, or money.
What factors are attributed to the crisis of the fourteenth century?
These factors were-
- Change in climate from hot to cold summers,
- Shortage of metal money due to a shortfall in the output of silver mines in Austria and Serbia.
- Bubonic plague spread and it took a toll on twenty percent of the total populace in Europe.
What consequences were seen of the catastrophe in the form of bubonic plague?
- A number of people were dislocated,
- Depopulation resulted in a major shortage of labor,
- imbalances created between agriculture and manufacture,
- prices plummeted for agricultural products including food grains.
What were the m&in features of the so-called new-monarchy?
- These were monarchy of the absolutist ruler.,
- A standing army was organized,
- There was permanent bureaucracy,
- the national taxation system was implemented.
What social changes had taken way to the growth of the monarchy-feudal system?
- Owing to the catastrophe of bubonic plague, they set a condition of de-population which gradually shattered the feudal system,
- The resultant slow pace of economic growth had given the opportunity to kings to increase their control,
- Strong infantry equipped with guns and siege artillery, assisted the kings to establish their monarchy.
Mention the time tag of the new monarchy ruled in France, Spain, and England.
It was the period between 1461-1559 in France, 1474-1556 in Spain, and 1485-1547 in England.
What problems the monarchy did face in course of the consolidation of its powers?
It was the problem of rebellion by the erstwhile nobility particularly on the question of taxation. Royal dominance had grossly annoyed them and there were four rebellions took place in 1497,1536, 1547, and 1553 respectively.
The Three Orders Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What other functions apart from cultivating their own land were assigned with the peasants?
- To render military service at least forty days every year.
- To work without wage in the fields owned by the lord at least three days a week. This labor was heated as rent for self-owned land.
To dig ditches, gather firewood, build fences, and repair roads and buildings.
To engage women and children in works like spinning, weaning clothes, making candles, and press grapes to prepare wine for the lord.
Imagine the background for the origin of Feudalism in Europe?
We have come to know that the eastern part of the Roman empire was gradually declined and fell into pieces under a number of tribes that came down from the north. In the western part of that empire comprising Portugal, Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, Austria, German States, Normandy, Gaul (France), Burgundy, etc. in the north of the Mediterranean, Christianity made its hold and saved it from ruination. It had become the official religion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century.
It is plausible to mention that religion always is felt on a nerve by human beings. Being its scope infinitesimal, a few people shrewd in society or known to manage the mass had always resorted to the most sensitive issue of religion and established social organizations. History is evident of such phenomenon of religion. A similar thing, we can see in the regeneration and organization of society under the feudal system during the fifth to fifteen century CE.
The three orders are the symbol of the three-prong management of the masses. It was knitted by the church whose head was Pope of Rome with Bishops and Clerics in Europe. Pope’s orders were called Papal-bull and followed by the masses. It was the first order, the second order was nobility including the king, and the third-order was the peasants.
Conclusion-Thus, on the above grounds, we can state that it was the phenomenon of the Church which had developed the practice of vassalage and established a feudal system.
Discuss the practice of vassalage under three orders?
This practice was earlier followed by Germans in which Franks were also a tribe. Hence, it is attributed to brought in by the Franks, a Germanic tribe.
The noble i.e. second order was vassals c (the king and peasants were vassals of the landowners. The first order i.e. the church with its network of Bishops, Clerics, monks, etc. proliferated in monasteries cathedrals were independent of the king i.e. Seigneur (lord) of the nobility and actual law-making power was in its hands. The harangues delivered by the Abbey and Abbess including priests fixed an idea to the public that as cows, donkeys, sheep, goats require distinct enclosures/stables, the same way, division of society in people who pray, the others who fight, and a majority of others who possess the ability to act upon.
Thus, as the king was lord to nobility, the nobility was the lord to the peasants. Land owning was the essence of such arrangement therefore, the third-order was called peasants otherwise; they were no better than slaves to the manor and his manorial estate. Thus, two orders in feudal society in another sense were oppressor and the third was oppressed.
Whether you see manual estates like the private states in India during the British regime? Justify your answer.
It has been truly stated that the history of every man, tribe, clan, etc. has a long-lasting impact because it becomes instincts and thus, repeated irrespective of the place, time, and circumstances. Britishers were from England and England was the part of Europe hence, the same feudal compositions, they made ready to rule India. Had they not acquired the instincts of Europe, they should have neither ruled India by dividing it into two parts i.e. British India and Princely states.
We observe similarities in both cases. The feudal system in Europe was of three orders i.e. Priest, nobility, and peasants. In India, during the British regime; it was the crown, the company, and the masses. As nobility was owned large estates, the governors-general were representatives to the British crown in India and Common people were as third-order while the princely states were pari-passu to the second-order in the feudal society of Europe i.e. Peasants.
Describe the major features of a manorial estate and tell if each estate you see similar to a kingdom.
The manorial estate according to its feature was a kingdom in itself. We see here a manorial estate accommodating Church, Knights, families of manor or nobleman including more than fifty families and an area measuring several thousand acres.
Like a Kingdom, the manorial house was built in the middle as Hf its capital. A manor had employed on his fields, two kinds of peasants, some were free while some others were serfs. The women and children of these peasants were also engaged in works like spinning the thread and wearing fabric and press the grapes to prepare wine for the lord or manor.’There were blacksmiths and carpenters for maintenance of the lord’s implements and repair his weapons.
There were knights given accommodation and land measuring between 1000 and 2000 acres or more in order to fight in wars which had become a routine affair those days. The manor has absolute rights to charge rent- levies from the peasants by employing them in begar. He had absolute power to establish the judiciary in order to dispose of the petty disputes between peasants or his vassals. The estate was consisting of a consolidated region with meadows, pastures, forest-land, plains, rivers, reservoirs, churches, colonies, etc.
On the basis of the above, features and the powers conferred to the manor or nobleman in Europe exhibit that manorial estate was a smaller kingdom in itself with the exclusive judiciary and administrative powers.
Discuss examples of expected patterns of behavior between people of different social levels, in a medieval manor, a palace, and in a place of worship.
(a) BahaviOur pattern in a medieval manor-The manor or the nobleman was an autocrat to the people housed in his estate. He never provided the children of peasants opportunity of schooling and education. Instead, they were exploited for pressing grapes and preparing wine for the manor. Similarly, women were also engaged in begar for spinning the thread and weaving cloth for the manor.
He has all monopoly in the estate. He used to charge fees from the Knights and military services against the fief awarded. Peasants were compelled to provide military services at least forty days in a year and do beggars three days a week. The manor had given this free service in the name of labor rent. The serfs were more oppressed than the peasants. There were a number of restraints and restrictions imposed on them.
(b) Behaviour pattern in a palace–Every person entering in the palace had to sit on knee bent, with hands clasped and head bowed.
The King was addressed as lord (i.e. God) or signer. A poem “Doon de Mayence” refers to the allegiance of the Knights as-“If my dear lord is slain, his fate I’ll share if he is hanged, then hang me by his side….”:
(c) Place of the worship-The church was the supreme power, feudal society of Europe. Church had its own laws independent of the king. Christians in Europe were guided by bishops and clerics. Women, serfs, and persons physically handicapped were not eligible to become a priest. The priest was not allowed to marry. The church has the right to collect “Thithe” viz a tax assessed as a one-tenth share of whatever the peasants produce in their field in a year. Bishops were luxurious people and awarded .with large estates. Feudal etiquette and ceremonies were followed in the church.
Conclusion-On the basis of the above behavior patterns, it can be stated that feudal organization of society was merely a facade of religion and assurance to provide protection from the localized wars to the masses, was nothing else but a device to exploit the third order by the Church as also by the nobility. We do not see educational institutions except a few classes on Christianity in churches. In brief, there were only two orders in feudal society i.e. A class of oppressors and another of the oppressed under one or other tactics.
“It is ignorance that generates fear of life and the man falls in a few shrewd hands for exploitation’. Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer referring to the instinct of fear among common masses in Europe.
While perusing the feudal society in Europe, the above statement appears all correct. Actually, this fact was known to the Church, the supreme authority in Christianity. The vassalage was the creation of Bishops and Cleries whose supreme head was the Pope of Rome. After going over the pains and atrocities inflicted on the peasants, we would like to state them not religious people but shrewd. In order to bag all luxuries in their favor as we see, bishops owned large estates and called religious nobility, they befooled the mass and kept them in cages as an instrument to produce the luxurious living of the Clerics.
We don’t see any efforts made by the lords for their subject except in monasteries, where only manner-how to sing prayers in church-was taught to the selected children of noblemen and not of the masses. Instead of doing this, all children in manorial estates were engaged on begar for preparation of wine for the lords. The priests and noblemen deliberately killed their childhood by their murderous instinct so that nobody could oppose the feudal system in the future and they should enjoy from one generation to another in perpetuity, the luxurious.
The ignorance imposed on people made them fearful and they realized wars made them frightened. If a man of average mind, sees the controls of a nobleman; he would have preferred living in a forest instead of the estate or die at the hands of invaders. That fear was thrust in their heart and being illiterate, they posed blind-faith on clerics and the lords. Thus, it was ignorance that compelled them to live a life worse than wild-animals.
What were the main factors for the crisis of the fourteenth century? Discuss.
The major factor was that of change in the climate. By the end of the thirteenth century, the warm summers of the previous 300 years had given way to bitterly cold summers. The crop growing season was reduced by a month and it became difficult to grow crops on higher ground. Storms and oceanic flooding destroyed the major part of the fertile plains.
Result-The income from taxes was reduced.
The second factor was that of marginal utility on agricultural production because regular cropping had made the fertility of the soil marginal. Soil conservation was not taken care of, during two hundred years of regular farming. Meadows lost grasses and it reduced the number of cattle.
The third factor was that of unprecedented growth in population during the last two hundred years of farming.
Result-Over population but less agricultural production brought starving conditions between 1315 and 1317 coupled with massive deaths of cattle in the 1320s.
The fourth factor was the depletion of the silver stock in the mines of Austria and Serbia. This situation barred minting and coinage thereby loss of trade and commerce.
The fifth and the worst factor was the spread of the bubonic plague (Black Death) between 1347 and 1350.
Result-This catastrophe took a toll on 20 percent of the total population in Europe.
Conclusion-The degeneration of agricultural yield and de-population conditions provided the major cause for the destruction of feudal set-up in European society.
“Social unrest in Europe immediately after the crisis of the fourteenth century was an indication of certain political changes there”-Do you agree with this statement? Justify.
Yes, this statement is all justified. The de-population caused by the catastrophe of the plague, changes in the environment, oceanic floodings, and shortage of metal money, proved an indication of certain political changes as the society at that juncture, took notice of the situation in its apparent form. The so-called lords suffered a price decline for food grains as millions of people have succumbed to the bubonic plague. Again, wages of laborers increased because of the short supply of man-power.
The lords gave-up the money contracts and revived labor services i.e. Begar. It was met with severe opposition by the better educated and more prosperous peasants. Their annoyance to the system has appeared in revolts of 1323, 1358, and 1381 in Flanders, France, and England respectively. It is true that revolutions were crushed but they again took a violent turn shortly. Thus, the peasants ensured that the feudal privileges of earlier days could not be reinvented.
Discuss how the new monarchy replaced the feudal set-up of European society?
In this context, we would like to say that everything or action or arrangement has its climax and nothing is perpetual in this transitory world or in other words, nature. Like the birth, youth, old, and death stages of each organism, each set-up has to pass through different stages. Something similar had happened to the feudal society also. Christianity got its birth on fall of the Roman empire, it became stronger or youth when the church, monasteries, Cathedrals were built, and a network of three orders made successfully by the Catholic church and had to die with the crisis of the fourteenth century, i.e. change in environment, depletion of gold and silver stock, marginal fertility of the soil and spread of bubonic plague all over Europe.
These situations made feudal set-up tougher to maintain as starving conditions had emerged. It brought revolts of peasants in and the European Kings began to strengthen their military and financial power. The Kings have duly understood the situation and took * immediately these changes. These new Kings were called new monarch by the historian because they were no more feudal lords. These were autocratic absolutist rulers. Louis XI of France, Maximilian of Austria, leary VII of England, and Isabelle and Ferdinand of Spain were these autocratic rulers.
Measures opted by new monarchs-
- Organization of standing armies on modern lines,
- Permanent bureaucracy in place of nobility and manors,
- Formation of national policy for taxation and
- exploration of new’ lands outside Europe.
These rulers had ruled out the earlier system of feudal levies and introduced professionally trained infantry equipped with guns and siege artillery under their direct control. The nobility first resisted monarchy through rebellions but became loyal subsequently, when they were badly defeated. They were given permanent positions by the new monarchs.
Following are the events of the eleventh to fourteenth Centuries. Read them and connect them into a narrative account.
|Normans defeat Anglo-Saxons and Conquer England.
|onwards Cathedrals being built in France
|The great famine in Europe.
|Hundred Years War between England and France.
1. Norman defeated Anglo-Saxons and conquered England-Normandy was a port town in Gaul (France). William was the Duke of that province. He crossed the English Channel with an army and defeated the Saxon King of England. These two were the tribes of Central Europe and settled in England in the sixth century. “Angle’s land” was later-on called England. Here from, started the history of England. After this event, France and England fought a number of battles.
2. Cathedral being built in France-Up to that time, each craft or industry was organized into the guild (i.e. An Association), new trade routes with West Asia (China, Japan, Afghanistan) were developed, and a number of towns grew’ and trade expanded continuously.
Owing to the prosperous conditions of Europe in trade, agriculture, craftsmanship, etc., rich merchants began contributing huge amounts regularly to the churches. It inspired the religious community (monasteries) to start the construction of Cathedrals. As crafts guild were easily available for supply of craftsmen, plans of construction wet easily implemented. People from different groups of society contribute their labor, materials, or money in France for the construction of Cathedrals. Their construction took a number of years to complete and became centers of pilgrimage. Owing to this, small towns were developed around them.
3. Great Famine in Europe-Famine has direct nexus with the sudden decline in production of foodgrains and certain other allied disturbances. Famine in Europe caused the starvation of the masses owing to the presence of the following factors-
1. Sudden change in climate after a lapse of 300 years. It reduced the seasons for growing crops by a month hence, foodgrain production became a herculean task. Again, the land tilled continuously for more 4 than two hundred years had lost utility and became marginal. Soil conservation techniques were not approved by Europeans.
2. Owing to bumper production during the last 300 years, the pace of population growth remained unchecked. Thus, plummeting foodgrain production and an ever-increasing population had hard hit the consumption trend. Allied factors of famine were
(a) depletion of silver stock in mines,
(b) loss of trade and commerce,
(c) the spread of plague and
(d) social unrest.
4. Black Death –
This catastrophe was brought by bubonic plague arrived with mice from distant countries while carrying goods on ships. It took a toll of 20 percent of the people of the whole of Europe with 40 percent loss of lives in some places. Its devastating impact can be guessed from the fact that Europe with 73 million population in 1300 CE reduced to 45 million in 1400 CE. An Italian author, Giovanni Boccaccio states-“They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help. Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies”.
5. Hundred Years war between England and France-In the map of Western Europe, one can observe both countries fall at the – banks of the English Channel. North sea falls at the east of England and attire North of France. The Western part of both countries is covered by the sea. The history states that Scandinavian merchants were sailing ‘ south from the North sea to exchange furs and hunting-hawks for cloth and English traders sold them tin. We also know that the Duke of Normandy in France had crossed the English Channel with an army and defeated the Saxon King of England in the eleventh century.
The abovesaid topography, trade, and war campaigns had made staunch rival, the people of England and France to each-other. This rivalry or enmity ran continuously at least one hundred years after the event, England was defeated by France.
6. Peasants’ revolts-Atrocities of nobility on peasants took a spurt in the circumstances when bubonic plague took tall of several million people, climate took to change, the fertility of soil decayed due to longer land-use, and famine failed. They tried to give up the money contracts, they had entered into earlier and revive labor services. It was an intolerable position hence, peasants’ revolt took place in Flanders in 1323, in France in 1358, and in England in 1381. These revolts were mercilessly crushed but the peasants ensured that the feudal privileges of earlier days could not be reinvented.
Distinguish between Primitive land-use and the New Agriculture Technology.
|Primitive Land Use
|New Agricultural Technology
|1. Wooden plow was used.
|1. Heavy iron-tipped plow and moldboards were brought into use.
|2. Agriculture was labor-intensive and mostly they had to dig the fields bÿ hand.
|2. Agriculture was less labor-intensive as compared to the primitive land use.
|3. Animals were neck-harnessed.
|3. Animals were shoulder harnessed.
|4. Under crop rotation, the Land was divided in half i.e. winter wheat sown in one field while the other was left fallow.
|4. Three field system was adopted. viz, two out of three fields were regular for two years i.e. wheat or rye in autumn and the second field for growing peas, beans and the third was left fallow.
|5. Agricultural production declined.
|5. Yield was increased and thus, food availability doubled.
Question 13. Do you think New towns and towns’ people can be considered as a fourth-order? Explain.
Yes, it was really considered as a fourth-order in the feudal set¬up of European society on the following grounds-
- Towns were developed initially with the fair and small market centers as a result of expansion and increase of agricultural production.
- The social and political conditions of the town were absolutely distinct and different from the former three orders. If a serf could stay for one year and one day in a town (without his lord discovering him), he would be treated as a free man.
- There were bankers and lawyers in the towns. Thus, tertiary occupations had ample scope there.
- Here was a distinct economic organization in the form of the guild. Each craft or industry was organized into a guild, an association that controlled the quality of the product, its price, and its sale.
- Craftsmen found it easier to settle in one place where goods could be produced and traded for food.
- The rich town merchants were developed better than the position of nobility but they were generous to the people engaged in their businesses.
- Later-on, Cathedral towns were formed. Cathedrals have belonged to monasteries and rich merchants. The craftsmen contributed generously, their labor, money, and expertise. These were built in a number of years and became centers of pilgrimage. Gradually, small towns were developed around them and they were called Cathedral towns.
Conclusion-On the basis of an above distinct entity, we can state the towns and towns’ people, as the fourth-order of the social set-up in Europe.
What special features of medieval European towns do you see in the drawing given in this theme? How were they different from towns in other places and other periods of time?
Features of medieval European towns
- We see in the drawing that a ring road at the periphery and a fine network of roads inside embracing all structures.
- The entire town was duly fenced i.e. a fence wall is built outside the ring road at the periphery with circular gates all around.
- A ditch or perhaps river has been shown flowing outside the fence. There are bridges for its crossing and finely built posts for inspection of incoming people.
- The planning of town seems drawn by an expert architect more than the modern architect.
- There are approach roads, paved paths, market places, residential blocks, administrative blocks, churches, and parks with lush green trees planted in rows.
These towns were different from towns in other places and other periods of time because, at other times, no town planning was made by the Europeans. There were three orders set-up and manorial estates were only fenced and demarketed. So grand planning was needed a lot of money and contribution from all sections of the society.
The town which planning we see in this theme was Cathedral town and we know that such towns, i.e. Cathedral towns were built when Europe became self-sufficient in foodgrain productivity, promotion of trade and commerce to new heights and population increased from 62 millions of 1200 CE to 73 million in 1300 CE. The rich merchants contributed generously and craftsmen as also common people took a keen interest in building such Cathedral towns. These became places of pilgrim and markets settled around them.
Do you think, the new monarchy was a modified form of feudalism?
Yes, it was actually a modified form of feudalism owing to, contrary circumstances, the nobility faced. These were-sudden changes in climate, agricultural production plummeted, land overused hence, marginal fertility, and the catastrophe of bubonic plague which distorted the system of feudalism. Scarcity of labor caused an escalation in the rate of wage, laborers some way became independent and it brought peasants revolt in Flander, France, and England.
In these circumstances, the Kings did some contingent arrangements like a standing army, permanent bureaucracy, and taxation system at the national level. The nobility first revealed its dissent which was witnessed as rebellions of 1536, 1547, 1549, and 1553. These all crushed mercilessly by the Kings, eg. Louis XI of France. It then surrendered and transformed into loyalists. We see, the same class of people i.e. nobleman continued to dominate the political scene. They were given permanent positions in the administrative set-up.
Conclusion-Thus, on the above counts, we can state that a new monarchy was just a modified form of the feudal system.
Discuss the structure of the new monarchy established on the ruins of feudalism.
The King in the new monarchy was at the center of an elaborate courtier society and a network of patron-client relationships. The prosperous nobles were needed the kings in a monarchy because but for their cooperation, it was felt difficult to sustain their status as a King. In brief, money was directly needed hence, the bankers and merchant classes became the members of that assembly. Administrative expenses and salaries to soldiers were paid mainly from the contribution and support given by that section of society to the King.
Later on, there was constituted a consultative assembly known as Estates-General consisting of three houses, i.e. clergy, nobility, and the common people. It was called only once in 1614 in the regime of child-king Louis’s XIII of France and the period between 1614 to 1789 remained in consultation to Estates-General as no meetings were called by the succeeding Kings. In England, there was a great council in the regime of Anglo-Saxon tribes even before the Norman conquest.
That ‘ Council was consulted regularly to decide the assessment of taxes etc. issues. That council was developed into the Parliament consisted of the House Of Lords and the House of Commons. Lords and Clergy v were the members of the house of Lords while town and rural area people were the representatives of the house of commons. Gradually, the Parliament became powerful enough as it executed King Charles I who did not call Parliament session for as long the period as, eleven years. Thus, a republic was established in England. However, it could not run for long and soon there was, the monarchy restored but regular sessions of Parliament were called since that event-C i.e. execution of King Charles I had taken place.
The Three Orders Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
‘Three orders’ phrase signifies that there is involved religion in the ruling system of the community. To what extent, do you agree with his statement? Explain.
Three orders, on perusal of this term, we conclude the der of the society in three different sections i.e.
- The priests,
- The nobility and
- the peasants.
A brief account of these orders can be given as under:
1. The Priests–It was the first and the supreme order of the society in Europe between the period fifth and the fifteen centuries. It was the Federal type of Administration whose network was made by the Feudal form of nobility. The church was the supreme authority. It was actually the law-making section. It had defined the supreme place of the Pope, the religious preceptor. He used to live in Rome and administration was run through Papal Bull by him in Europe with the machinery of the bishops and Clerics.
2. The Nobility-Nobility was the second order of European society. It has the executive powers of the Fevidal system of governance. Hereby the nobles i.e. the large Estate owners or manors used to nominate one among them as Seigneur (senior). All other nobles then became vassal to him while the peasants were the vassals of their landowners i.e. manors.
The King or senior also had a large state, owned and cultivated by two kinds of peasants viz. one who was smaller peasants owned their lands and the others who were serfs i.e. slaves. Every manor had owned his large estate consisting of a number of buildings including the manor house, knight house, homes for peasants, and surfs. The land was constituting of meadows, pastures, cultivated land, an area under forest, roads, bridges, etc. This estate was like a castle and a smaller Kingdom in itself.
Sources of income were the taxes imposed on peasants in the ratio of 1/10 of the gross agricultural production, the begar made by both peasants i.e. free peasants and the surfs. The manor or noble had to pay the taxes in cash or kind to the coffer or pool of the King.
3. The peasants-Peasants were of two types. Some were free while others were unfree or surfs. Free peasants held their farms as tenants of the Lord or manor. They were compelled to provide at least forty days of military services per annum, three days of the week in working or farming, cultivating the fields of their manor, but without getting any remuneration for their works so done. It was considered under the law as Iabourrent. Their women and children were all deployed in works like pressing grapes for King’s nobles, spun thread, wove cloth, made candles, etc. The serfs had not owned any lands.
They had to cultivate the land of the manor but except for getting their food and daily needs, they were paid nothing. There were a number of restrictions imposed on them. They would not allow marriage or other ties unless a fee was paid for the same. Serfs would use only their lord’s mill to grind their flour, his oven to bake their bread, and his wine-presses to distill wine and beer.
The economic relations, land use, and new agricultural technology, new towns and towns’ people all had witnessed a change in the society. We know that during the period from the fifth to the eleventh century, the environment was excessively cold hence, no progress, the agriculture could witness but from the eleventh century, the temperature began to change from cooler to warmer. Hence, a number: of species in the plant kingdom and animal kingdom started to grow. The vegetation cover made the environment fertile for the growth of several crops including wheat, peas, beans, oats, and barley. Thus, agriculture production increased manifold.
It subsequently, developed – trade and commerce, and people took a keen interest in the development, of new agricultural tools and machinery. They began to use heavy iron-tipped plows and moldboards in place of wooden plows drawn by a team of oxen. Oxen were got shoulder harness in place, of neck harness. More water-powered and wind-powered mills were set up all over Europe for purposes like milling corn and pressing grapes. The most revolutionary change in land-use was the shift from a two-field to a three-field system. They could plant one with is wheat or rye in autumn for human consumption.
The second could be used in spring to raise peas, beans, and lentils for human use. The third field lay fallow. Each year, they rotated the use among the three % fields. Trade started from the silk route and maritime route. An increase, in agricultural production, resulted in an increased population from 62. millions of 1200 to 73 million in 1300 CE. An increase in population and agricultural yield both resulted in the revival of the towns which were deserted along-with the decline of the Roman Empire.
In towns, people instead of services paid a tax to the lords who owned the land on which the town stood. Towns offered the prospect of paid work and freedom from the lord’s control, for young people from peasants. families. Trade and Commerce made the merchant section of society very prosperous and they began to donate money to the clergy to construct the Cathedrals i.e. worshipping place of monasteries.
There were grand buildings sometimes, made within the complex of Churches. Soon, there developed markets around these Cathedral structures and craftsmen guilds settled towns.
Conclusion-Thus, on the above description, we see that the feudal system in England was developed, nourished, and administered by the religion i.e. Christianity. People were linked with vassalage similar to the practice among Germanic people. Nobles were vassals of the King who himself (i.e. the king) was a noble and peasants were vassals of nobles (manors) but the power of the Church was supreme.