Here we are providing Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 8 Secularism. Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Important Extra Questions Secularism
Secularism Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What do you mean by Secularism?
Secularism is a high doctrine about the relations of state and religion. There is a Western, American, and Indian view of secularism in the world. The very essential and common feature of secularism is the separation of state and religion. People must be left free in matters of religion to profess and practice any religion of their choice. The state should not have its own religion. It should neither patronize any religion nor it should discriminate against any religion. Western secularism does not allow minority rights, however, the Indian view of religion allows minority rights and positive interference.
How the secularism promotes justice and equality?
Secularism is not a simple separation of politics and religion, it is something humane, democratic, and natural concept based on broad philosophy. Its purpose is to remove the inequalities, domination and discrimination, and exploitation in inter and inter-religious and social groups. Secularism is the most powerful philosophy which opposes all forms of undue domination. It seeks to promote justice and equality by humanizing and educating and enlightening society.
What are intra-religious dominations?
All the societies are full of not only inter-religious domination and exploitation, but it also takes another conspicuous form which is intra- religious domination in which we find the domination, exploitation, and discrimination within the same religious groups. Secularism is opposed to all such forms of exploitation everywhere. It seeks to promote freedom within religion.
Write some basic features of a secular state.
Followings are certain basic features of a secular state:-
- The state should not be a theocratic state.
- It should not have its own religion.
- It should not be governed by any religious man.
- There should be a complete separation between state and religion.
- The state should not patronize any religion.
- The state should not discriminate against any religion.
- The state should promote equality and justice within and without the social and religious groups.
What should be the ultimate aim of Secularism?
The separation of state and religion is not the only aim of the secular state. In fact it the means to the end (ultimate goal) which is to make a domination-free, exploitation-free, and discrimination-free society based on justice, freedom, and equality. A secular state must be committed to principles and goals which are at least partly derived from non¬religious sources. These ends should include, peace, religious freedom, freedom from religious oppression, discrimination, and exclusions in inter and inter-religious groups.
What type of Secularism was practiced by Kemal Ataturk in Turkey?
Kemal Ataturk came to power in Turkey after First World War. He had a different view of secularism which he had practiced there and which was not based on the principled distance between the state and religion. Instead, it supported active involvement and intervention of religion. He was determined to put an end to the institution of Khalifa in public life. Through this type of secularism, he wanted to modernize the society of Turkey.
Write the main features of the Western View of Secularism.
It is said that secularism has western and American origin followings are main features of the western view of Secularism:-
- Complete separation of state and religion.
- No state interference in the matters of religion.
- No interference of religion in state affairs.
- Independent and exclusive jurisdictions of both i.e. state and religion.
- No religious classification of any Public policy.
- The state cannot aid any religious institutions.
What is the Indian View of Secularism?
Followings are the main features of Indian secularism out of these features, some are similar to that of western view but some are their own.
- Separation of state and religion to certain limits.
- Inter-religious equality.
- Removing the inter and intra-religious dominations and exploitation.
- Promotion of minority rights.
- Giving aid to religious educational institutions on the basis of equality.
- Positive interference in the management of religious affairs.
What are the common features of Western View and Indian View of Secularism?
Reading of the Indian Constitution shows that Indian Secularism is fundamentally different from western secularism. Yet it has many things in common.
- Separation of state and religion.
- No state religion.
- No patronage to any religion and no discrimination against any religion.
- Promotion of equality and justice.
Write in brief the views of Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru on Secularism.
Nehru had some different and peculiar and personal views on Secularism. His thesis of secularism was equal protection to all religions but not favoring any religion at die expense of others and forbids the state from having its own state religion. He gave the foundation of the Indian view of secularism. For him, secularism also does not mean being irreligious or hostile to any religion. In this way, he was altogether different from Ataturk of Turkey. Nehru also did not support the complete separation between state and religion.
Discuss the impact of Western Liberalism on Indian secularism.
The Western Liberal thinking changed the concept of equality prevailing in Indian ancient society. It brought to focus the neglected and marginalized nations of equality. It also helped in promoting inter¬community equality to replace the notion of hierarchy. All this change of notion of equality brought about a change in Indian secularism, which was the result of an interaction between what already existed in a society that had religious diversity and the ideas that came from the west. It resulted in an equal focus on intra-religious and inter-religious domination.
On what grounds the Indian Constitution is criticized?
Indian secularism is criticized on the following grounds:
- As Anti-religious.
- Western import (Idea is taken from the west).
- Minorities (It is based on the appeasement of minorities).
- Interventionist (Excessive intervention in religious affairs).
- Vote bank politics.
Do you agree that Indian? Secularism is an interventionist?
Indian secularism is criticized by the critics arguing that Indian secularism is interventionist because it is coercive and it interferes excessively with the religious freedom of communities. In fact, Indian secularism allows interference in religious affairs, particularly in the management of religious activities of the communities. But this interference is not negative, it is positive. Indian secularism rejects non-interference in religion but it does not mean that it is excessively interventionist. Indian secularism follows the concept of principled distance.
How far it is correct to say that Indian secularism is anti-religious?
It is said that secularism in India is anti-religious. This is fallacious. Indian secularism may be against institutionalized religious domination but it cannot be referred to as the anti-religions. It is also argued that Indian secularism threatens religious identity but the fact is that Indian secularism promotes religious freedom and equality. Therefore it does not threaten religious identity, but on the contrary, it protects the religious identity. If it threatens any form of religious identity, it is dogmatism fundamentalism and the narrowness of any religion.
What is a Minority?
Indian secularism is charged with Minoritism which means that Indian secularism advocates minority rights. It is a fact that it is only Indian secularism that advocates minority rights. Minority means to suggest that in Indian secularism gives special privilege to the minorities which is a sort of appeasement of the minorities. This charge also does not hold any ground.
Secularism Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Explain the meaning of Secularism.
Secularism is a philosophy that is concerned with the relationship between state and religion. Secularists think that religion is a personal matter of a person, the state has nothing to do with religion. Hence it should neither patronize any particular religion nor it should discriminate against any religion. A man should be left free to profess and practice any religion of his or her choice. Secularism does not mean to be irreligious or anti religiousness.
In fact, Secularism means respect to all religions and ways of life because ultimately religion’s a way of life. Secularism is not a narrow philosophy, it is a broader view of life and ways of leading life which have been interpreted differently in different areas in different periods. This is a philosophy based on human and democratic values that seek to achieve equality, justice, and freedom and try to remove discrimination, exploitation, and domination within and outside the social and communal groups.
What do you mean by inter-religious domination and intra-religious domination?
Although religion is a positive and pious feeling and viewpoint it has been in grip of a number of negative feelings of hatred, suspiciousness, negative competition, and urges for dominance within religions and without religions i.e. inter-religious groups and intra-religious. There are hatred and communal riots between Hindus and Muslims. They fight for dominance over each other. Similarly, there is a sense of inferiority and superiority within religions.in Hindus, women and SCs have been dominated by male and upper castes. Similar are the examples in Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs.
Explain the essential elements of a secular state.
A state-organized on the basis of the doctrine of secularism is called a secular state. Generally, the state with the separation of religion is called the secular state. But the mere separation of state and religion is not a sufficient requirement for a secular state because there are many states which are non-theocratic and continue to have a close alliance with a particular religion.
To be truly secular, a state must not only refuse to be theocratic but also have no formal, legal alliance with any religion. The separation of religion and state is not a sufficient condition but a very much a necessary condition of a secular state. A secular state must be committed to principles and goals which are at least partly derived from non-religious sources. These goals should include peace, religious freedom, and freedom from exploitation, discrimination, and exclusions. It also seeks to remove inter and intra-religious dominance and exploitation. A secular state allows its citizen full freedom in religious and social matters without the interference of the state.
Discuss India as a secular state.
India is a secular state as conceived by the architect of modem India, Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru. India does not have any state religion but supports all the religions. It has the followings features of a secular state:-
- There is no state religion in India.
- It neither patronizes any religion nor it becomes a hindrance in the way of any religion.
- Citizens are free to profess any religion in which they have failed.
- Indian secular inter-religious exploitation.
- Indian secular state religions affairs.
Discuss the Western model of Secularism.
It is said that secularism is of Western and American in origin. Followings are the main features of the Western model of secularism:
- Complete separation of religion and state.
- No interference in the matters of each other. All the states and religions have their own jurisdiction.
- Neither state will interfere in the matters of religion nor religion will interfere in the affairs of the state.
- No policy of a state can have an exclusive rationale.
- No religious classification can be the basis of any Public policy.
- The state cannot aid any religious institution.
- It cannot give financial aid to educational institutions run by religious communities.
- Citizens are free to profess and practice any religion of their choice.
- It emphasizes individual liberty.
What are the merits of secularism?
Human history has witnessed a lot of religious fundamentalism and fanaticism which had caused harassment and exploitation of man by man. But the development of science, technology, education, and press and with the development of democratic culture, people have become rational and broadminded. All these developments have brought the idea of secularism. It has the following merits.
- It is based on a broader outlook.
- It is more democratic.
- It is more scientific and based on rationalism.
- It is more humane.
- It is a more natural philosophy.
- It is a more acceptable and popular philosophy.
Who was Kemal Ataturk? What was his view of Secularism?
Kemal Ataturk was a Turkish philosopher who propounded his own theory of secularism which was practiced in Turkey. It was altogether different from the western and Indian views of secularism. His secularism was not about the separation of state and religion, instead, it involved active intervention in and suppression of religion.
He came to power in Turkey after First World War. He was determined to put an end to the institution of Khalifa in the public life of Turkey. He wanted to break Turkey all traditional thinking to make it modem one. He set out as an aggressive Wanner to modernize and secularise Turkey. He encouraged western manner thinking and clothing for men and women to change the traditional and orthodox view of life and religion.
Explain the views of Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru on secularism.
Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru was a great philosopher, humanitarian, and a democrat by heart. He gave his doctrine of secularism on the basis of these referred values. His doctrine of secularism is the part of the Indian Consitution. The main features of Nehru’s doctrine of secularism are as under:-
- Separation of state and religion.
- No state religion.
- Equal protection by the state to all religions.
- Neither patronage to any religion nor discrimination against any religion.
- All people are free to profess and practice any religion.
- Positive interference of the state in religious affairs, particularly the management of religious activities and social reforms.
- Complete opposition to communalism.
- The purpose was to establish equality, freedom, and justice.
Describe the characteristics of Indian secularism.
It is said that Indian secularism is an imitation of western secularism. It is far from the reality that Indian secularism is fundamentally different from western secularism. Indian secularism does not only emphasize the separation of religion and politics but the idea of inter-religious equality is crucial to Indian views of secularism. India has already a culture of inter-religious tolerance. The liberal values of the west brought ideas of inter communitarian equality to replace the notion of hierarchy which prevailed in India for a long time.
Indian secularism is equally opposed to the oppression of weaker sections within a society. Indian secularism allows positive interference in religious matters. It also allows the minority rights. Indian secularism gives citizens to profess and practice any religion of their choice. It is a personal matter of the citizen. Secularism does not mean to be irreligious or to be anti-religious or to oppose the religion. It supports all the religion. ,
On what grounds the Indian secularism is criticized? Are they justified?
Indian secularism is criticized in different quarters on the following grounds:-
- It is said to be anti-religious.
- It is considered as an imitation of western secularism.
- It is said to be based on minorities.
- It is called interventionist because it allows interference in religious matters.
- It is based on vote bank politics.
- It is criticized for being impracticable.
A careful study of Indian secularism concludes that all the above charges are far from reality and are not justified for being based on a poor understanding of Indian secularism.
Explain the constitutional position of Indian secularism.
India is a secular state. The nature of Indian secularism is based on the doctrine of Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru about secularism. Following is the constitutional position of Indian features
- In the Preamble of the Indian Constitution, the word secular is given which declares India as a secular state.
- Art. 25 of the Indian Constitution states:
a. Every one will be free to profess and propagate any religion or not to have any religion.
b. There, will not be a state religion.
- Art. 26. Every religious community has to right to have educational institutions for the propagation of their religion.
- Art. 27. Amount inverted on the religious matters cannot be taxed.
- Art. 28. No religious education can be given in the educational institutions which are run by the state.
- The state can interfere to manage religious affairs.
What is the ultimate objective of Secularism?
Secularism which prevailed in different forms in different parts of the world has broader objectives. It seeks to realize a secular society that is free from all forms of domination in inter and inter-religious communities. It seeks to promote freedom within religions and equality between, as well as within religions. All these goals of secularism can be realized only in a state which is secular, democratic, and free from intolerance, fundamentalism, and fanaticism. There should be a relation among the communities based on mutual understanding and a sense of togetherness. There should not be any religious discrimination.
Differentiate between the Indian view of secularism and the western view of secularism.
In the following areas, both views differ from each other. However, they have one similarity that there should not be a state religion in a secular state.
|Western view||Indian view|
|1. It supports the complete separation between state and religion.||1. It does not support a complete separation between state and religion.|
|2. State cannot interfere in each other’s matters as both have their own separate jurisdiction.||2. State can interfere in the affairs of the religion but this interference will not be negative, it will be positive.|
|3. Here state cannot aid any religious institutions run by the religious communities.||3. Here state can aid the religious institution on the basis of equality.|
|4. It does not seek to promote minority rights.||4. In India, Constitution has provided for the promotion of minority rights.|
What makes Indian secularism distinctive?
It is a fact that Indian secularism is based on high philosophy. Its following features make it distinctive
- It arose in the context of deep religious diversity.
- It is influenced by western modern ideas and nationalism.
- India had a culture of inter-religious tolerance for a very long time.
- Impact of western modernity and values neglected and marginalized values of equality which helped in replacing the notion of hierarchy.
- It is a mixture of Indian religious diversity and the ideas of the west which resulted in the removal of intra-religious and inter-religious dominations.
How far do you agree with the criticism of Indian secularism that it is based on Minoriticism or is pseudo-secularism?
A very serious charge against Indian secularism is that it is pseudo-secularism. It is based on minorities i.e. the appeasement of minorities keeping in view the vote banks of minorities. India seems to be divided between genuine secularists and pseudo-secularists. It is true that Indian secularism advocates and supports minority rights but not for any special reason.
India is a plural society where people of different dialects, languages, and religions live together. In this situation some are in majority’ and some are in minority. In this situation, there may be fear of inter religions and intra-religious domination and exploitation. India is a democratic country therefore for the purpose of infusing confidence and a sense of belongingness, minority rights are given. But they are not given any special or privileged position. Therefore the charge of pseudo-secularism is not correct. Indian secularism aims to build a society based on harmonious relations between the majority groups and minorities.
Do you agree that the Indian view of Secularism is interventionist?
Although separation of state and religion is the main characteristic of Indian secularism it does not emphasize the complete separation rather it advocates support to all religions. It also allows interference in religious affairs and the management of religious activities. But this interference is positive and not negative. India secularism allows interference for reforms and to establish equality and justice and remove the inter and inter-religious group’s domination and exploitation. Therefore if it is interventions, it is for good reasons.
Secularism Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Explain the main features of Western View and Indian View of Secularism critically.
It is said that Indian secularism is originated from the west, therefore it has certain similarities with the western view of secularism but it is also very much different from the western view in a number of ways.
Western view of secularism:
Followings are certain features of the western view of secularism:
- Complete separation of state and religion.
- The state and religion will not interfere in each other’s affairs. Both have their respective jurisdiction.
- No religious classification can be the basis of any public policy.
- The state cannot aid any religious institutions.
- Its conception of equality and liberty is an individualist manner.
- There is no scope for minority rights.
The Indian view of secularism:
Followings are the main features of the Indian view of secularism:-
- The separation between religion and states but support to all the religions.
- Indian secularism allows positive interference in the matter of religious affairs and management of regions’ activities.
- A state can aid religious institutions.
- A state can give financial assistance to educational institutions run by the states.
- Its conception of equality and liberty is community-based.
- It allows minority rights.
Indian secularism is criticized on the following bases:-
- Western origin
- Based on vote bank politics