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Class 11 History Chapter 8 Important Extra Questions Confrontation of Cultures

Confrontation of Cultures Traditions Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Is the title of this theme as “Confrontation of Cultures” is quite correct?
Yes, because in its contents, we see the confrontation of European Culture with that of the American and African Culture. Here, European Culture has enslaved the American and African Cultures.

Question 2.
What specific period in the History of the world does exhibits confrontation of culture?
It is that of the period between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Question 3.
How many types of culture was found in America?
Two types of culture i.e. The Aztecs and the Mayas.

Question 4.
When did the Inca City of Machu Picchu get excavation?
In 1911 C E.

Question 5.
What is the present position of human habitation in America?
Presently, North America and South America i.e. two continents are inhabited by people of different nations. A large
number of people from Asia arid South Sea islands are presently living there.

Question 6.
What are the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles?
These are smaller islands several hundred in number, in the Caribbean sea at the north and east of San Salvador.

Question 7.
Who were Arawaks and Caribs?
Arawaks and Caribs were the tribes of people in America. The former was settled in islands of the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles while the latter was in islands to the Lesser Antilles. Again, the former was generous while the latter was brute and barbarous.

Question 8.
What was the main occupation of Arawaks?
It was agriculture with subsidiary occupations like hunting, fishing etc. They used to grow com, sweet potatoes, tuber and cassava.

Question 9.
Describe the social traits of Arawaks?

  1. To produce food collectively and feed everyone in the community.
  2. Clan elders were the leaders.
  3. Polygamy was prevalent and this tribe was superstitious.
  4. Shamans or Priests were given extra-honor.

Question 10.
How can you say that Arawaks,’ the native of Central America were the simplest people?
The Europeans used to exchange glass beads for gold from them. It means, they were unknown to the value of gold.

Question 11.
What did the Spanish do with Arawaks?
They took the benefit of their simplicity and innocence. Initially, they created them with flattery and when they could know the reality, they were killed brutally by the Spanish, and epidemics of smallpox ruined them completely.

Question 12.
Which people were lived on the east coast of South America?
They were called the Tupinamba of Brazil. They were food gatherers from the dense forests in Brazil.

Question 13.
Which were the civilizations developed in Central America?
These were urbanized civilizations of the Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas.

Question 14.
Tell some social traits of the Aztecs?

  1. It was a hierarchical society,
  2. There were Priests, nobility, and common people including peasants,
  3. King was chosen from nobles and regarded as the representative of the Sun on the earth,
  4. They preferred reclamation of land and constructed artificial islands.

Question 15.
What are the special features of the capital city of Tenochtitlan in Aztec civilization? ‘
The places and pyramids of this capital city were risen out of the Mexico lake. There were several temples dedicated to the gods of war and the Sun.

Question 16.
What has been written about cities and villages built on the water under Aztecs civilization?
Bernard Diaz del Castillo has written in his True History of The Conquest of Mexico that he was astounded when he saw such marvellous cities and palaces built on the water. These buildings were rising from the water, all made up of stone appeared him like an enchanted vision from the tale of Amadis.

Question 17.
What was the mainstay of the economy in Aztec civilization?
It was an agriculture-based economy. The farmers used to grow com, beans, squash, pumpkins, manioc root, potatoes and other crops. European serfs were given lands for cultivation by the nobility in lieu of a certain per cent of the yield. Children as slaves were sold for a limited period and they could buy back their freedom on expiry of the tenure of slavery. They were interested in the promotion of education for all citizens there.

Question 18.
Which period pertains to the growth and existence of the Mayan culture?
It was developed in Mexico Gulf in central America during the period between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.

Question 19.
What was the mainstay of the Mayan Culture?
It was agriculture. They used to grow corn. Their culture and many religious ceremonies were centred on the planting, growing and harvesting of corn.

Question 20.
What were other fields of achievements in Mayan Culture?
These were-Architecture, Astronomy, Mathematics and pictographical writing.

Question 21.
What was South American civilization?
It as that of Incas in Peru. Its capital city was established at Cuzco. It developed during the twelfth Century. Quechua was the court language, hence, another name given to this culture was Quechuas.

Question 22.
What was the specific thing seen in the administration of Incas civilization?
Tribes were independently ruled by a Council of their elders but all were owed to allegiance to the rulers. It was actually, an administration based on the confederacy.

Question 23.
What do you observe a new in Incas civilization?

  1. The largest expanded civilization with an empire of Incas stretched 3,000 miles from Ecuador to Chile.
  2. The total population here was estimated around people more than a million.
  3. Specialized in forts and buildings construction. The mason had built walls of these forts without mortar.

Question 24.
What was the main occupation of Incas people?
It was agriculture. The terraced hillsides and developed systems of drainage and irrigation. Other associated occupations were-weaving, masonry and pottery. The accounting system of the Quipu indicating mathematical units was adopted.

Question 25.
How can you state that the culture of the Aztecs and Incas were common?
Following are the grounds for that estimation-

  1. Hierarchical society in both cultures.
  2. Confederacy system of ruling. Both were Imperial.
  3. King was the supreme authority.
  4. Agriculture was the main occupation.
  5. People of both cultures were expert builders, architects.
  6. People in both civilizations were warriors and war-lords.

Question 26.
When was the magnetic compass invented?
In 1380, but used for voyages by Europeans in the fifteenth century. . .

Question 27.
What had helped the most in sea adventures?
It was a strong will of European youths and travel literature as also books on cosmography and geography availab’0 to them.

Question 28.
Which books were the essence of literature on travel in Europe during the fifteenth Century?
Ptolemy’s Geography, Imago Mundi etc.

Question 29.
Who were people from the Iberian peninsula?
As Portugal and Spain, two cities fall under the said peninsula, these were Portuguese and Spanish or Spaniard.

Question 30.
Do you think Portuguese and Spaniards as the first explorer of America?
No, it was not so because voyages of discovery were made by a number of people from Arab, China and India as well and much earlier than them. However, they did not settle in a land visited by them. ,

Question 31.
Why were Spanish and Portuguese rulers exceptionally interested in sea adventures?

  1. Silver and gold mines in European countries were in depletion of the stock. There was even currency failure and crisis of payment for the salaries of bureaucrats and army personnel.
  2. Papal Bull was bagged by these two countries of Europe.
  3. Change in the environment had caused short crop season hence, agricultural production took nose dive thereby food problem had arisen.
  4. Both these countries actually have abundant sea-ports because of their vicinity to the North Atlantic ocean.
  5. The bubonic plague had taken a toll on numerous people. It had created a shortage of man-power to a greater extent.

Question 32.
Who first had established a trading station at “Cape Bajador’ in Africa.
These were Portuguese who first established their trading station in Cape Bajador (Presently, Cape Vordeis). It was an island harbour. Frequent voyages after Prince Henry’s attack on Ceuta in 1415 were made to West Africa.

Question 33.
What were the political reasons responsible for the encouragement of Europeans to sea voyages?

  1. Political cum propagation of Christianity all over the world in order to establish there a colony was one of the major reasons. Under the facade of religion, they wanted the exploitation of several virgin regions of the world.
  2. The Crusades ended in the promotion of trade with Asian Countries but through a long sea route.
  3. They wanted to establish their colonies there.

Question 34.
What is meant by Nao in Spanish?
Nao is an Arabic term accepted by Spanish but it is meant by a heavy ship. This derivation of terms reveals that Arabs were rulers of Spain till 1492.

Question 35.
Mention the features of the fleet used by Columbus?

  1. Santa Maria (a small ship),
  2. two lightships i.e. Pinta r and Nina,
  3. 40 capable sailors beside them.

Question 36.
Why did Columbus rename the island of Guanahani?
It was based on his observation of land surrounded by shallow seas i.e. Baja mar in Spanish and Bahamas at present,

Question 37.
What name Columbus had given to an island of Guanahani?
San-Salvador. Here he planted a Spanish flag, prayed to Almighty, and declared himself viceroy voluntarily on 12 October 1492.

Question 38.
Where is located then Kiskeya or present-day Hispaniola?
It is the land presently, divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, both independent.

Question 39.
How many regions during the regular voyage, Columbus had discovered?

  1. the Bahamas,
  2. San Salvador,
  3. The Island of Cuba,
  4. The land between Haiti and the Dominican Republic,
  5. Greater Antilles,
  6. South America’s mainland.

Question 40.
When the first explorer of this New World was Columbus, why is it called America?
Here, discrimination of the basis of position has been made. Columbus was merely a navigator, patronized by the ruler of Spain while a geographer who measured its area viz. Amerigo Vespucci was being a man of status, these two continents were so named. Thus, we see ‘ one continent as North and the other as South America.

Question 41.
Do you think Columbus would have visited at Columbia?
No, Columbus never proceeded forward from the Bahamas but his exploration was to keep alive or commemorate and America was after the name of a geographer, this country was, therefore, given name after Columbus.

Question 42.
Do you think Spaniard’s behavior with the local people of America was good?
No, they resorted to violent means to enslave American people. Americans were exploited in digging mines and other rigorous works. They killed a number of Americans merely to create terror in their minds. Initially, they befriended them and befooled them in getting gold for glass beads in exchange. However, soon they became barbarous and mercilessly killed them.

Question 43.
What did the locals in South America consider the befall of epidemic i.e. smallpox?
They imagined smallpox was caused by. invisible bullets with which the Spaniards attacked them.

Question 44.
How did Spaniards destroy Aztec Civilization and subjugated the ruler of Tlaxcalan Montezuma?
Spaniards realized the bravery and war-craft of Aztecs when they were given stiff resistance by the soldiers i.e. Tlaxcalans. Anyhow Cortes and his soldiers massacred them but, at the same time, compelled to review the strategy, they befriended the King, looted him in the guise of gifts, sneaked into the political system and mentality of the populace, and thus, compelled the King to commit suicide.

Question 45.
What was a fearful slumber which had gripped the populace when Cortes with his army was conspiring for their subjugation but accepted as a guest by King Montezuma?
It is a populace that smells first everything that will take place in a short while. The dual role of Cortes i.e. as a friend and an enemy began to cause several difficulties in the atmosphere, which they were used to since along. However, the populace was in a position to get that issue discussed by the King hence, the fear, they unable of emitting; patted them to slumber in their cocoons.

Question 46.
How much time took the conspiracy and war waged by Coates were ended?
It took two years from 25 June 1520 onwards i.e. after six months when Cortes befriended the King of Aztecs. It was 8 November 1519. When the war was ended in which the king of Aztecs was defeated.

Question 47.
Who was Fizarro and how had he occupied the throne. of Inca empire?
Pizarro was a soldier, uneducated, and from a poor family. He took a keen interest in the discovery of new lands. Once, he got the support of the King of Spain and set a trap for the King of the Inca empire. He first asked for ransom, a room-full gold but killed him subsequently.

Question 48.
Where did the Spanish locate silver mines in erstwhile Inca empires?
It was Potosi, a place in upper Peru (Presently Bolivia).

Question 49.
What favor the Pope did extend to Portugal?
He issued an order/notification declaring Brazil under the sovereignty of Portugal just after, it was discovered by chance under the discovery conducted by Pedro Alvares Cabral, a Portuguese.

Question 50.
How can you say that it was satisfaction among the Aztecs which had resulted in their slaughter in the foreign hands?
We have read the conversation between a Priest from Portugal and a local citizen in Brazil. He thinks that the land so far nourishing them will also nourish their children hence, there is no need to take adventures like voyages and exploration of new lands. Complacence to some degree is always appreciated but kneeling as a slave under foreigners still so sloth and in complacence was only responsible for their slaughter in the hands of foreigners.

Question 51.
What fate do you see for Brazilian people so complacent with their means?
We see them working in tree cutting, growing sugarcane, and working as slaves in sugar mills.

Question 52.
How do you think, the slave trade would have commenced?
The atrocity inflicted on Brazilians caused them to flee away from their native land to elsewhere in dense forests to evade slavery. Plantation owners and nobles till then formed had felt shortage of man-power and it stimulated them to import slaves from Africa.

Question 53.
Why did Portuguese sailors in Brazil hate Jesuit cams there for the propagation of the Catholic Church?
We see one of the Jesuit saying “There is no greater curse on a home or family than to be unjustly supported by the sweat of others” and- “Any man who deprives others of their freedom and being able to restore that freedom, does not do so, is condemned.” As the Portuguese were the people exactly oppressor and extortionists, they afraid, if it could inspire the Brazilian to launch a freedom struggle.

Question 54.
Who are animists?
These people accept inanimate or inert objects as living and having a sensitive soul.

Question 55.
What is Reclamation?
Reclamation is a process of making wasteland/fallow suitable for habitation or cultivation.

Question 56.
What is Cosmography?
It is the science of mapping the universe. It is distinct from Geography and Astronomy in spite of similar things of study.

Question 57.
What was Reconquista?
It was European (Christians) reconquest of Portugal and Spain once occupied by Arabs.

Question 58.
What was the Viceroy considered during the fifteenth century?
A representative to the King in a colony settled in another country. Eg. Columbus had declared himself deputy to the King of Spain.

Question 59.
How was the Mexican City so splendid?
This whole city was built on the water by virtue of specific architecture.

Question 60.
Mention the regions from where slaves were captured in Africa?
These were-

  1. Senegambia,
  2. Sierra Leone,
  3. Elmira,
  4. Angola,
  5. Madagaskar and
  6. Mozambique.

Question 61.
Write the main features of the township in South America.
These were-

  1. Pastureland,
  2. Orchards,
  3. Fields,
  4. Priest Quarters,
  5. Guard House,
  6. Workshops,
  7. Indians’ quarters,
  8. Main square,
  9. Compound wall fence,
  10. Church,
  11. Fountain,
  12. Soldiers quarters and
  13. Storerooms in every town. It was a common town planning.

Question 62.
Mention consequences of the discovery of the Americas.

  1. Europeans obtained gold and silver in ample quantum.
  2. Joint Stock Companies and firms were opened in the Americas.
  3. Potatoes and chilies from America were exported to other countries by Europeans.
  4. Millions of people were enslaved and engaged in mining of gold and silver as also growing Sugarcane and working in sugar mills.

Question 63.
What is the Capitalist system of production?
In this system, production and distribution are owned by individuals, and free-market competition allowed.

Question 64.
What was the response of Europeans to the law of 1609 passed by Phillip II of Spain?
They forced the King to withdraw this law within two years and thus, enslavement again allowed.

Question 65.
How many slaves were imported from Africa when enslavement was banned in Brazil?
They were over thirty-six lakh.

Question 66.
Do you think African society was also involved in catching young men and women to be sold as slaves to Europeans?
Yes, the mighty and powerful people in Africa began to catch and assign their brothers and sisters with the European traders, in exchange for maize, manioc, and cassava.

Question 67.
When did European soldiers declare them as an independent ruler of their occupied colonies?
It was in the early nineteenth century. It was done the same. way as thirteen North American colonies rebelled again Britain and formed the U.S.A.

Confrontation of Cultures Traditions Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Do you think omens, hallucination, etc. of events is nothing? else but a manifestation of fear penetrating the heart of concerned man?
Yes, the emotion of fear goes deep in the sub-conscious mind. There its impulses distort the digestive, circulatory, metabolism, and ever defecating systems of the body. It results in ailing and sparks in the nervous ‘ system causing hallucination. The same had happened to the Aztec

King, Montezuma. Stimuli to fear were-

  1. The aggressive tendency of Cortes and his soldiers,
  2. Well- trained horses,
  3. An organized and firm battalion of artillery.

Question 2.
Discuss the difference between the Arawaks and the Spanish. Which of these differences would you consider most significant and why?
Arawaks were the simplest and complacent people while the Spanish were shrewd and fraudulent. They greeted warmly when explorers from Spain reached sea-shore. The Spanish and Portuguese cheated them of gold, fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange for glass beads, iron knives, Drager, swords, etc. They befriended Arawaks and Brazilians get physical work done by them for their advantage, obtained a room-full gold in ransom and then, planned to slaughter them at the altar of their passion for gold, silver, timber, wood, and finally, seizure of the political machinery from them to establish their own colonies.

Arawaks and Brazilians were agriculturists and living a simple life while the Spanish and Portuguese were pathogen like struck to them and occupied their political, social, economic systems for their benefits until they ruined them.

The m.ost significant difference between natives of South America and those of Spanish and Portuguese was that of Humanity and debility. Devils were the Europeans who plunged deep in their complacent manners of living and terrorized them with artillery, tricks and cheat.

Question 3.
Examine a detailed physical map of South America. To what extent do you think geography influenced the developments of the Inca empire?
Location-Inca empire was extended from Ecuador to Chile. It was surrounded by the Pacific Ocean in the west, the Caribbean Sea in the north, the Bellingshausen Sea, the Weddell Sea in the South and North as also South Atlantic Sea at the east.


  1. Maritime trade and Commerce in such locations could rise under the Inca empire.
  2. The soil here was fertile enough to grow sugarcane, com, potatoes, etc. They opted for reclamation of land and terrace cultivation measures.
  3. Abundant trees/forests and continuous supply of water through Amazon, the largest river in the world.
  4. Owing to the closer to the ocean, a specific town planning could be seen in Mexico. Here, the buildings, palaces, etc. were built on the water.
  5. They used to row on the chest of the ocean using Dugout Canoes.
  6. They were animists i.e. ones who can see a sensitive soul in insensitive or inert objects.

A conclusion-The major influence of Geography on Inca civilization, we observe its proximity to the sea. Abundant water¬bodies would have inspired Inca people to promote maritime trade. Its effect on the soil can also not ruled out. Sea-water maintains a moderate temperature, hence, we see Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas civilizations brimming with simple and innocent people cheated and brutally killed by the Europeans.

Question 4.
What according to you were the reasons for people from different European countries wanting to take the risk of going on a voyage of discovery?
Reasons for Europeans keen interest in going on voyages

  1. European economy met acute recession during 14th and 15th Centuries owing to depletion of gold and silver stock in mines, epidemic, and decline of feudalism, etc.
  2. Christianity tried to bring more people to unknown lands in its fold in order to give birth to colonialism. The Crusades brought Europeans to Asia and its several countries hence, there was a great demand for silk, spices, musk, muslin, etc. in Europe.
  3. The success of Reconquista (Reconquest of Iberian peninsula) encouraged the youth to execute capitulations (Contracts) from one nobility Eg. Pizarro lured the King of Spain.
  4. Fifth and the last stimulus was that the Pope had given sanction to Spain and Portugal to prepare an environment in which youth would be trained to go on sea voyages to new lands till then undiscovered.

Question 5.
Analyze the effects of contact with the Europeans on the native people of South America. Describe their reactions to the sailors and the Jesuits.
Effects of European Contacts in native people of South America

  1. Those people were cheated, killed, and enslaved.
  2. Their simplicity and detachment for gold resulted in their misery/puzzle.
  3. They were befooled by Europeans as they promulgated false decrees and laws.
  4. They had to leave their house and hearths in order to evade slavery so imposed on them. Their settled life ended again in hunting and food gathering.
  5. The cereals (i.e. potato, cassava, tobacco, cane-sugar, cacao) and cash crops like rubber were exported to Europe.
  6. The population of native people had reduced from 70 million to 3.5 million during the period, South America was explored and colonies set-up there.

Their reactions to the settlers and the Jesuits were surprising as they considered them foolish enough to abandon their native country, community, and families and wandering in alien lands.

Question 6.
Write a note on Caribbean Communities.
There were two tribes namely, Arawakkian Lucayos and Caribs. Arawakan was God-fearing and compromising people while Caribs were cruel and fierce. The former tribe was living in the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles while the latter in the Lesser Antilles. These all were small islands between the Caribbean and Atlantic oceans. These were communities that lived on hunting, fishing, and agriculture.

They used to produce food collectively and feed everyone in the community. Arawaks were animist.

Question 7.
Write a brief note on Brazilian Communities.
It was a tribe of Tupinamba living on the east coast of South America. Iron was unknown to this tribe hence, they could not tend to farm. There were fruits, vegetables, and fish in ample quantum hence, they did not depend on agriculture to survive. They were simple people who agreed to cut the trees and carry the logs to the ships in exchange for iron knives and saws. They provided Europeans with loads of monkeys, honey, hens, wax, cotton thread, etc. free of cost. They were complacent people with their motherland and the vicissitudes whatsoever existed there.

Question 8.
Write a brief note on the Aztecs.
Aztecs were a tribe that migrated from North America to its central valley which they named Mexico after the name of their God Mexitli. It was a society in three order i.e. Priest, nobility, and common people. Special respect was given to warriors, priests, and nobles. They took measures of reclamation in order to create artificial islands.

Buildings were made on the lake. Com, beans, squash, pumpkins, manioc root, and potatoes were the main crops grown there. European serfs were engaged in the cultivation of the lands owned by the nobility. School education was preferred but there was the majority of poor who used to sell their children for a limited period of their working as slaves under nobles.

Question 9.
Give a brief account of the Mayan Society.
This culture too was developed in Mexico between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries. Cultivation of cereal crops was the main „ occupation of these people. Society was divided into inking, priests, chiefs, and common people. These people devised a pictographic form of writing. Religious ceremonies were associated with planting, growing; and harvesting corn.

Question 10.
Give a brief account of the Incas of Peru.
It was the largest of the civilizations in South America. Its 5 capital was in Cuzco. It was extended up to 3,000 miles from Ecuador to Chile. Quechua was the court language here. It was like a confederacy in which each tribe ruled independently by the Council of Elders. All: tribes were finally, under the control of the Incas people. They were excellent architects, however, unknown to the wheel and its usages. System of: drainage, irrigation, and terraced farming were preferred for the production of com and potatoes. They excelled in weaving and pottery arts. Standard mathematical units were considered the knots at equal distance on cords or the quipu.

Question 11.
Describe what Pablo Neruda states about the condition of artisans, masons, potters in Machu Picchu a hilltop town under the Incas Society.
He states that the architect, masonry, and other crafts were appreciated by the visitors of this town but hardly somebody would understand the pain and pricks endured by the artisans. The masons were forcibly engaged. Potters by virtue of their hard work made descent potteries. In case, any ornament not found with exquisite craft, the jewelers were punished with their fingers crushed mercilessly

Farmers who could not pay tithe (tax) in time due to crop failure, were killed.

Question 12.
Describe similarities between Aztecs and Incas Cultures.

  1. There was no private ownership of resources in both civilizations.
  2. Both had developed a confederacy System of the ruling.
  3. The King was considered supreme in both cultures.
  4. Both cultures excelled in architect, pottery, weaving, etc. arts.
  5. Both-had agriculture as the main occupation of people.

Question 13.
Discuss the cruelty inflicted by the Spanish on the people of two cultures i.e. Aztecs and Incas.
Hernan Cortes befriended the tribe Totonacs i.e. rival to Aztecs and thus, came to know all loopholes and weaknesses of the Aztec empire under the King, Montezuma. He sought for Dona Marina, a woman from the Tobasco tribe who was an expert in three local languages and thus, interpreted everything that wished to know by Cortes. He understood that Montezuma is a god-fearing and simple king hence, intrigued through the friendly way. He entered as a guest to the King and corrupted shortly, the bureaucracy and misdirected the populace.

When he got control of the nerves of the System, the King was detained under house arrest. Cortes began installing Christian icons in the Aztec temples. The King could do nothing but to compromise the installation of both images side by side in each temple. Thus, the King’s depression ended in his suicide. In the meantime, smallpox spread and took a toll on numerous people. Finally, Cortes with his 180 soldiers and 30 horses could defeat Aztecs and became Captain-General of New Spain in Mexico.

So far as Incas affairs were concerned, it can be stated that Francisco Pizarro who had heard about the prosperous civilization of Incas, lured the King of Spain with-an assurance that he shall conquer the Incas empire subject to soldiers and other required means including weapons are provided with him. Trickily, he captured and arrested the King, Atahualpa. He then took ransom for his release but killed him brutally when a room-full gold; he had obtained from a hint.

Question 14.
Give a brief account of the atrocities inflicted by the Portuguese on Brazilian people.

  1. They cheated Brazilians in exchange for iron knives and saws for loads of hens, monkeys, parrots, honey, wax, and cotton thread.
  2. They began the trade of Brazilian wood for the manufacture of red dye and drove away from the French traders. Thus, they destroyed the vegetal cover of the earth there.
  3. As per the rules framed for fourteen captaincies in Brazil by the King of Portugal, the Portuguese settlers were given land ownership right along with the right to make local people into slaves.
  4. They began to grow sugarcane in large plantations when the forest was cleared and established sugar mills there. They took local, slaves yoking with exhausting and dreary work. In case, the natives refused, Portuguese mill-owners resorted to kidnapping them to get work done as slaves.

Conclusion-The cruelty practiced by the Portuguese had compelled the native people to retreat into the forest and thus, gradually; European towns were established on the land of the native people there.

Question 15.
What were the factors demanding more slaves in South America?
Those factors were as under-

  1. Forest for timber wood trading was cleared and the Portuguese had started growing sugar cane in large fields there. Sugar mills were also established.
  2. Gold mines were discovered in Brazil during 1700 CE. Mining staff was, therefore, required.
  3. There was imposed ban on slavery in the 1780 s. Thus, it had become impossible for Portuguese mill owners and landlords to get the natives to be enslaved.
  4. It came into their knowledge that the slave trade in Africa was conducted even by native people there, in exchange for cereals like maize, manioc, and cassava.

Confrontation of Cultures Traditions Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
To what extent, confrontation of cultures is a suitable title to this theme? Why is observed Cultural diversity and how some people turn it into discrimination? Elaborately discuss in the context of the cultures colliding and confronting each other in this theme.
The term culture is understood as certain customs, beliefs, and ways of living adapted to the people in any region, nation, or country. Culture is formed basically like the final product of location, climate, altitude, distance from the ocean, etc. Geological condition and availability of resources, natural and artificial (Currency, promissory notes, etc.), communication and transportation system, type of soil (Fertile, fallow, desert, etc.), occupational structure (primary, secondary, tertiary), commerce and trade, industries, technology, etc.; economy-related components as also the political set-up and diplomatic relations of each country. Apart from them, Psychological factors like passions, urge, motive, etc. also are the components of the culture. Culture embraces education also.

On the basis of the above components, we see several cultures colliding with each other in this theme. These are European culture, Incas, Aztecs, Mayan in broadway while Spanish, Portuguese, British, French, Tupinamba, Tabasco, etc. in minute form. Hence, the title of this theme appears all right.

We come across certain facts in course of going over the tendencies of every culture described in this theme. These are-
1. The cultures of similar geographical locations cause assimilation, harmony, coordination, and confrontation. Here we see oppressive cultures of Spain, Portugal, British, Dutch, etc. as also the cultures which born with atrocities or exploitation i.e. Aztecs, Incas, etc. countries settled in sea-coasts.

2. Cultures of different and distinct instincts often collide. Eg. Europeans were passionate about gold and silver as also the subjugation of another country in colonies while South American cultures were confident, loathsome, satisfied with their means and mother-land. They were befooled by European cultures in exchange for glass beads for gold. Those people had no lust for gold and silver. Similarly, the Portuguese exchanged iron knives, combs, and saws for loads of hens, monkeys, parrots, honey, wax, and cotton.

3. Education is also used as an instrument for the exploitation of those who are uneducated-We see in this theme, cultures in South America and Central America not so educated as European Cultures. This was because, people in South America were not the least interested in the adoption of new technologies, scientific thoughts and were excessively modest. As a native of Brazil tells a French priest that Portuguese and French are madmen who work so hard to accumulate riches.

He further says that they rest without further care in their community. They were dreaming in their own made world and caring for nothing beyond that. It was their ignorance. The Europeans betrayed and mercilessly massacred the people in South America with a passion to gather more and more stock of silver and gold, set up new sugar mills, grow sugar cane crops and get timber from Brazil, and export these items to their countries.

Why does the diversity of culture turn into discrimination?

Each country has its diverse nature of culture than the other due to factors summed lip as geographical, historical, economic, and psychological factors as we have discussed at the beginning of this replication. Diversity proves a boon to unity if people could abide by social norms, common etiquette of mankind, global view (universal fraternity), benediction, and general welfare of mankind all over the world. Peaceful co-existence and respect for every culture are also twins merits that foster unity and integration. However, we observe in this theme, the following factors responsible for the confrontation of cultures

1. Excessive avarice and passion for money-Europeans had greed for money because, in their own countries, stock of gold and silver in mines exhausted, agricultural production receded due to sudden change in climate, the bubonic plague had taken a toll of several lakh people, etc. Thus, their eyes were fixed on the collection of wealth irrespective of means fair or unfair.

2. Genesis of Passion for Wealth-Passion actually is a very strong feeling of love, hatred, anger, or enthusiasm. Motor nerves become the most sensitive and the mind without giving time to the head, starts issuing instructions to sensory and executive organs, and the act is done immediately. Passions also get their birth at home in course of the conversation between parents.

Parents do sacrifice a lot for the welfare of their children but not by turning their mentality to exhilaration hence, they expose financial crunch, shaded and pseudo-half-cooked topics, strategy, device, intrigues, conspiracy, ego, etc. at home. It vibrates the atmosphere of a home with the root cause and children are made a prey to them. Their minds stick to the concerned passion Eg. for money. The crystal or atom it forms will-“We need more money ”

3. Inputs to mind from the organization/institution/ government-Man is inborn gregarious. He cannot live alone and not perfect in himself. Govt. etc. are nothing else but a macro form of a family however, unluckily; we all seeing events of patricide, fratricide, foeticide along with their melodrama through electronic media in India where Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (presumption of universal man) is the serene echo of immortality circumambulates at all moments through the seas i.e. Indian Ocean, Arabic Sea, Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal sea; weathering and drifting so brutally of the nuclear family in India is really cause of national concern.

It indicates neglected respect to the root of immortality (Sanatan) and somewhere kneeling at the threshold of toxicosis. Consumption, distribution, and trade of narcotics and intoxicating drugs anyway, stares exclusively at Government (he greatest family) to prohibit, restrict, forbid immediately, incoming of toxins/toxic items from outside as also manufactured, processed, harnessed, stored in indigenous markets.

Conclusion-On the basis of the above discussion and contextual illustrations, we can state here that the trio-power of human beings i.e. Psychical, mental, and emotional or psychological; facts and circumstances establish; a lion-goat relation between two cultures, there definitely takes place, confrontation or collision.