Here we are providing Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 3 Equality. Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Important Extra Questions Equality
Equality Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is equality?
Equality is a very wide concept which seeks a situation of equal treatment and equal reward. In feet, it is a levelling process. Equality seeks to build such an environment where all enjoy equal opportunities and equal access to basic essentials of life. It also seeks to remove the disparities at a different level on different grounds. It is based on the thesis that all are alike in capabilities and capacities, hence all must be treated alike in the matter of opportunities and rewards. Its emphasis is on just and equal socio. economic environment.
What do you mean by absolute equality?
The supporter of absolute equality has a negative view of equality which means ‘absence of privileges’ i.e. no person or class or caste should hold a special position on any ground like caste, colour, region, religion or economic status. They demand a society where all are equal and there is no disparity of any kind in any degree. Absolute equality seems to be an impossibility in a collective society because there is natural inequality of colour and sex and also inequality of environment which produces men and women of unequal strength, capabilities and capacities.
What are the essentials of the positive aspect of equality?
The positive aspect of equality means equality of an environment where all the people could get equal access and opportunities for their abound development. Essentials of the positive aspect of equality are as under:
- Equal opportunities.
- Access to minimum needs.
- Equal treatment with all.
- Fulfilment of basic needs.
- Availability of resources.
What is equality of opportunities?
Equality of opportunities implies that all the people are entitled. to get rights and opportunities to develop their talent, skill and potentialities and to achieve their desired goal in different areas of life. People may differ in their skill and talent, but they should get equal opportunities to develop them and should not be denied on the ground of caste, colour, sex and status. If there is inequality due to difference in talent or skill or capacities,- that should not be treated as inequality. Inequality lies, in the denial of access to such basic goods which are necessary for life, and that makes unequal and unjust society.
What do you mean by natural inequality?
Natural inequality is the most important aspect of inequality. It is “that inequality which is natural i.e. inequality of colour, height and sex.
Natural inequalities are considered to be the result of the different ‘ characteristics and abilities with which people are born. In fact, natural inequalities have to be accepted as equality because there is no creation of a man-made environment and they cannot be altered or modified. If some people are black and others are white, it is natural inequality, similarly if one is male and other is female, it is natural inequality. These are transmitted from one generation to another and are based on natural conditions.
What do you mean by social inequality?
Social inequalities are widely prevailing in society and these are the matter of concern. These social inequalities are the creation, of social taboos and social environment. Society has different perceptions of different situations. People look at the people of different caste, colour, profession and strata differently and so are they awarded which gives birth to the unequal situation. Social inequalities are man-made which are unjust and need reform.
What is political inequality?
Political inequalities marred history. In all the societies ‘ the politics and administration have been the domain of few and rest have been denied on the different ground like caste, colour, status and sex.
Even in liberal democratic countries like Britain and the United States of America, the people were denied political equality on the basis of sex and colour. Before the adoption of adult franchise, people were given political rights on the basis of education, wealth and status. Therefore there has been a gross violation of political equality in different parts of the world. Even today political equality is a mirage for many people. Political equality seeks to achieve the right to vote, right of expression, movement and association. These rights are necessary for the development of the citizens and to participate in the affairs of the state.
What is social equality?
Social equality means equal treatment, equal opportunities to all the persons in social functions and seeks to remove the inequalities ‘ on the basis of caste, colour, religion, region and sex. For example, women have been denied social equality and have been discriminated against in social functions at home and outside. Similarly, black people in Africa and people of scheduled castes have been discriminated on the basis of caste and colour. This has been the social inequality and social equality demands the ending of such practices.
What do you mean by economic equality?
Economic equality does not mean that all should have equal wages and income because the difference in wages and income is related to talent and skill. Economic equality means equality in economic conditions without any discrimination on the basis of caste, colour and sex. Economic equality means that there should be equality of wages among men and women and in similar working conditions.
How social equality is ensured in the Indian Constitution?
There have been glaring social inequalities in Indian society since ages. After independence, Constitution makers ensured social equality by giving Fundamental Right of equality which prohibits discrimination on any social ground at a public place (Art. 15). Constitution makers gave equality before the law (under Art. 14) and discrimination is prohibited before the law on any social ground. The age-old practice of untouchability is also removed under Art. 17. In his way through this right social equality is ensured.
What do you mean by Feminism?
Feminism is a movement either it is thinking or philosophy which indicates the change of understanding about the capabilities and capacities of women and about her place in the society. The feminist movement started in post Second World War in a different part of the world. Therefore it is worldwide awakening about the position of women. Feminist movement not only recognises the hidden power of women but also is an effort to utilize it and channelise it in different areas. It is a movement to make women and the society aware of the new role of women in national and international life. It is an effort to give the women due role in the decision-making process.
What is the reason for economic inequality according to Marx?
According to Marx the main reason for economic inequality is the ownership of property which is unequal. Therefore there are economic inequalities in society. In his theory which he gave in his famous book ‘Das Capital’, he explained the surplus-value is the root cause of generating inequalities in the society. It is the surplus-value which makes the capitalist richer and poorer to the labourer and thus class formation takes place which later on becomes exploitative class and exploited class.
How formal equality can be achieved?
To achieve formal equality in society, the formal inequalities have to be removed. The formal inequality is like a rigid system based on wrong notions and which has got legitimacy over the period ‘ of time. Therefore to attain formal equality such wrong notions about some people and privileged positions for some other people should be removed. The law and agencies of the Government should not protect the strong man and vent intents in which favour the old system is v. deliberately built-up. In Indian Constitution discrimination in socio¬economic ground is prohibited and untouchability is removed.
What is socialism?
Socialism is a socio-economic system which wants or seeks to establish an equalitarian society by giving every person his or her due place in the society. It had become very popular after the Second World War in Eastern Europe and later in Asian and some African country. It seeks to achieve the value of equality in a socio-economic environment. Its cardinal principle is that “From each to his ability and to each according to his needs”. It means equal opportunities to all on the basis ‘of his or her capabilities and talent.
What is affirmative action?
Affirmative actions are those decisions, policies and programmes of the government through which effort is being made to make the weaker sections people stronger so that they could complete ‘ with the people of higher castes. What is especially being done for those who have been exploited in the history and other weaker sections of the society? For example reservation for the people of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in a matter of employment and various welfare measures for the poor people are the example of affirmative actions; whose purpose is to build equalitarian society.
Equality Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Explain the concept of equality?
Equality has been the issue of concern and discussion and debate at the academic level as well as political level through the ages since long back. In the hands of classical thinkers, the concept of inequality was glorified. Plato called it a preferential value, Bulk said that equality is impossible. Aristotle justified inequality and called it as natural; He justified inequality and so the slavery on the basis of expediency. He said people have different capacities and capabilities, skills and talents therefore they are to get the awards and place in the society accordingly. He said that slavery has its own utility for the master as well as the slave.
In the middle ages also equality did not get the rational and human base of discussion and debate. However twentieth-century thinkers tried to give practical meaning to the idea of equality. In the words of Laski, the concept of equality got detailed treatment. He dealt with the subject of equality in his famous book ‘Grammer of Politics’. He added essential socio-economic ingredients of equality ‘ keeping in view the egalitarian perspective.
Why Equality is necessary for the condition of life?
For a long time, in history inequality has been accepted and also been glorified on a number of undesirable bases like caste, colour and sex. With the advancement of age and scientific and educational /.development the urge and need for substantive equality have been, accepted and now has emerged as a powerful political ideal that is guiding the human society. The concept of equality emphasis the idea that all human beings have an equal worth regardless of their colour, gender, race and nationality. It says that all human beings are equal, hence deserve equal treatment and respect for human development.
How the concept of equality has influenced the political movements in the world?
Whenever there has been a violation of equality and people have been exploited on the justification of unequal status and opportunities, there have been organised movements in different parts of the world. With the advent of democratic systems of the government, the equality of human beings has been used as a rallying slogan in the struggles against the oppressive states and social, economic and religious institutions which supports and glorify inequalities of rank, status and sex and wealth. In the eighteenth century, the French Revolution was a historic event in which equality was the main gospel.
Equality, fraternity and liberty was the main slogan of the movement. It was a movement against the landed feudal aristocracy and monarchy. During the twentieth century, equality became the popular demand is the anti-colonial movements in Asia, Africa and Latin American countries of the world. In the same urge abolition of racialism was demanded mid untouchability with Indian Dalits was abolished. In spite of these movements for, equality, inequality is most visible around us throughout the world. But it can be said that its demand has become more and more popular.
Give some factual position about global inequalities.
Here are some sterling facts showing global inequalities:
- 50 richest individuals of the world have combined income greater than that of poorest 40 crore people of the world.
- 40% poorest of the world’s population received only 5% of global ‘ income.
- North America and Western Europe constitute 25% of the world population but owns 86% of the world’s industry and consumes 80% of the \ world’s energy.
- On a per-capita basis, a resident of the advanced countries consumes at least three times as much water, ten times as much energy.
On the basis of data show rural-urban inequalities in India.
After independence, India got a semi-feudal agrarian-based economy whose 80% of people are dependent on agriculture. After the arrival of green resolution agriculture production increased and market economy developed which fastened the process of urbanisation. With the use of science and technology the number of towns and cities increased which resulted in the gap of quality of life in rural and urban areas which is evident from the following facts:
|Amenities||Rural Families||Urban Families|
|1. Electricity connections||44%||88%|
|2. Tap water in houses||10%||50%|
|3. Bathroom in the house||23%||70%|
Above facts show the rural inequality.
Do you think that equality means always treating all in an identical way?
In present-day society, the meaning of equality is not taken as it used to be in the hands of classical thinkers who used to justify inequality on a number of grounds. Today negative aspect of equality is also neither desired nor achievable. Therefore equality does not mean perfect equality with always identical treatment with everybody. No society can treat all its members in exactly the same way under all conditions. The smooth functioning of the society requires from each according to his ability and to each according to his needs. It means people should be placed in the compartment of the society where they deserve as per their abilities, If that make difference then it is not undesirable inequality. This inequality can be accepted.
What is the difference between natural inequalities and social inequalities?
The main difference between the natural and social inequalities is that natural inequalities are due to natural reasons like that of colour, sex, capabilities and capacities while social inequalities are those which are generated by the man and society itself. The natural inequalities can not be altered while the social inequalities are the product of the socio-economic environment. Hence the social inequalities vary as per the socio-economic environment Social inequalities are the direct result of unequal treatment of the people on the basis of race, colour, gender and caste and they are given place and worth in the society.
The understanding of the difference between natural inequalities and social inequalities help us to distinguish between acceptable and unfair inequalities in society. In the history of humankind, many unequal conditions have been treated as equal conditions making them like natural conditions. For example, for a long time, it is believed that women are inferior to men.
Discuss social inequality as prevailing in India.
Indian society has been in the grip of severe social inequalities. People were discriminated against the caste, colour, region and religion. People of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes enjoyed the lowest status in the society like apartheid in South Africa, untouchability plagued Indian society. Harijans were considered as out-castes, therefore were declared as untouchable.
Women were denied basic rights in the society, they were considered inferior to man hence were placed below the man. Social inequality in Indian society is the result of many social customs which prevailed in different parts of the country. Women and people of scheduled castes were prohibited from taking parts in important functions. They were denied educational rights also.
Explain Economic Equality?
Economic equality is much sought after value in the environment of widespread economic inequalities which is the consequence of social and political inequalities of the society. Economic inequalities prevail in the society because of significant differences in wealth, property or income between individuals and classes. Higher is the difference between the richest and poorest, greater will be the degree of inequalities. The existence of a large number of people below the marked by want of basic amenities and needs of life on the one hand and the existence of plenty of commodities of consumption op the other hand.
Most of the democracies with equalitarian perspective try to provide equal opportunities and access to the people on the resources of consumption and equal opportunities for utilisation of talent and determination and to improve their conditions. It is also a fact that absolute equality of wealth and income never existed. It has to be accepted in just proportions. With the rational distribution of resources and equal opportunities, there are the possibilities of improving everyone’s position in the system.
Show the relationship between education inequality and socio-economic status in urban India.
The following table shows the above situation:
|Caste\Communities||Graduates per thousand|
|1. Scheduled Caste||47|
|3. Hindu OBC||86|
|4. Scheduled Tribes||109|
|7. Hindu Uppercase||253|
|8. Other Religions||315|
|9. All India Average.||155|
Source: NSSO 55th Round Survey, 1999-2000.
Discuss the meaning and need for Feminism.
Feminism is a very important and popular political doctrine of the 20th century which seeks to spread the message of women empowerment. It teaches that men and women are equal in capacities and capabilities of skill and talent. Therefore women should be treated alike and should be given her due role in the society and decision-making process at different levels. Feminists believe that many of the inequalities which we see are men and women are neither natural nor necessary. These can be removed, if we treat both men and women equal and free lives. Feminism is a powerful philosophy, which advocates opportunities for women in all walks of life for that they need to be given basic education and more women employment opportunities.
It seeks to end the dominance of patriarchal authority in the families and society. The feminists try to question this idea of classical theory. They argue that the biological difference between men and women determines the different roles to men and women in society. The feminist movement has played a very positive role in giving the women their due place in the society and enabled them to prove their worth in different areas of national life.
What is a Marxist view of Equality?
Marx has been the most important thinker of nineteenth-century who diagnosed the development of inequality and the environment in which inequality takes birth. He was champion of the equalitarian society and he was very much concerned about the exploitation of labour class in the hands of the capitalist class in the capitalist system. In his famous book ‘ Das Capital’, Marx explained that theory of surplus value (share of the labourer which is being kept by the capitalist with him) is the main reason of gap of status between the labour and capitalist. This gap generates inequality in all the fields i.e. social, cultural and political. Economic inequality leads to inequality in all other fields.
What is a Marxist view of establishing equality?
Marx was of the firm view that the root cause of man mode inequality in the concentration of private property into few hands which generate not only economic inequality but it breeds inequality in all fields like education, social status, political influence and political authority. It creates inequality of ranks and privilege in different sections of the society. Marx regarded the state as the agent of the capitalist class and supports the capitalist class perpetuate the inequality.
Therefore to remove the – inequality and to establish equalitarian society he suggests to remove the two-class structure of the society and wants to build a classless, stateless and casteless society. This is the state of communism. In his way Marx for removing the inequality and to establish the equality he suggests to go beyond the idea of equal opportunities to all but he thinks necessary the collective ownership of all the class. He says that for this there should be debate and discussion.
Explain the Socialist view of Equality.
Socialism is a philosophy of socio-economic relations which became very popular in the early twentieth century. It also opposes the inequalities prevailed in the capitalistic society which was marked by two class exploitative system. Socialism became popular not only in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin American countries but also in European countries. In fact, socialistic philosophy for the equalitarian society came into existence as a derivative of communist philosophy. Socialist thinkers of India like Ram Manohar Lohiya and Jai Prakash Narayan identified five kinds of inequalities that need to be corrected immediately,
These are –
- Gender inequality
- Colour inequality;
- Caste-based inequality, and colonialism based inequalities.
Socialist need from each according to his ability and to each according to his need.
Equality Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Explain Affirmative Action with reference to achieving an equalitarian society in the Indian Constitution.
History is the record of the fact that most of the societies have been in the grip of inequalities. With the advent of democracy and increasing awareness due to various theories and change in the environment, there is a continuous demand and effort to remove the inequalities in society.
Indian society also has been caste and class-ridden society in which scheduled caste, scheduled tribe people and also the women had to face untold miseries due to unequal set up of the society. When India got independence, is committed to removing these age-old inequalities faced by some sections of the society. This commitment is reflected and mentioned in the Indian Constitution.
To infuse the confidence in these sections of the society, Fundamental Rights were added in the Constitution to achieve the value of equality for all Fundamental Right of equality is described from Article 14 to Art. 18 which gives –
- Right of equality before the law (Art. 14)
- Right of equality at a public place (Art. 15)
- Right of equality in the matter of employment (Art. 16)
- Abolition of untouchability (Art. 17)
- Abolition of special classes (Art. 18)
To remove the exploitation of women and children right against exploitation is given.
Similarly, a chapter of the Directive Principle is added from Art. 36 to Art. 51 for improving the living standard of weaker sections of the society so that equalitarian society is set up.
Affirmative action is a more serious effort to achieve the value of equality. It is based on the idea that it is not sufficient to establish formal equality by simple law alone. Therefore some welfare measures and policy decision are necessary to improve a lot of poor people. Thus purpose is to correct the unequal order.