Here we are providing Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 3 Election and Representation. Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.

Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Important Extra Questions Election and Representation

Election and Representation Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is democracy?
Democracy is a form of government in which ultimate power rests with the people. Broadly speaking it is a system of governance in which the all-round development of the people is possible because they are the real governor.

Question 2.
Differentiate between Direct democracy and Indirect democracy.
Indirect democracy people participate directly in the affairs of the state. They discuss, debate, and take the final decisions directly in the issues of administration while in Indirect democracy people participate in the affairs of the state through their representatives. Direct democracy is possible only in the smaller states while Indirect democracy is run in bigger states in sizes and populations.

Question 3.
What is Election and why it is necessary?
The method which is followed to choose their representative in Indirect democracy is known as Election. It is very necessary for Indirect democracy because it is the only thing that the people participate in the matters of administration. All major decisions are taken by these elected representatives on behalf of the people.

Question 4.
What is Adult Franchise?
The right to vote for every adult person irrespective of his caste, color, region religion, language, and sex is known as Adult Franchise. The age of adulthood may be different for different societies. In Britain, it is 17 years. In India the age of adulthood is 18 years initially it was 21 years. In this principle, fall faith has been, expressed in the sense of decisions and capabilities, and capacities of every adult.

Question 5.
What do you mean by territorial Representation?
When the whole state is divided into a number of territorial constituencies and all the people, living in that constituency elect their one representative it is known as Territorial representation.

Question 6.
What is Functional Representation?
When the whole area of the state is divided into occupational considerations and every occupational group-elect their own representative, it is known as Functional Representation. In such a system businessmen elect their own representatives, farmers elect their own representatives and women elect their own representatives.

Question 7.
Write five features of India’s electoral system.
Following are the main features of India’s electoral system

  1. Adult Franchise
  2. Territorial representation
  3. Multi-member Election Commission.
  4. Reservation for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
  5. Joint Electoral system
  6. Secret Ballot paper.
  7. A decision by majority votes.

Question 8.
What is the First Part of the Past System?
In this system of election whoever has more votes than all the other candidates, is declared elected. The winning candidate need not secure a majority of the votes. In the electoral race, the candidate who is ahead of others and who secures the winning post first fall is the winner. This method is also known as the plurality system.

Question 9.
Explain the Proportional method of Representation (PIR system).
It is a method that is used in multi-member constituencies. Here every voter can express as many preferences as there are candidates in the election. The value of each vote will be equal. The person who will secure the definite quota on the basis of counting of first preference is declared elected. It ensures the representation of different social & minority groups in proportion to their population.

Question 10.
Why the FPTP system (First point the post system), was adopted in India?
India FPTP system was adopted in India because of two factors.

  1. India has a single-member constituency where the P.R. system cannot be used.
  2. The second reason is FPTP system is simple while the PR system is complex, so for the people of India who are maximum illiterate PR system would
  3. In the FPTP system, people have a clear choice to opt.
  4. FPTP system offers a choice of candidates.

Question 11.
What is Election Commission?
Election Commission is a constitutional body who referred in Art 324 of the Indian Constitution which provides for an Independent Election Commission for the superintendent, directions and control of the electoral, and the conduct of the election in India. In the beginning, it was made a single-member commission but Constitutional amendment this commission is made multi member commission with one Chief Election Commissioner and two other Election Commissioners. All have equal powers.

Question 12.
Write five steps of the election process.

  1. Preparation of electro constituencies and voter’s lists.
  2. Notification and filing of nominations.
  3. Scrutiny, withdrawals, and finalization of the candidates.
  4. Preparation of Ballot papers.
  5. Preparation of necessary arrangements and conduct of the elections.
  6. Counting of the votes and declaration of the results.

Question 13.
Write five defects of the Indian electoral system.

  1. The minority is ruling over a majority
  2. The problem of impersonations
  3. Booth capturing
  4. Use of black money in the elections.
  5. All the sections of society are not properly represented.
  6. The entry of the people of criminal background in the Parliament and assemblies.
  7. Political Instability

Question 14.
Write some electrical reforms.
To remove the electoral defects certain measures have been taken up and certain reforms have been suggested by different committees and commissions. The main reforms are as under:

  1. Use of EVM (Electronic Voting Machines.)
  2. Compulsory use of photo identity cards
  3. Women should be given reservations in Parliament and Assemblies.
  4. There should be state funding to check the use of black money in the elections.
  5. The number of political, parties should be checked.

Question 15.
Discuss the role of people in the elections.
Besides the governmental machinery, the people have equalrespon¬sibility to ensure free and fair, and peaceful elections at different levels. People should be more vigilant and more actively involved in political activities. There should be some political institutions and voluntary organizations who could act as watchdogs in the functioning of the governmental machinery and ensure free and fair elections in the country.

Election and Representation Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Explain the merits and demerits of Direct democracy and Indirect democracy.
Direct democracy is one form of a democratic form of government in which people participate directly in the process of governance. The people of state sit together in person, discuss the issues and make final decisions about old matters like policymaking, making rules, making appointments, and giving punishment. It has two important merits

No.1. People take part in the discussion and decisions directly.

No. 2. The decisions are taken quickly and no time is wasted.

It has some demerits also which are as under:

  1. It is not feasible in bigger states,
  2. Common people are not competent to taken technical decisions. Indirect democracy is another form of democracy where people do not participate directly but indirectly i.e. through their representative. The elected representatives act on behalf of the people and take part in the matter of administration.

It has two main merits which are as under.

  1. It is possible in big states.
  2. Elected people are responsible to the people.

Its demerits are as under.

  1. A lot of expenditure has to be incurred on elections
  2. Representatives are unable to keep all the interest of the people.

Question 2.
What is the election? What are the requisites of an election?
The election is a method of choosing one’s representative. In a representative democracy, the election becomes a necessity because people cannot take part in administration directly. It is an elected representative who works on behalf of the common people. There is a number of requisitions for an election.

These requisites are as under

  1. It is to be decided that who will be eligible for vote.
  2. There should be free and fair elections for which a competent body has to be constituted to conduct free and fair elections.
  3. The basis of constituency formation has to be decided
  4. The method of election has to be decided.
  5. Election results are decided.

Question 3.
Write main features of the Indian electoral system.
Following are the main features of the Indian electoral system:

  1. Adult Franchise: Every person above the age of 18years has been given the rights to Vote.
  2. Multimember Election Commissioner: Indian Constitution has pro¬vided a multimember (Now three members) Election Commission to conduct free and fair elections.
  3. Joint Electorate: Joint electorate is a very important feature of the Indian electoral system. In this system, all the persons irrespective of their caste or occupation, elect their representative jointly.
  4. Temporal representation: In India Territorial representation has been adopted which means the country has been divided into territorial constituencies (Now 5.43). Each such Territorial constituency will send one represen¬tative.
  5. reservation ensure the adequate representation of each minority social groups some seats have been reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes in Parliament and State Assemblies.
  6. Secret ballot papers.
  7. First Past the Post system
  8. Election Petitions

Question 4.
Describe various steps in the Election Process of India.
Following are the stages of the Election process in India:

  1. Formation & Electoral Territorial constituencies by the commission.
  2. Updating and finalizing the voter’s list
  3. Notification of declaration of Elections
  4. Nomination of candidates
  5. Scrutiny of the forms of candidates
  6. Time for withdrawal of the candidature
  7. Finalization of the total candidates in the Electron and publication of such a list.
  8. Printing of the ballot papers
  9. The proportion of EVM (Electronic Voting Machine) or the ballot box.
  10. Constitution of Polling booths in different constitutions
  11. Constitution of polling parties
  12. Preparation of poHingJiags with necessary election material for each polling booth.
  13. Conducting of the elections
  14. Counting of the votes
  15. Declaration of the result.
  16. Settlement of Election petitions

Question 5.
Distinguish between FPTP and PR system.
FPTP system stands for First Post the post system which means
that candidate, who secures the highest vote among the total candidates in the election is declared elected. It is not necessary for him to get even 50% of the total votes. It means that in the electorate race, the candidate who is ahead of others and who crosses the winning post, first of all, is the winner.

In the PR system i.e the Proportional Representation method, multi-member constituencies are made. It is of two types 1. Single Transferable vote system and No.2. is the list system. In this system, it is ensured that minority social groups are duly represented as per the proportion of their qualifications. Similarly, all political parties are given a number of seats in proportion to the votes they have received in the election.

Question 6.
Discuss the composition of the Election Commission of India.
Now Election Commission of India is a three-member body with one Chief Election Commissioner and two other election commissioners. Each election commissioner has equal power and pay. However, Chief Election Commissioner provides the meetings of the commission and discharges the formal duties of the Election Commission. He also acts as spokesman of the commission. Every Election Commissioner enjoys the tenure of six years or up to the attainment of the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.

To assist the Election Commissioner of India there is a chief electoral officer in every state. State Election Commissioner is responsible for conducting the local body elections and is independent of the Election Commission of India. When elections are declared every State and Central Government employee comes under the jurisdiction of’Election Commissioner under the Representation of people’s Act 1951 which makes it obligatory for every employee to perform the election duty assigned to him by the commission.

Question 7.
Write main functions of the Election Commissioner.
The Election Commissioner has a wide range of functions which are as under.

  1. The election Commissioner supervises the preparation of updated voter’s list in every state.,
  2. It also determines the timings of the election and prepares the schedules of the election. lt also notifies the schedule which includes filling up of nomination form, last date of scripting, last date of withdrawals, date of polling, date of counting, and declaration to the result.
  3. Its main duty is to conduct free and fair poll:
  4. It has the power to implement the model code of elections and it punishes those who try to violate it.
  5. It takes the decision regarding repel! in any constituency.
  6. The Election Commission accord recognition to political parties and allocates flaps, symbols to the candidates and political parties.
  7. Election Commission monitor and supervise the election and takes a decision about any dispute related, with the election. „

Question 8.
Discuss the position of the Election Commission of India.
Chief Election Commissioner has a wide range of powers so is its role and position. Once the years the Election Commission of India has emerged as an independent authority and has exercised its powers and authority to ensure free and fair elections.

When Chief Election Commissioners like T.N. Susan, B.B. Lyndog were at the helm of authority it has acquired more and more teeth. It is widely agreed that Election Commission is more independent and assertive now than it was ever. The Election Commission has started using more effectively its powers that it has been given by the Constitution makers. Many political leaders call it judicial activism also but it is not so.

Over the years Election Commission has conducted the election of 14 Lok Sabhas and-many more state assembly elections and bye-elections have been conducted. Election Commission has conducted the elections in the most difficult situations. Generally, its decisions have been accepted and its impartiality has never been questioned. Its authority has been appreciated even in other countries also.

Question 9.
Mention some Election defects in our Election system.
In spite of the smooth functionary of our electoral democracy, our electoral system is not free from defects. It has some structural and functional defects which are as under.

  1. The multiplicity of the political parties and candidates
  2. Rigging in the elections
  3. FPTP system is defective because it ensures the win of a candidate even if he or she does not get the majority of the votes.
  4. Booth capturing
  5. The minority is ruling over the majority
  6. Hung Assemblies and hung Parliament
  7. Impersonation
  8. Use of black money in the elections
  9. Crimmalisatiort Or politics.
  10. Lack of political training.

Question 10.
Explain Single Transferable Vote System.
A single Transferable system is a proportional method of representation. It is used in multi-member constituencies. In this system, every voter can express as many preferences as there are candidates in the election. A person who secures the desired quotas on basis of counting of votes of first preference is declared elected. The formula of getting the quota is as under.
Class 11 Political Science Important Questions Chapter 3 Election and Representation 1

If no person does not get the definite Quota in first counting the remaining votes of other candidates are transferred to the nearest candidate till he gets desired Quota.

Question 11.
Explain the List System.
It is also another method of Proportional method of representation. It is also used in multi-member constituencies. In this system, each party is allotted the share of seats in the Parliament in Proportion to its share of votes. Each party fills its Quota of seats by picking many of its nominees from a preference list that has been declared before the elections. In this system, a party gets the same proportion of seats as its proportion of votes. The voter expresses his preference for the list of the party and not for the candidate. Here also a definite Quota is used.

Question 12.
Why Reservation is necessary.
Since Indian Society has been in grip of several socio-economic disparities and inequalities. Many social groups remained socially and politically and culturally backward. To ensure their representation in democratic institutions like Parliament, assemblies they provided the reservation of the same seats for Scheduled Castes (79) and Scheduled Tribes (41). The reservation was necessary for the fair and definite representation of their socially backward groups.

Question 13.
Give some suggestions for election reforms.
On the basis of discussion and debate about various election reforms of different platforms and on the basis of the recommendation of various committees and commission some of the important suggestions for election reformers are as under:-

  1. FPTP system is faulty, therefore it should be repeated by the PR system.
  2. There, should be reservation for women in Parliament and State assemblies as has been done in rural and urban local bodies.
  3. Roll of money should be checked for that there should be state funding.
  4. EVM (Electronic Voting Machines) should be used in all the constituencies.
  5. Candidates having criminal background should be strictly debarred to contest the elections.
  6. Campaigning on the basis of caste and religion should be punishable.
  7. A multiplicity of political parties and independent candidates should be checked.
  8. Election photo cards should be made compulsory so that impersonation could be checked.
  9. There should be a transparent-audit of the funds of all political parties.
  10. The voter list should be made up to date.

Question 14.
What is the role of political parties in the elections?
In most democracies, the political parties are extra-constitutional growths and have emerged in the political process as a matter of Fundamental Rights. But political parties play a significant role in making the elections meaningful. Political parties offer attractive policies and programs before the voters and ask for their votes. Political parties offer choices before the voters. Political parties educate the people and promote the participation of the people in the election process. More responsible are the political parties more meaningful is the election. Political parties also help in the formation of governments. The negative aspect of the political parties is that they demand the votes on parochial likes hence divide the society. But we can say that political parties never became essential for the smooth conduct of the elections. They cannot be separated from the election process.

Question 15.
Why women could not be given reservation in parliament and State Assemblies so far?
The issue of women’s reservation in Parliament and State Assemblies has been agitating the mind of the political leadership of almost all the political parties. No party opposes the reservation of-woman. Even several consti¬tutional amendments have been introduced in the Parliament but unfortu¬nately this bill could not become law because of the hypocrisy of the political leadership of all the political parties.

In spite of the fact that almost all the political parties have given their issue place in their election manifesto but when the bill is introduced for this purpose, most of the political parties take the opposite position and the result is that it remained only a cry. Many parties demand reservation within reservation i.e. separate reservation of SCs and SCs women. It is becoming of this situation it could not become a law.

Election and Representation Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the election system in India.
India is-a representative democracy in which election is a must. To conduct free and fair elections at the different levels an Election Commission is provided by the Constitution (Art 324 of Indian Consitution). We have adopted Adult Franchise which means every person who is an adult (18 years of age) irrespective of his caste, color, status, and sex is eligible to exercise his franchise.

We have adopted territorial representation instead of functional representation. All the persons of different castes, classes, and occupations living in a definite geographical area (Constituency) elect only one representative. Therefore it is a joint system. Another very important feature of our electoral system is the FPTP system (First Past the Post system) It means the person who gets the maximum votes among the contesting candidates is declared elected However for the same posts like President, Vice President, and Rajya Sabha. The Proportional Representation method (Single Transferable vote system is used.

Keeping our historical background in view constitution-makers reserved certain seats in Parliament and State Assemblies for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to ensure their fair representation. However, women could not get any reservation in Parliament and State Assemblies. Efforts are going in this direction. Indian electoral system has been proved successful and up to the expectations of the Consitution makers. Since 1952, fourteen Lok Sabha elections have been constituted. Election Commissioner has worked in a free and fair manner even in most difficult situations. Its credibility and reputation. has been acknowledged in other countries also. It is not a perfect system, therefore some reforms are underway to make it more effective.