Here we are providing Class 12 Business Studies Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Staffing. Business Studies Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 6 Important Extra Questions Staffing
Staffing Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
State whether the following statements are true or false.
(i) “Personal Manager is both a line manager as well as a staff manager.”
(ii) Staffing and employing refer to the same activity.
(iii) Personnel problems exist only in a large organisation.
(iv) Recruitment and selection are one and the same thing.
(v) Training and development are synonymous.
What is meant by staffing? How staffing is a line as well as staff function?
In simple words, staffing is the processing of obtaining and maintaining capable and competent people to fill all positions from top management to the operative level. This includes securing, recruiting, selecting, training, appraising and maintaining the individuals in organizations. Let us pull the views of management scholars on the definition of staffing.
- Staffing is the function by which managers build an organization through the recruitment, selection, development of individuals as capable employees.
- Staffing is the executive function which involves the recruitment, selection, compensating, training, promotion and retirement of subordinate managers.
- Staffing is concerned with the placement, growth development of all those members of the organization whose function is to get things done through the efforts of another individual.
- Staffing is the whole personnel function of bringing in and training the staff and maintaining favourable conditions of work.
Almost all the scholars unanimously agree that –
1. Staffing is a function involving the recruitment, selection and training and development of people.
2. Staffing is broad enough to cover both rank and file employees and managers. Staffing provides the managers with tremendous opportunity to surround themselves with subordinates of their own choosing. More often than not, staffing is equated to hiring the employees in work organization. Actually, staffing is more than hiring, for managers cannot build excellent, effective and efficient organization solely by hiring. The concept -of staffing is so broad to include several activities frequently assigned to the personnel departments such as transfers, discharge, retirements, training, development and orientation.
Truly, staffing concept widens and magnifies the decision zone of managers but at the same time, staffing entails a balanced sharing of the staffing function with the personnel department.
Define personnel Management. How is it different from Human Resource Management?
Personnel management is a set of activities and personnel management focusses on the effective use of human resource in an organization. Hence it is also Labelled as Human Resource Management or Human Engineering. The other names for the term Personnel Management are PMIR, PHRM. The Lexicon of personnel management was traditionally dominated by Plippo, Julius, Pigors and Myres, Strauss and Sales. The new scholars in the field include Andrew Dubrin, Dennis Middlemist, Lloyd Byars, Leslie W. Rue, Deris Torrington, Michael Hitt and Charles Carrer etc. Let us briefly see their views on human resource management.
PHRM is that organizational function, which provides specialized concepts, methods, techniques and professional judgement, geared toward effective and efficient utilization of human resources.
Human Resource Management encompasses those activities designed to provide for coordination the human resources of an organisation.
Personnel management is a series of activities enabling working man and his employing organization to reach an agreement about the nature and objectives of the employment, the relationship between them and then to fulfil those agreements.
Personnel management is that function of all enterprises which provides for effective utilization of human resources to achieve both the objectives of the enterprise and the satisfaction and development of employees.
Personnel management is the integration and coordination of human resources in order to move effectively toward the desired objectives.
These definitions need little explanation. What we study in Personnel/HRM:
The organisation is definitely in the people business. Human resource management is that function performed in the organization to facilitate the most effective use of people to achieve organizational goals. Human resource management, in this process, is concerned with –
- Manpower planning.
- Employee recruitment, selection, training and placement.
- Performance evaluation (appraisal), counselling, career development, and training.
- Employee’s development.
- Employee’s welfare, safety and health.
- Maintenance of harmonious Labour relations.
- Compensation and fringe benefits.
- Job analysis and employment opportunities programmes.
The Objectives of Personnel/HRM:
As things stand now, the management scholars, pedagogues, and researchers – all unanimously agree that human resource management may be conceived as the process of developing, applying and evaluating policies, procedures methods and programmes relating to the individual members and groups in the organization. The conception applied whether the specific employee is a file clerk, a maintenance mechanic, a research and development scientist a marketing executive, a finance view-president or a production superintendent.
Essentially as noted in the previous paragraphs, personnel/human resources management is basically concerned with the management of human resources in sharp contrast to the management of material and other financial resources.
Another sophisticated way of defining human, resource management is in terms of goals/objectives. The goals of HRM, frankly speaking, are the same as the goals of management of an organization in general. Actually, HRM starts with objectives – what the organization is aiming to do about the people it employs.
The overall aim of the personnel/human resource management is to make an effective contribution to the achievement of overall organizational objectives and to the fulfilment of corporate social responsibility. But unfortunately, there are no universal objectives just as there are no universal (absolute) principles governing personnel policies and practices. Personnel objectives and the means for achieving them depend on their context. At the most, they are only certain basic heading and guidelines which provide a conceptual and analytical framework within which organization does what it needs to do in the \yay which best suits itself.
In every organisation, although the human resource managers tend to carry out a unique set of activities having to do with the utilization of human resources, this work is performed with the Primary objective of accomplishing the exact same objective as is the work of other managers – finance, marketing, production and research etc.
Human resource management is basically aimed at –
- Helping the organization to reach its goals.
- Employing the skilful, intelligent workforce in an organization.
- Providing the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees.
- Increasing to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualization.
- Developing and maintaining the quality of work life.
- Helping the members to maintain ethical policies and., behaviour.
- Managing change to the mutual advantage of individuals groups the enterprise and the general public.
Personnel management thus aims at the attainment of maximum individual development maintaining desirable working relationships (between employee and organization) handling human problems in the organization and acquiring, developing, utilizing and maintaining an effective workforce. In more sophisticated terms, the personnel objectives are concerned with the organization, manpower, relationship and responsibility.
Name the components of staffing.
The modern concept of staffing comprises of three important components.
- Recruitment: Recruitment is a positive step which aims as attracting a number of candidates to apply for the given job. The higher the number of people who apply for a job, the higher will be the possibility of getting a suitable employee one of them.
- Selection: Selection, on the other hand, is a negative process. It aims at selecting the most reliable person out of the candidates who have applied for the job.
- Training: Training is concerned with up-gradation the knowledge and skills of the employees so that their abolition to perform can be enhanced.
Components of Staffing
Explain Employment Interview and its importance.
Employment Interview: According to Julius Michael “An interview is a face to face, oral, observational and personal appraisal method.” Usually, it is used as a means of getting information from the candidate. It also involves giving information that will help the applicant make up his mind about the company.
Interviewing the candidates is an important aspect of the selection procedure. The final selection is partly based on the performance of the candidate in different tests and partly on his performance in his final interview. In the interview, the candidate has to appear before the interview or group interviewers. The candidate’s overall personality is judged in the interview. The interview may last for 10 to 20 minutes or even more. Various questions are asked from the candidates and so on. interviewing technique is used in all companies and in the case of all categories of Staff to be recruited.
Importance of Interview: For the selection of the right type of people, employment interview is very important. The advantages of employment interview are as follows:
- There is face-to-face contact between the employer and the candidate, the employer can assess the personality traits of the candidate.
- The candidate can seek more information about the employer and the job. This creates better the employer and the job. This creates a better understanding of the mind of the candidate.
- The communication skill of the candidate can be judged in the interview. His way of thinking can also be known.
- the interview is very important where the candidate has not to go through employment tests. The information contained in the application form can be checked during the interview.
- Many companies do not follow the elaborate selection procedure as it is costly and time-consuming. They can relay on an interview if it is properly planned and administered.
Explain in brief the types of training.
Depending upon the purpose of training of the following kinds of training programmes are used in industry:-
- Induction or Orientation Training
- Apprenticeship Training
- Internship Training
Now we shall discuss these kinds of training:
1. Induction or Orientation Training: Induction is concerned with introducing or orienting a new employee to the organisation and its procedures, rules and regulation.
When a new employee reports for work, he must be helped to get acquainted with the work environment and fellow employees. It is better to give him a friendly welcome when he joins the organisation, get him introduced to the organisation and help him to get a general idea about the rules and regulations working conditions etc. of the organisation.
The benefits of induction or orientation and socialisation of new employees are as follows
- It builds up the new employee’s confidence in the organisation and in himself so that he may become an efficient employee.
- It gives the new entrant the information he needs such as the location of locker rooms, cafeteria and other facilities, time to break off, leave rules etc.
- It promotes a feeling of belonging and loyalty to the organisation among newcomers.
- It ensures that new employee does not form false impressions regarding the place of work because the first impression is the last impression.
2. Apprenticeship Training: Apprenticeship training involves imparting knowledge and skills, in a particular craft or trade such as printing tool making etc. The government of various countries have passed laws which make it obligatory on certain employers to provide apprenticeship training to young people. Apprenticeship training is desirable in industries which require a constant flow of new employees expected to become all-round craftsmen. It is very much prevalent in printing trade building and construction and vocations like mechanics, electricians, welders etc. it is similar to on-the-job training.
Under apprenticeship training, the trainee is placed under the supervision of an experienced person who imparts him the necessary skills and regulates his performance. The advantages of apprenticeship training to the trainees are that they receive a stipend while learning and acquire valuable skills which command a high wage in the labour market. In India, there are so many ‘earn when you learn’ schemes, both in the private as well as public sector undertakings. This is also advantageous to employers. Some employers look upon apprentices as a source of cheap labour.
3. Internship Training: Under this method, an educational institute enters into an arrangement with industrial enterprises for providing practical knowledge to its students. Internship training is usually meant for such vocations where advanced theoretical knowledge is to be backed up by practical on the job experience. For instance, engineering students are sent to big industrial enterprises for gaining practical work experience and medical students are sent to big hospitals to get practical knowledge.
The period of such training varies from six months to two years. The trainees do not belong to the business enterprises but they come from the vocational or professional institutions. It is quite usual that enterprises giving them training absorb them by offering suitable jobs.
Explain in brief the importance of training.
Training is beneficial to both, employers and employees. A well-trained employee is an asset to the enterprise because his efficiency and productivity are high. Training enables the employees to obtain job security, high earnings and promotion. In fact, management has no choice. Whether or not to train employees. The only choice left is whether training will be imported through a formal and systematic programme or not. In the absence of formal training employees learn by ‘trial and error’. They pick the wrong ways of doing things and the time involved in learning is very long. Formal training helps to minimise time, cost and wastage involved in training. The main advantages of training are as follows
1. Higher Productivity: Training helps to improve the job knowledge, skills and job performance of employees. Well trained employees are more efficient and as a result the quantity and quality of performance increases.
2. Reduced Supervision: Well-trained employees are self-reliant. Trained employees tend to be more professional and disciplined. They take more interest in their jobs. They do not require continuous and intensive supervision. Therefore the supervisors can save their time and energy.
3. Better Safety: Human error or negligence is the major cause of accidents in industries. Employees who lack knowledge and skills regarding their job often commit mistakes. Training makes employees proficient and reduces accidents. Training makes employees safety conscious and enables them to make better use of safety devices.
4. Economy: Trained employees make better and economical use of the materials and machinery. Proper handling of facilities reduces wastage, spoilage and breakage. The loss to damage is minimised and the cost of production is reduced.
5. Higher Morale: Effective training improves job attitudes and self-confidence of employees. They feel that management cares for them. Trained employees can work better and thereby earn rewards. As a result, their motivation and morale are boosted. Higher morale helps to reduce absenteeism and labour turnover. Relations between management and labour can be improved.
6. Promotion and Career Growth: Training enables employees to acquire knowledge and skills for more responsible jobs. It prepares employees for higher positions in the organisation. They can earn promotions more quickly. Thus training facilitates career growth of an employee.
7. Stability and Growth: Through training, an organisation can develop its future executives and thereby ensure its stability. It becomes flexible as well-trained employees can handle a great variety of jobs. Training makes employees more dynamic and adaptive to changes. With the help of well-trained staff, an organisation can smoothly expand and diversity. It can face adverse conditions more effectively.
Explain the term Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Specification.
Job Analysis: Job analysis is the process of determining the tasks which comprise the job methods and equipment used in the job and the skill and knowledge required for the successful performance of the job. It involves a systematic and detailed study of a job so as to determine its contents and requirements.
Job analysis serves the following purposes:
- Job analysis provides a scientific basis for proper recruitment and selection of personnel.
- It helps in placing the right person on the right job.
- Job analysis facilitates the training and development of employees by identifying the abilities required for a job.
- It helps in the proper evaluation of a job.
- Job analysis helps in improving the design and methods of jobs. The information generated by job analysis is used to prepare two statements
(a) job description and
(b) job specification.
Job Description: Job description is a written, organised and factual statement of the nature and contents of a job.
It consists of the following information:
(a) Title or name of the job
(b) Location, code no. of the job
(c) Department concerned
(d) Duties involved in the job
(e) Working conditions
(f) Equipment used
(g) Relationship with other jobs.
Job Specification: Job specification is a formal and written statement of the minimum human qualities required for the successful performance of a job. It specifies the knowledge, skills, experience and aptitude which the job holder should possess. Job specification helps in selecting and training the right person for a job.
Explain in brief the merits and demerits of internal sources recruitments.
Internal Sources: Such sources of labour supply exist within the organisation. There are two internal sources of recruitment, namely, transfer and Promotion. These are discussed below.
1. Transfer: It involves shifting of an employee from one job to another, one department to another or from one shift to another, Transfer is a good source of filling vacancies with employees from over-staffed departments or shifts. It may also be used as a tool for training.
At the time of transfer, it is ensured that the employee to be transferred to the new job is capable of performing it. In fact, the transfer does not involve any drastic change in the responsibilities, pay and status of the employee.
2. Promotion: It leads to shifting on the employee to a higher position, carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. Many companies follow the practice of filling higher jobs by promoting employees who are considered fit for such positions. Filling vacancies in higher jobs from within the organisation has the benefit of motivating the existing employees. It has a great psychological impact on employees. A promotion at the higher level may also lead to a chain of promotions at lower levels in the organisation.
3. Recalling of Laid Off Employees: The term lay off means temporary separation of the employees from the employer because of lack of work or shortage of raw materials, or other reasons. When the situation gets normal, the demand for labour F will increase. The management can recall laid-off employees to fill the vacant positions.
Merits of Internal Sources:
Filling vacancies in higher jobs from within the organisation has the following merits
- Employees are motivated to improve their performance.
- The moral of the employees is increased.
- Industrial peace prevails in the enterprise because of promotional avenues.
- Filling of jobs internally is cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources.
- A promotion at a higher level may lead to a chain of promotions at lower levels in the organisation. Thus many employees are satisfied.
- Transfer or job rotation is a tool of training employees for higher jobs.
- The transfer has the benefit of shifting the workforce from the surplus departments to those where there is a shortage of- staff.
Demerits of Internal Sources:
- When vacancies are filled through internal promotions, the scope for fresh talent is reduced.
- The employees may become lethargic if they are sure of time-bound promotions.
- The spirit of competition among the employees may be hampered.
- Frequent transfer of employees may reduce the overall productivity of the organisation.
Explain in brief on the job methods of training.
Under this method, the worker is given training at the workplace by his immediate supervisor. In other words, the worker learns in the actual work environment. It is based on the principle of learning by doing’. On-the-job training is considered to be the most effective method of training the operative personnel.
On the job training is suitable for imparting skills that can be learnt in a relatively short time. It has the chief advantage of strongly motivating the trainee to learn. It is not located in an artificial situation. It permits the trainee to learn on the equipment and in the work- environment, On-the-job training methods are relatively cheaper and less time-consuming. Another important factor in on-the-job training is that supervisor playing an important part in training subordinates.
There are four methods of on-the-job training described below –
1. Coaching: Under this method, the supervisor imparts job knowledge and skills to his subordinate. The emphasis in coaching or instructing the subordinate is on ‘learning by doing’ This method is very’ effective if the superior has sufficient time to provide coaching to his subordinate.
2. Understudy: The superior gives training to his subordinate as his understudy or assistant. The subordinate learns through experience and observation. This technique prepares the subordinate to assume the responsibilities of the superior’s job in case the superior is absent or . he leaves the organisation.
3. Job Rotation: The trainee is systematically transferred from one job to another so that he may get the experience of different jobs. This will broaden his horizon and capacity to do a variety of jobs. Rotation of an employee from one job to another should not be done frequently. He should be allowed to stay on a job for a sufficient period so that he ’ may acquire the full knowledge of the job.
Job Rotation is used by many organisations to develop all-round workers. The employees learn new skills and gain experience in handling, different kinds of jobs. They also come to know the interrelationship between different jobs. Job rotation is also used to place workers on the right jobs and prepare them to handle other jobs in case of need.
4. Vestibule Traning: Vestibule training is adapted to the same work environment as prevails at the actual work-place in the factory. Vestibule training is suitable where a number of persons are to be trained at the same time for the same kind of work. A vestibule training workshop may be set up by an industrial organisation when it is not possible to give training to the employees at the work-place. The training job is entrusted to – the qualified instructors. The main emphasis is on learning rather than on production.
Vestibule training is an attempt to duplicate as nearly as possible the actual conditions of the work-place. The learning conditions are carefully controlled. The trainees can concentrate on training because they are not under any pressure of work. Their activities do not interfere with the regular process of production. Thus vestibule training is very must suitable where a large number of persons are to be trained arid where mistakes are likely to occur which will disturb the production schedules.
Staffing Important Extra Questions Lomg Answer Type
Today staffing is the activity of personnel Department/ Human Resource Management. Explain the functions of Human Resource Management?
Creation of Human Resource or Personnel Department: Staffing’ is the responsibility of every manager. However, in not organisation, personnel or Human Resource Department is set up under the charge of Personnel or Human Resource Manager. The personnel department serves as a service department. It performs various personnel functions assigned to it by the other departments. The Personnel Manager enjoys the status of a specialist in personnel matters. Normally, persons with post-graduate qualifications in Human Resource Management, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations are preferred for this post.
The establishment of the Personnel Department does not relieve the line managers of the staffing responsibilities. In fact, the staffing function is an inherent part of the job of every manager. The Personnel Manager is appointed to provide expert assistance to them in the performance of their staffing functions of manpower planning, employment, placement, induction, training and performance appraisal. Besides these functions, the personnel department is also responsible for motivation. Working conditions, human relations and personnel records. We shall study these functions under the heading of operative Functions or Responsibilities.
Functions of Human Resources Management.
There are two sets of functions of human resources management. These include
- Managerial functions
- Operative functions
1. Managerial Functions: The Human resources or Personnel Manager is a part of the management. So he performs the basic managerial functions of planning, organising, directing and controlling in relation to his department Like any other manager, the Personnel Manager performs all the managerial functions.
2. Operative Functions or Responsibilities: The operative functions are the specific responsibilities which are entrusted to the personnel department under the supervision of the Human Resource Manager. There are concerned with, employment, training, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of personnel of the organisation.
A brief description of the basic responsibilities or functions of the Personnel Manager is given below –
1. Employment of Personnel: The first major responsibility of the Personnel Manager is the employment for proper kinds and a number of persons necessary to do various jobs in the Organisation. It involves .manpower, planning, recruitment, selection, placement etc. of the personnel.
Manpower planning helps to determine the manpower requirements for various departments. Recruitment is concerned with the sources of supply of work force, whereas selection involves a number of steps to employ the right type of people for various jobs. The selected employees are placed in the jobs for which they are better suited.
2. Training and Development: After placing the people on various jobs, personnel management is concerned with imparting them training to do their work efficiently. Proper development of Personnel is essential to increase their skills in the performance of their jobs. The personnel department designs and runs the appropriate training programmes for developing the necessary skills among the personnel.
3. Compensation: This function is concerned with the determination of adequate .and fair remuneration of the people for their work. The employees can be compensated both in terms of monetary as well as non-monetary rewards. Factors which must be borne in mind while fixing the compensation or remuneration of personnel are their basic need, requirements of jobs, legal provisions regarding minimum wages, the capacity of the organisation to pay, wage level afforded by the competitors etc. For fixing the wage levels, the Personnel Manager can also make use of techniques like job evaluation, performance rating etc.
4. Motivation of Workforce: Employees work in the Organisation for the satisfaction of their needs. In many cases, it is found that they do not contribute towards the organisational goals as much as they can. This happens because employees are not adequately motivated. The personnel Manager helps the various department managers to devise a system of financial and non-financial rewards to motivate the employees.
5. Maintainance of Good Working Conditions: The employees must be provided with good working conditions so that they like their work and work-place and maintain their efficiency. Working conditions influence the motivation and morale of the employees. These include the measures taken for the health, safety and comfort of the working force. The personnel department also provides for various welfare services which relate to the physical and social well-being of the employees. These may include the provision of the cafeteria, restrooms, counselling, group insurance, education of children of employees, recreational facilities etc.
6. Achieving Good Human Relations: The personnel Manager must provide an efficient system of communication to ensure the two-way exchange of information. Many time industrial disputes occur because of poor communication. The personnel manager should always keep himself in contact with, the trade union leaders to understand their grievances and attempt to remove them so that harmony is maintained in the organisation,
7. Personnel Records: It is the duty of the personnel department to maintain records of the employees working in the enterprise. It keeps full records about their training, achievement, transfer, promotion etc. It preserves many other records relating to the behaviour of personnel like absenteeism and labour turnover and personnel programmes and policies of the organisation. It also maintains various records and registers as required by the Factories Act, the employees state Insurance Act and other Labour Laws.
What is manpower planning? Explain the different steps to be taken while preparing Manpower Planning?
Manpower planning or human resource planning is the process of determining scientifically the number and type of employees that an enterprise will need in a specified period of time in future. Its purpose is to ensure that the organisation will have an adequate number c of qualified persons at the proper time to perform various jobs efficiently and with personal satisfaction. Manpower planning consists of the following steps
1. Forecasting Manpower Needs: First of all number and type of personnel required are anticipated. The number of employees required in a future period can be estimated by keeping in mind the expected workload. Workload depends upon the production and sales budgets, expansion plans etc. of the company. The type of employees required is estimated by keeping in view the requirements of job vacancies to be filled. Job requirements can be determined by analysing jobs. Job analysis is a thorough analysis of the job to identify the knowledge, skills and experience required for effective performance.
2. Preparing Manpower Inventory: A detailed list of existing manpower is prepared. Then the number and quantity of existing staff are assessed to determine the extent to which manpower forecast can be met from within the organisation. The qualifications, experience, aptitude etc. Of every employee are analysed. Such an inventory of existing manpower is called manpower inventory or manpower audit.
Manpower inventory will give an idea as to how far the future requirements of manpower can be met from within the organisation. It will reveal the adequacy of manpower in terms of number and skills. Absenteeism and labour turnover and such other manpower problems are also anticipated. A comparison between manpower for cast and manpower inventory will reveal gaps in manpower to be filled in form outside.
3. Formulating Manpower Programmes: Detailed programmes are prepared for recruitment, selection, training, transfer and promotion of employees so as to meet future manpower needs, The first step in the staffing process is the estimation of manpower requirements. It is known as human resource planning or manpower planning. Under it the number and kind of personnel required by the organisation during a specified future period (e.g. one year) are determined. Then the number and type of existing personnel are assessed.
This indicates the extent to which the future manpower needs can be met from within the organisation. It also gives an idea as to how far it is necessary to recruit people from outside. Finally, programmes are formulated to recruit, select and train the required staff over the planning period.
The objectives of estimating staff requirements are to ensure that the organisation has adequate number and quality of employees to fill in the various positions. It is useful in many ways. It continuously provides the personnel required at various levels in the organisation. It enables the organisation to make full use of its resources. The organisation can meet its changing manpower needs without any problem. It is also in a position to fill in vacancies arising from the retirement of its senior managers.
While estimating man-power requirements, the managers should consider several factors which is as follows:
(a) Plans of the organisation concerning products services, expansion of operations etc:
(b) Nature and size of the organisation including the degree of decentralisation, a span of control staff units, departmentation etc.
(c) Type of technology to be adopted i.e. a degree of mechanisation and automation.
(d) Retirement schedule of the existing staff.
(e) Number of employees who may leave the organisation.
(f) the Average number of personnel absent from the job.
Systematic manpower planning necessary due to the following reasons:
(a) Future man-power needs: Future manpower needs cannot be determined without systematic manpower planning. With the help of manpower planning, an organisation can secure the services of the right type of people at the right time.
(b) Scarce talent: Modem organisations require highly specialised technicians and professionals. There is a scarcity of such talent. Manpower planning helps in ensuring an adequate supply of skilled personnel for an organisation. ,
(c) Coping with changes: Changes in technology, products, marketing conditions etc. require
changes in job content, skill requirements, kind of people etc. Manpower planning helps in avoiding a shortage of manpower in some areas and surplus in other areas.
(d) Growth and expansion: Manpower planning is necessary for ensuring replacements from time to time due to retirement and death of existing employees. Moreover, an organisation can properly meet its manpower requirements arising out of expansion and growth schemes. Manpower planning helps in optimum utilisation of manpower and in minimising the cost of labour. Workers who become redundant due to automation can be absorbed in new jobs after some training. This helps to improve industrial.
Describe three off-the-job methods of training.
Off-the-job Training: Off-the-job training as the name itself indicates, refers to training conducted away from the actual work setting. There may be a special site in the organization itself or in a non-organizational location elsewhere (for example, vocational school or university). Off-the-job training is particularly useful and appropriate for certain managerial skills such as interpersonal abilities and also for certain production jobs where machinery is employed to control the pace of work-an example may be the assembly-line operation and is also useful for some technical jobs where teaching expertise is found elsewhere.
Some of the common methods of off-the-job training include lectures, conferences, group discussions, role-playing, case studies, programmed instruction, and T. group training.
(a) Lectures and classroom instruction: Classroom training is conducted off the job and is probably the most familiar method. It is an effective means of imparting the information and knowledge quickly to a large chunk of members „ with limited knowledge or no knowledge of the subjects being taught. Lecturing is particularly useful for teaching the factual material, concepts, principles, theories and their application to job situations.
In general, classroom instructions are more frequently used for technical, professional and managerial employees. These ‘ lectures are formally organized talks by the training specialists themselves. Lecturing is an effective method and is interesting especially when able lecturers are employed to impact the knowledge – technical or otherwise. But the disadvantages of lecturing include:
- the learners may be passive instead of active.
- there is no feedback from the audience regarding their lecturers.
- a clear and vigorous presentation on the part of the lecturer requires a great deal of preparation;
- the untrained and inexperienced lecturer may deliver an unpalatable lecture, he might rumble of pack too much redundant „ information in a single lecture leaving the important technical details.
- lecturing emphasizes the routine memorization of facts rather than the practical aspects of a job. However, the lecture method in training is useful to introduce the subject matter its overview, its principles, laws, classification, and summaries etc. to the listeners. Because of its simplicity and efficiency in imparting knowledge, the lecture method is still alive in work organizations.
(b) The conference method: Instead of indulging in straight lecturing, some organizations prefer to hold conferences where participants are required to pool their ideas, viewpoints, suggestions and discuss them at conferences. Conferences provide a common plate form for intensive and through group discussion and result in suggesting the improved methods of performing work in the organization.
The conference allows the trainee to look at the problem from a broad angle allow him to analyse it more carefully and arrive at conclusion. Conference method is ideal for analysing problems and issues concerning organizations and their members’ conferences reduce the dogmatism and promote understanding between members. Upon close and intensive discussions, members will be willing to accept change, if any for the betterment of the organization. Conferences method has several limitations such as
- it is limited to a small group of people ranging from fifteen to twenty-five.
- progress of learning is slow because all the members have ‘ full freedom to speak and in the curiosity of participation some. members may come out with totally irrelevant issues, and
- some members may feel that the whole conference is useless unless they are made aware of the objectives of holding the conference.
(c) Group discussion: Also known as team discussion, or seminar in the group discussion the members are requested to present papers and discuss the papers in a common platform. The trainees are allowed to read their respective papers and this is followed by a thorough critical discussion. While preparing the paper, the trainee has free access to files concerning the subject and compile the information.
After consulting the necessary files the trainees may discuss the ramifications and complexities of a particular job or work and suggest solutions for the probable problems the trainees are likely to encounter in near future.
(d) Roleplaying: The role-playing goes by a variety of names, such as psychodrama. role-reversal, social-drama, and soon. Role-playing involves the spontaneous acting out of a situation by two or more people under the specific direction of a trainer. The notable characteristic of role-playing is that dialogue usually ensues and the trainees are enthusiastic, playing out their roles.
In role-playing, trainees act out a given role as they would be performing in a stage play. The role players are informed only about the situation and of the role they are expected to play. Role-playing primarily involves hiring, firing, discussions about the grievance procedures employed, employer-employee relationships. The primary advantages of role-playing include
- development of leadership skills and decision-making skills of the entire group.
- trainees learn the importance of participation in bringing about the acceptance of resource allocation decisions.
- human interaction and sensitivity are emphasized in role-playing and
- it brings desired changes in employee attitudes and behaviour. However, role-playing can be very time consuming and without competent leadership, it could be a waste of time.
(e) Case studies: Another sophisticated off-the-job- training is through case studies. The case study is based on the firm belief that managerial competence can best be attained through the study contemplation and discussion of concrete cases. The trainees are given the cases and are asked to identify the basic problem and suggest solutions. The case study is primarily useful for supervisory personnel and serves as a useful technique for developing decision-making and problem-analysing skills to the middle managers.
(f) Programmed instruction: Programmed instruction involves breaking, information into meaningful units and rearranging them in a proper sequence to form a learning package. Programmed learning consists of three functions:
- presenting questions, facts or problems to the learner.
- allowing the trainee to respond and
- providing the necessary feedback on the accuracy of his answers. Programmed instruction makes use of books or manuals but normally it is supported by electronic teaching machines, computer systems. In practice, the trainee reads a particular set of materials and then responds to questions usually multiple-choice questions or true-false type questions. If the answer is correct the trainee proceeds to answer the next question. However, if the answer is incorrect the trainee is furnished additional information and is required to respond to questions on that material. This procedure is repeated until the trainee has answered correctly.
Programmed instruction method is appreciated because it incorporates several learning techniques including movement from simple to complex material and provision of feedback. Research reveals that programmed instruction is one of the more effective methods for building knowledge and retention of that knowledge.
(g) T-group training: Also frequently known as sensitivity training T-group training is a process in which several individuals work together for several days for the purpose of buildings self-awareness, understanding of group processes and a greater understanding of interpersonal relationships. The trainees are encouraged to portray their feelings, abilities and needs in building interpersonal relationships.
The basic purpose of sensitivity training to increase the participant’s insight into his own behaviour and the behaviour of others by encouraging an open expression of feelings in the trainer-guided T group laboratory.
Write short notes one
1. Employment Tests
2. Evolution of HRM
1. Employment Tests: An employment test is a mechanism (either a paper and pencil test or an exercise) that attempts to measure certain characteristics of individuals. These characteristics range from aptitudes, such as manual dexterity, to intelligence to personality.
Important tests used for selection of employees:
(a) Intelligence Tests: This is one of the important psychological tests used to measure the level of intelligence quotient of an individual. It is an indicator of a person’s learning ability or the ability to make decisions and judgements.
(b) Aptitude Test: It is a measure of individuals potential for learning new skills. If indicates the person’s capacity to develop. Such tests are good indices of a person’s future success score.
(c) Personality Tests: Personality tests provide clues to a person’s emotions, his reactions, maturity and value system etc. These tests provide an overall personality. Hence these are difficult to design and implement.
(d) Trade Test: These tests measure the existing skills of the individual. They measure the level of knowledge and proficiency in the area of professions or technical training. The difference between aptitude test and trade test is that the former measures the potential to acquire skills and the later the actual skills possessed.
2. Evolution of HRM: Human Resource Management has replaced the traditional concept of labour welfare and personnel management. HRM in its – present form has evolved from a number of significant inter-related developments, which date back to the era of industrial revolution emergence of trade union movement lead to the need of a person who could act as an effective line between the owners and workers.
Thus the concept of labour welfare officer came into the being.
His role was limited to the bare minimum welfare activities of employees. In fact, he was looked down by both the workers and the owners.
With the introduction of the factory system, thousands of persons began to be employed under one roof. The job of hiring people for the organisation was given to one man, who later on was assigned the responsibility of recruitment, selection and placement of personnel.
This led to the emergence of a personnel officer in the first place and personnel manager, later on.
Human relations approach recognizes the human factor as the most important instrument of success in the organisation. Fast-changing technological developments, how our, necessitated new skills development and training of employees. People came to be recognized as a valuable resource, which can be further developed. Increase in the scope of the work led to the replacement of personnel manager to the human resource manager. Hence HRM came to mainstream activity due to the failure of the earlier concepts to promote the potential benefit of effective management of the people.
What is the importance of staffing function in today’s environment?
Importance of staffing:
Human resources are the foundation of any business. The right people can help you take your business to the top: the wrong people can break your business. Hence staffing function has assured greater ” importance their days because of the rapid advancement of technology, increasing the size of the organization and complicated behaviour of human beings. Human resources are the most important asset of an organisation.
The ability of an organisation to achieve its goals depends upon the quality of its human resources. Therefore, staffing is a very important managerial function. No organisation can be successful unless it can fill and keep filled the various positions provided for in the structure with the right kind of people.
Proper staffing ensures the following benefits to the organisation:
- helps in discovering and obtaining competent personnel for various jobs;
- makes for higher performance, by putting the right person on the right job;
- ensures the continued survival and growth of the enterprise through the succession planning for managers;
- helps to ensure optimum utilization of human resources.
By avoiding overmanning, it prevents updo utilisation of personnel and high labour costs. At the same time, it avoids disruption of work by indicating in advance the shortage of personnel; and improves job satisfaction and morale of employees through objective assessment and fair rewarding of their contribution. Staffing function must be performed efficiently by all organisation. If the right kind of employees is not available, it will lead to wastages of materials, time, efforts, resulting in lower productivity and poor quality of products.
The enterprise will not be able to sell its products profitably. It is therefore essential that the right kind of people must be available in the right number at the right time. They should be given adequate training so that wastage is minimum: They must also be induced to show higher productivity and quality by offering them. proper incentives.
Staffing and Human Resource Management (HRM): The affiances and effectiveness of an organization in achieving its goals are determined to a great extent on the competence, motivation and general effectiveness of its human resources. Managing the human component or an organisation is the most important task because the performance of the organisation depends upon how well this function ” is performed. Human resource management is that part of management process which develops and managers the human element of the enterprise considering their resourcefulness in terms of total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents, aptitudes and potential for effectively contributing to the organisational objectives.
Human Resources Management is concerned with all aspects of managing the human resources of an organisation. More specifically, human resource management involves determining the organisation’s need of human resources, recruiting and selecting the best available employees, developing counselling and rewarding employees, acting as a liaison with unions and government organisations and handling matters related to the well being of employees. Each of these functions is necessary to some degree irrespective of type and size of the organisation.