Here we are providing Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Federalism. Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.

Class 11 Political Science Chapter 7 Important Extra Questions Federalism

Federalism Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is federalism?
Federalism is a system of government in which powers are distributed between the centre and states according to constitutional schemes. It ‘ is based on the territorial distribution of powers. This system of-Governance is considered essential in the plural societal states ie; where people of diverse. culture, religion, language and direct reside for their fuller development.

Question 2.
Name some countries with the Federal system of Government.
There is a number of countries with the Federal system. Here we are naming four states.

  1. India
  2. U.S.A. (United States of America)
  3. Canada
  4. Switzerland and Australia

Question 3.
Write five essential features of a federal government.

  1. Written constitution
  2. Supremacy of constitution
  3. Bicameral Legislature
  4. Independent and impartial Judiciary
  5. Double Government.

Question 4.
What is the utility of a federal Government?

  1. It is based on the decentralisation
  2. It is more democratic and natural
  3. It gives an opportunity for better representatives and the development of regional and local areas.
  4. It checks the authoritarian tendency of Central Government

Question 5.
What are the demerits of the Federal Government?
Followings are the main demerits of the federal government:

  1. It generates parochialism
  2. It breeds competition among the states.
  3. It generates secessionist trends.
  4. It is harmful for national integration
  5. It delays the decisions
  6. It is a costly system of government

Question 6.
Write four federal features of the Indian constitution.

  1. Written and rigid Constitution:
  2. The supremacy of the Constitution
  3. Division of powers between centre and states.
  4. Bicameral Legislature in the centre.
  5. Independent Judiciary.

Question 7.
Why the Federal system of Government is necessary for India?
India is a country of a plural society. There are people of several castes religions, regions, language, dialects and geography. For the fuller development of the people of these different complexions, the federal system is necessary which will generate unity in diversity. Therefore the federal system is necessary for India.

Question 8.
What is the nature of Indian federation?
Although India has structural features of federalism there is no word federation in the Constitution. Article 1st the Indian Constitution says, “India, that is Bharat shall be the union of states” These words indicate the nature of Indian federal system. The word ‘union of states’ means that the centre will not be the creation of states. On the contrary, the states will be created by the centre.

Question 9.
How the powers are divided between the centre and states?
The powers are divided between the centre and states on the basis of the following three lists.

  1. Central list with 97 subjects
  2. State list with 66 subjects
  3. Concurrent list with 47 subjects
  4. Residual powers rest with the centre.

Question 10.
Write four unitary features of Indian constitution.

  1. Single constitution and single citizenship
  2. Unequal distribution of powers between centre and states. This distribution is twisted toward the centre.
  3. Emergency powers of the President. Art 352
  4. President rule in states under Art 356
  5. Governor is the appointment by President and his role as an agent of the centre.

Question 11.
What is the demand for provisional autonomy?
Since in the Constitution of India the division of powers between the centre and states is tilted towards the centre, the states are dependent on the centre in administrative, legislative and financial matters. In their years there is a strong demand to review this existing position of distribution of powers from the different states and want more and more freedom of action. This is called as provisional autonomy.

Question 12.
What is co-operation federalism?
Noted political scientist K. C. Where says that Indian federal system is a co-operative federal system in which there is a lot of co-operation between the centre and states for their mutual benefits.

Question 13.
What is the role of Governor in the State?
Governor is given double responsibility in the states. First, he is the nominal executive head of the state. Secondly, he is made an agent of the centre who will see that national interest remain safe in that state. He sees all the laws and policies of the central government are implemented in the state and all her central property is safe.

Question 14.
Explain special provisions for some states.
Some of the states are given special considerations, therefore special provisions are made for them in the contribution. It is done due to peculiar circumstances of few states and historical necessity in the case of Jammu and Kashmir.

Most of the special provisions pertaining to the North-Eastern States like Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram etc. Under Art 371 Art 370 provides the special status of Jammu & Kashmir. Accordingly, Jammu & Kashmir has its own Constitution and its concurrence is required before any law is implemented there.

Question 15.
What is bargaining federal system?
Different people say differently about the nature of the Indian federal system. Some say it completely Unitary system, others say it federal system with strong unitary features. K.C. Where calls it as a co-operative system based as cooperation. But Morris Jones calls it a Bargaining system which works on the basis of bargaining positions of centre and states which is competitive in nature.

Federalism Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Define federalism. Why it is needed in a plural society?
Federalism is a system of government in which powers are divided between the centre and the states. In a true federation, the states surrender their certain powers and create a centre to administer on the issues which are of national and international importance. On local issues the states Government administrate. Such a system of Governance becomes necessary in a plural society because a number of states are formed on the basis of administration convince.’The regional aspirations and centres of the people of such formed states are realised in federal aspirations of the people remain unfulfilled and unrealised. Therefore for a fuller development of linguistic and cultural aspirations, the federal system is necessary.

Question 2.
Compare the federal system of India with a federal system of the United States of America.
India and the United States of America both are the federal systems of Government but both have a different system. The USA is said to be a true federal system while different people say differently about the nature of the Indian federal system. Followings are the difference between India and USA

  1. In America centre is the creation of states while in India states are the creation of the centre.
  2. In the Constitution of India, the USA is described as a federation. In the Indian Constitution, India is described as Union of States.
  3. In the USA more powers are given to states. In India, the centre is given more powers.
  4. In USA residual powers are with states. In India, residual powers are given to the centre.

Question 3.
Explain the unity in diversity in India.
It is rightly said about India that India is not a country, it is a continent. There are more than 20 major languages and several hundred minor ones. It has several major regions of different geography and Culture. In climate changes after every twenty kilometres. In spite of all such diversities, we share many common values, history and ethos. We all fought for national independence jointly in which Hindu, Muslim, Sikh and Christians participated. We do not share common part only we cherish common hopes and aspirations. This has led to national leaders to visualise India as a country where there is unity in diversity. India in its last 60 years of journey of the post-independent period has stood the test of this slogan ie, unity in diversity.

Question 4.
Write the main features of a federal system.
Federalism, as a principle of Government, has evolved differently in different situations yet there are some basic features which are generally considered essential for a federal system. These areas under.

  1. Written Constitution & double Constitution
  2. Rigid Consitution
  3. The institutional mechanism to accommodate two sets of politics.
  4. Two sets of identities and loyalties of the people to their region as well as their nation.
  5. Distribution of powers between two sets of Government one at centra! level and other at the state level.
  6. Bicameral legislative
  7. Independent Judiciary
  8. Double Citizenship
  9. Supremacy of Constitution
  10. Residual powers with the states

Question 5.
Write federal features of the Indian constitution.
Indian society is a plural society so there is a plural polity in India. Followings are the main dominant features in the Indian Constitution on the basis of which we can term the Indian Constitution as a federal system:

  1. Written Constitution
  2. Rigid Constitution
  3. Supremacy of Constitution
  4. Divisions of Powers between centre and states.
  5. Double sets of polity
  6. Double set of loyalties of the people. One for their regions and others for the nation
  7. Bicameral Legislature
  8. Independent judiciary to settle the dispute between the centre and states.

Question 6.
Write the main unitary features of Indian constitution.
Structurally Indian Constitution appears to be federal but there are some features in Indian Constitution which make it unitary. These are as under:

  1. There is no word federation in the Indian constitution. Rather it is the union of states.
  2. Unequal distribution of powers between the centre and states.
  3. Unequal representation of the states in the upper House.
  4. Emergency powers of the President
  5. Integrated judiciary
  6. President Rule in the states
  7. Important appointment by the President
  8. Governor as the agent of centre in States.
  9. Single Constitution
  10. Single Citizenship
  11. The dominance of centre on Election Commission, Planing commission and NDC
  12. The increasing role of All India Government Service

Question 7.
Write Legislative relations between the centre and states.
Subjects are divided between the centre and states for this purpose three lists are formed which areas:

  1. Central list 96 subjects (Parliament Legislates on their subjects)
  2. State list 66 subjects (State legislative legislates these subjects
  3. Concert List 47 subjects (on these issues central Parliament, as well as the state legislature, can legislate on their issue but in case of conflict central view will prevail)
  4. Residual powers rest with the centre.
  5. In Emergency Parliament can Legislate on any subject of state list
  6. In President Rule, Parliament will make law for a state w. which President Rule is in force.
  7. To fulfil international commitment Parliament can make law on a state subject.
  8. Governor can refer to President any bill which is passed by the State Assembly.

Question 8.
What is President Rule?
Under Art 356 of the Indian Constitution Governor can recommend President Rule in the state in the following circumstances:

  1. If the law and order is broke down in the state
  2. There is political instability in the state
  3. No party has secured a majority for the formation of a Government and there is political hoarding
  4. If the constitutional machinery has failed and the government is not being run according to the provisions of the Constitution.

It is the discretionary power of the Governor to see that such a situation has arisen or not as to warrant the imposition of President Rule.

Question 9.
Explain the executive relations between the centre and states.

  1. Art 257 of the Constitution says that the executive power of every state shall be so exercised as not to implode or prejudice the exercise of the executive powers of the union and the executive powers of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to- the government of India to be necessary for that purpose.
  2. States will make their policies as per in tune with the policies of the central government.
  3. During an emergency, the President may give any direction to the states as seems necessary. During an emergency, the administration of the states comes in the hands of President Rule because it becomes unitary in Emergency.
  4. Governor is the agent of the centre and he can recommend imposition of President Rule in the state in the given circumstances.
  5. All India Service (IAS and IPS other) control the states development and law and order.

Question 10.
Write the discretionary powers of the Governor.
Governors are appointed by the President of India. He is given two roles in the states. No.l. He acts as nominal head of the states and No. 2. He acts as an agent of the centre. For this he is given discretionary powers which are as under:

  1. To refer a bill to the President which is passed by the state legislature.
  2. When no party gets the majority it is the discretion of Governor whom to call to form the Government.
  3. To judge the existence of political instability.
  4. Recommendation of the composition of President rule in the state

Question 11.
Enumerable main demands for provisional autonomy.
In the last forty years, several demands have been raised in different states in the name of provisional autonomy. Main demands are as under:

  1. Division of powers in favour of states and not in favour of the centre which exists today.
  2. Independent source of revenue for the states and control of states on the source and resources.
  3. More and more powers are being demanded by the states, particularly in developmental and administrative fields.
  4. More rights are being demanded by the states for their cultural and linguistic development.
  5. More autonomy in financial and commercial matters.

Question 12.
Do you support the creation of new states?
The demand for the creation of new states is becoming more and more vocal. In fact, there are several factors which are responsible for such frequent and strong demands. Misuse of constitutional measures and provisions and tension between the centre and states are responsible for such demand. Recently three new states Uttaranchal from Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar and Chattishgarh from M.P. have already been formed. Ther is the demand of Harit Pradesh, Gorkhaland and Telangana and other such numbers of states. At this stage, it is very difficult to check and control such demands. In the name of administrative convenience, we can justify the creation of new small states but ultimately it may force threat to national integration.

Question 13.
Discuss the controversy regarding the role of Governors in the state.
Today the post of Governor is the most controversial post in India because of the dubious role played by most of the Governors in the last thirty years. The p9St of Governor is not elected These days Governors are appointed by violating the will established conventions. Sarkaria Commission has also suggested that appointments of Governors should be strictly non-partisan. Rejected politicians have occupied the post of Governor and they have worked in a partisan manner and thus have attracted criticism and controversy.

Names like Ram Lai Chauhan, J.D. Tapas, Rizvi and Buta Singh can be quoted who become the target of criticism due to their partisan role. The use of Art 356 dealing with the imposition of the President role in the states has created maximum controversy. Use of discretionary powers by the Governor has also been questionable. Some Governor behaved differently in similar conditions. It is also seen that the Governments enjoying a majority in the house have been dismissed on the recommendation of the Governor. It is due to all these factors the post of Governor has been in controversies.

Question 14.
Discuss the working of the federal system in India under the era of coalition Government.
Gone are the days when there used to be the dominance of a single party, particularly the Congress party. Now the number of political parties has gone up very sharply in the wake of politics of populism. Regional parties have assumed power not only in the states but also in the centre.

All those developments have given a new direction to the Indian federal system. All there political parties like DMK AIDMK, Akali Dal and Left parties who have been demanding more and more powers for the states and reviewing the existing structure are at the helm of affairs at centre. The Janata Dal, National Front, United Front, NDA and UPA Government are alliances of the regional parties and one or more national parties. This is a situation of the cooperative federal system.

Question 15.
Mention special provisions in the Constitution for some states.
The most extraordinary feature of Indian federal arrangement created in India is that many states have been given special status on this reason or that reason. The constitution has some special provisions for some states due to their peculiar social and cultural and historical circumstances. Most of such special provisions pertain to the North Eastern States like Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram (Art 371) Jammu and Kashmir are also given special states under Art 370 due to historical compulsions. Jammu and Kashmir have their own Constitution and enjoys a lot of autonomy and control in most of the areas.

Federalism Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Explaining the measuring bf federalism, discuss the features and nature of Indian federalism.
Federalism is a system of government where powers are divided between the centre and states. It involves the territorial distribution of powers.

It is very much needed for a divine plural society. Since India is also a plural society, the Indian constitution-makers also introduced dominant features of a federal Government like the written constitution, division of powers between the centre and states, bicameral legislature and independent judiciary. At /the same time many threats were emerging for national integration. Therefore they introduced the provision for national integration and a strong centre.

They adopted the concept of the union of states which crates federal structure with the strong unitary feature. The concept of the union of states was adopted from Canada. The most important unitary, the feature is:

  1. Unequal distribution of powers between the centre and states.
  2. Residual powers are with the centre
  3. Provision of Emergency powers for the President (Art 352)
  4. Provision of President rule in the states Art 356
  5. Integrated judiciary
  6. Integrated bureaucracy and dominance of All India Services in the states.
  7. Appointment of Governor by the President
  8. Governor’s role as the agent of the centre.
  9. Amendment powers are with the centre.
  10. The dominance of centre over NDC, planing commission UPSC and Finance Commission and Election Commission;

Therefore India is a federal system with strong unitary feature^ on the basis of its working during the last 60 years. K.C. Where has termed as the co-operative federal system and Morris Jones has termed it a Bargaining system.