Here we are providing Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 4 Executive. Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Important Extra Questions Executive
Executive Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is the principal function of Executive?
The executive is the very important organ of the three organs of the government. Other organs of the government are legislature and judiciary. The executive executes ie; implements the laws and policies of the government Executive are mainly responsible, for administration, development and the welfare of the people. The executive makes an important appointment and is also responsible for the security of the state and maintained the external relations.
Write types of Executive?
There are many types of the executive. It is the political executive which include the President, Prime-minister and ministers and monarchs also. Another main executive is the permanent executive which includes administrative machin¬ery like civil servants who are responsible for making and implementing the governmental policies and programmes of the country. Sonja effective like President in India are nominal while others like the Prime-Minister and President of India are real executives.
Write four features of Parliamentary democracy
Four important features of Parliamentary executive are:
- Two types of executive 1. Nominal 2. Real
- The leadership of Prime-minister as a real head
- Class relationship between executive and legislature
- Executive in individually and collectively responsible for the legislative.
- Political homogeneity
- Uncertain Tenure
Write four features of Presidential executive.
Following are main for features of Presidential executive
- Single executive
- President as the real head.
- The separation between Executive and Legislative
- The executive is not responsible for the legislature
- Definite Tenure
Explain the composition of Executive in India.
India has adopted a parliamentary system of Executive which includes the following officers
- Council of Ministry
- Civil Servants (Bureaucracy)
How the President of India is elected?
Indian President is Chief Executive. It is an elected post because India is Republic President is elected indirectly by the people of India.
What is the required qualification of President?
Following are the required qualifications to become Indian President.
- He/She should be a citizen of India
- He should be of “the age of 35 or above
- He should not be a member of Parliament
- He should not hold any office of profit
How the Prime-minister of India is appointed?
Prime-minister is the real head in India. He is a leader of ministers. He is appointed by the President of India. The person who is elected leader of the majority party in the- .election is appointed as Prime-Minister by the President of India.
How the council of ministers is-constituted?
The ministers are also appointed by the President of India on’ the advice of Prime-minister. In fact, it is the prerogative of the Prime-minister to include any member in his council of ministers or not. He submits his selected list to the President who administer& them the oath of secrecy. To become minister one should be a member of either house ie; Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Name the services in India?
Followings are three types of services in India
- All India Government Service
- Central Services
- State Services
What are the functions of President of India?
President performs a number of functions in the following areas.
- Legislative functions
- Executive functions
- Financial functions
- Judicial functions
President has Emergency power Which an explained in art. 352, Art 356 and Art -360 of the Indian Constitution.
Explain the functions of the Vice-President of India?
Vice President of India is given two responsibilities. Firstly he acts’ as ex-office Chairman of Rajya Sabha. In this capacity, he conducts the proceedings of Rajya Sabha.
Secondary he acts as President in the absence of the President due to leave, resignation or death.
What is UPSC?
UPSC stands for Union Public Service Commission which is a statutory body and makes a recommendation for the appointment for different posts in the central services and all India services. For this, it conducts examinations and interviews and sets different educational and other conditions.
What is the State Public Service Commission?
Almost every state is given a state public service commission like that of UPSC at the centre. The members of Public Service Commissions are appointed for a fixed period. PSCS conduct recruitment for the state Service. PSCS also conducts interviews and exams and set all conditions related to services.
What are the main functions of Bureaucracy?
Bureaucracy means civil services. Bureaucracy includes all the civil servants in different departments. Bureaucracy includes from peon to Chief Secretary. In a modern state, the functions of the bureaucracy are increasing in the following areas.
- Policy implementation
- Developmental functions
- Welfare Functions
Executive Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Differentiate between parliamentary Executive and Presidential Executives.
Parliamentary executive and Presidential executive are two different types of the executive which are found in most of the countries of the world suiting their conditions. Differences between Parliamentary executive and President executive are as under
|Parliamentary Executive||Presidential Executive|
|1. Two types of Executive-one is real arid other is nominal||1. One executive and that is the real executive|
|2. Leadership of Prime-minister||2. Leadership of President|
|3. Based on the close relationship between executive and legislative.||3. There is a separation between the executive and the legislative.|
|4. Executive is responsible to the legislature||4. Executive is not responsible’ to the legislative.|
|5. Individual and collective responsibility of ministers||5. Ministers are not responsible for the legislative.|
|6. Political Homogeneity||6. No political Hamogenity|
Why India adopted a Parliamentary system?
There was a debate in Constituent Assembly whether to adopt a Parliamentary system of government or Presidential system. Some members were in favour of the Parliamentary system and others were for the Presidential system. ‘But ultimate constitution-makers took the decision in favour of Parliamentary system as we had already experience of running a Parliamentary system under the Government of India Act 1919 and 1935.
This experience had shown that in the Parliamentary system executive is effectively controlled by the legislature. Constitution makers wanted a responsible and responsive Government for India which can be answerable to the people and could serve the need of the people. The parliamentary system provides an effective mechanism to check the executives by the people in the Parliamentary system.
Explain the process of Presidential Election.
The President of India is the highest executive in India. His election is indirect. He is sleeted by an elected college which consists of elected members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and elected members of all the state Assembly. This election is conducted by a single transferable vote system which every vote can express as many preferences as there are candidates in the election. The person who gets the desired quota on the basis of counting of the first preference is elected the President. The formula for getting the desired quota is
To become the President of India one should attain the age of 35 years and should not hold any office of profit under the Central Government or State Government.
How the President can be removed.
The President of India has the tenure of five years but he can be removed by the method of impeachment in which changes are levelled is one house of the Parliament and are examined in the second house of the Parliament. President is given 14 days notice to explain his position.
If changes are proved by 2/3 majority the present and voting members the President stands impeached and he has to vacate the office.
Write the legislative Functions of Indian President.
Followings are the legislative functions of President of India:
- President is part of the Indian Parliament
- He summons prorogues and dissolves the Parliament.
- He gives an asset to the bills passed by Parliament to make the laws.
- He gives assent for the introduction of the budget and finance bill and gives final approval.
- He nominates two members to Lok Sabha and 12 members to Rajya Sabha.
- He can send message ho the Parliament.
- He issues ordinances when the Parliament is not in session.
Write the Executive functions of Indian President.
Indian President is Chief Executive. All the executives’ powers are vested in his name. His powers can be studied as under:
- He appoints Prime ministers and ministers.
- He makes all. important appointments like Governors and Chairman.
- He implements laws and policies.
- He appoints high commissions, ambassadors and receives the credentials of foreign dignitaries. He represents India abroad.
- He is Supreme Commander of Indian Army.
- He declares war and peace.
- He has the right to be informed and to be consulted.
How the Prime-minister of India is appointed?
The Prime-minister is appointed by the President. After the election to the Lok Sabha, the leader of the political party or group of parties is invited to form the Government by the President. If he agrees, the President admin¬isters them the secrecy and oath of the office of Prime Minister. In case no party gets the majority in the Lok Sabha the discretion is used by the President is choosing the Prime-Minister. It is his satisfaction in whom leader or party he considers his faith to give a stable and efficient government. But when any party gets a clear out majority in Lok Sabha, he has no choice except to invade the leader of such majority party to form the Government.
Write the main functions of Indian Prime-minister.
Indian Prime-minister is a very powerful post and has a free hand in a number of areas as. We Can understand his functions in the following points
- Formation of cabinet
- Distribution of Portfolio among different ministers.
- To preside over the meetings of the cabinet.
- To coordinate among different ministries and departments.
- To act as an advisor to the President
- To act as the link between cabinet and President
- To act as the architect of foreign policy
- He acts as the leader of the house
- He acts as the important leader of the party
- He leads the country
How the council of ministers is constituted?
Council of the minister is a real political executive who works under the leadership and guidance of the Prime-minister. They are appointed by the President of India in the advice of the Prime-minister. They remain in the office at the pleasure of President. However it the prerogative of Prime-minister to includes any member of his party in his council of ministers or not. Prime Minister submits the selected list to the President who administers the oath of secrecy to the members of the list. The ministers can be removed from the council of ministers on the advice of Prime-minister. To become the minister one should be a member of either house of the Parliament.
Compare the powers and position of Prime-minister of India with the powers and position of US president.
India has a Parliamentary system where Prime-minister is a real executive who discharges all powers and responsibilities written in the name of Indian President in the Indian Constitution. While in USA President is the real head who uses the powers which are written in his name in the US Constitution. Both offices have their own strong and weak areas. Both posts are powerful parts of the world. We can compare them in the following points.
- The tenure of Indian PM is uncertain while the president of the USA enjoys fixed tenure.
- The Prime-minister his fewer powers over his ministers in comparison to the ministers of USA
- Prime-minister can dissolve Parliament but USA President cannot dissolve Parliament.
- The PM can implement his decision more effectively if he has the majority in the Lok Sabha but US president cannot as he is more dependent on all the consent of the US Senate.
- Our Rajya Sabha has no control over Prime-minister. In USA senate has control over the execution of the policies by the President.
What are the functions of the council of ministers?
The cabinet is the real political executive who has vast powers and is responsible for the total administration in all the spheres of national life. The functions and powers can be explained in the following points.
- Policy implementation
- Legislative function ie; making bills and getting them passed in the parliament.
- Financial functions (Making a budget and getting it passed).
- Developmental functions
- Welfare functions.
- To act as the political executive
How the Governor is appointed? What are its functions?
Since the state has also Parliamentary system of Government they also need a nominal head. He is appointed as the nominal head of state by the President of India. As head of State, Governor performs a formal function in the legislative field, executive and judicial fields. Governor also acts as an agent of the centre and as this capacity, he acts as a watchdog of the national and central interest in the states. Governor is also given some discretionary powers which he uses himself without the aid and advice of council ministers and chief minister. He sends the report to the centre under Art 356 for the imposition of President rule as the situation demands so.
How the Chief Minister is appointed and what are his main functions?
Chief Minister is the real executive head at the state level. He is the leader of the Council of ministers. He is appointed by the’ Governor in the same manner in which Prime-minister is appointed in the centre by the President of India. The leader of the majority party in the state assembly is appointed as chief minister by the Governor. If no party gets a clear majority in the election then he can use his discretion and may use the number of options before him but he has to explore all the possible probabilities to formal state Government.
Chief minister performs the following functions:
- Formation of cabinet and distribution of portfolios among the ministers.
- To preside over the meetings of the cabinet.
- To act as an advisor to the Governor
- To act as the leader of the house
- To act as a link between the cabinet and Governor
- To act as leader of the party
- To act as leader of the state.
Discuss the composition and functions of UPSC and SPSCS. (State Public Service Commission).
The Constitution has provided for UPSC (Union Service Commission) at the central level and PSCS (Public Service Commission) at State level. They have been entrusted with the task of conducting the process of recruitment of the civil servants for the Government of India and State respectively. The Chairman and members of UPSC are appointed by the President and the Chairman and member of State Public Service Commissions are appointed by the concerned state. They can be removed from the office through an enquiry made by a judge of the Supreme Court and High Court respectively. The UPSC conducts the exams and interviews for different all India and Central Services. Similarly, State PSCs make necessary arrangements for the appointment of State Services.
Discuss the role of civil services in India.
India has established professionally qualified administrative machinery when is supposed to be politically neutral. They are expert in their areas to play a decisive role in the policymaking, policy implementation areas. The success of the Government depends upon the active and faithful role of the civil servants who manage every’ department from top to bottom. Bureaucracy is an instrument through which welfare and development policies should reach the people. Bureaucracy is the advisor of the political executives. Civil servants are known as the servants of the people.
Executive Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Discuss the increasing role of Executive in the modern state.
The executive is one of the main organs of the Government. The executive has entrusted the task of policymaking, policy implementation and law imple¬mentation and making an appointment. There are many types of the executive. They may be civil or military, they may be hereditary (Monarchy) or they may be elected (Republican) They may be political executive (Cabinet) or they may be permanent and expert executive (Civil Service) They may be Parliamentary executive or they may be Presidential executive.
Whatever may be the nature of executive, due to the welfare nature of the modern State the executive’s role has increased much fold. There is no area of national life where the executive has no interference and role.
Every society is in a transitional stage where the urges and demands challenges and problems of the people are increasing which are supposed to be looked after the executive. The executive has guidelines not only in exclusive areas like implementation of policies and programmes but also have a significant role in legislative financial and judicial areas. For the development and welfare of the people, everybody looks after the executive. With a new dimension of change and development and increasing globalisation and internationalism the role of executive increases.