Here we are providing Class 12 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation. Class 12 History Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 History Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation
Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Bones of which animals were found at Harappan sites?
Cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig.
At which sites the terracota models of the plough have been found?
At Cholistan and Banawali Haryana.
At which Harappan site, traces of canals have been found?
At Shortugai in Afghanistan.
Name two cities which were first to be found in Indus valley civilisation.
Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
Name few buildings found at Harappan sites.
The Great Bath, Lower Town, Granery etc.
On which pattern, the roads and streets were laid out in Harappan cities?
The roads and streets in Harappan cities were laid in the grid pattern, intersecting at right angles.
How many wells have found in Mohenjodaro?
Scholars have estimated that there were approximately 700 wells found in Mohenjodaro.
What was the Great Bath?
The Great Bath was a large rectangular tank in a courtyard surrounded by a carridor on all four sides.
How can you say that Harappan people believed in the afterlife?
Some graves contain pottery and ornaments which indicates that Harappan people believed in the afterlife.
Which material was used to make beads?
Carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz, steatite, copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracotta.
What was Lapis Lazuli?
Lapis Lazuli was a blue stone with very high value.
From where copper and gold was brought?
Copper from Khetri region of Rajasthan and gold from South India.
With which countries did Harappan people have trading contacts?
Oman, Mesopotamian civilisation, Bahrain, etc.
How many seals were found at Harappan sites?
Around 2000 but 375 – 400 were quite common.
When were Harappan sites abandoned?
Around 1800 BCE.
Name the first Director – General of ASI.
Who discovered Harappa and Mohenjodaro?
Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji respectively.
Who was R.E.M. wheeler?
He was the Director – General of the ASI who took over in 1944.
Explain how different methods of irrigation were developed for agriculture in the Harappan sites. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D.))
Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan site of Shortugai in Afghanistan. Other means of irrigation were:
- Water drawn from the wells.
- Water reserved in water reservoirs.
Which architectural features ; of Mohenjodaro indicate towards planning?
Mention two features of Harappan Cities. (C.B.S.E. 2011 D))
- Division of whole of the city into two towns.
- Roads and streets laid out in a grid pattern.
- Use of bricks of same size or standardised ratio.
- Making of residential buildings with a definite plan.
What is Faience ? Why the little pots made by it were considered precious ?
Faience is a material made of ground sand or silica mixed with colour and gum and then fired. The little pots of faience were probably considered precious because it was very difficult to make them.
The culture of which region has been named as Ganeshwar-Jodhpur culture by the archaeologists? Enumerate two distinct characteristics of this culture.
The archaeologists have named the Khetri area of Rajasthan as the Ganeshwar-Jodhpur culture.
Two distinct characteristics of this region were as follows :
- It had non-Harappan pottery.
- It had a great wealth of copper objects.
What did sources indicate that land routes were important means of transport for Harappan people?
Terracotta toy models of bullock carts indicate that land routes were important means of transport for Harappan people.
How can you say that Harappan people liked cleanliness ?
Following points indicate towards the Harappan people’s interest in cleanliness:
- There was a bathroom in almost every house.
- There was a proper arrangement of the disposal of wastewater.
- A drainage system was covered and regular cleaning of drains was done.
- People used to do some kind of a special ritual bath in the Great Bath.
On which objects, writing has been found from Harappan sites ?
Writing has been found on seals, rims of jars, copper tools, copper and terracotta tablets, bone rods, jewellery and even on the ancient signboard.
How can we say that whole of Harappan society was a single state ?
On the basis of thinking and implementation of complex decisions, we can say that whole of the Harappan society was a single state.
What causes were responsible for the decline of the Harappan civilisation ?
- Change of climate.
- Cutting of forests or deforestation.
- Excessive floods.
- The shifting of the path or drying up of rivers.
- Over-use of the landscape.
Who was John Marshall?
John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). He was the first professional archaeologist who brought his experience of working in Crete and Greece. In 1924, he announced the discovery of new civilisation in Indus Valley.
What were the problems of piecing together to know about Harappan life ?
- The harappan script is undeciphered till today due to which we are still unable to attain information about ancient civilisation.
- Materials like cloth, leather, wood and reeds decomposed due to the passage of time.
Which evidences give us information about Harappan civilisation ?
Only materials and physical evidences give us information about Harappan civilisation and these are:
- Remains of cities and towns.
- Beads, querns, stone blades and pots.
- Burials and bones of animals.
- Seals and weights.
What are Shamans ?
Shamans are those men and women who claim that they have magical and healing power and have an ability to communicate with the other world.
Mention the two sections of the Harappan settlements and give one main feature of each. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
1. Harappan settlements were divided into two sections. The first section of this city was small and was built on higher place. The second section was the lower town.
2. The archaeologists designated the first section as the citadel and the second section as the lower town.
Give two features of the | Harappan settlements. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Two features of Harappan settlements are:
- There were generally large settlements with large and small buildings.
- A well-planned network of roads and drainage systems was the key feature of their settlement.
Mention any four items found in the graves of the Harappans. (C.B.S.M mi (O.D.))
Jewellery of both men and women, an ornament consisting of three shell rings, a Jasper (types of semi-precious stone), bead and hundreds of microbeads, copper mirrors, etc., were found in the graves.
Mention two strategies adopted to identify the social differences among the Harappans. (C.B.S.EJ 2011 (O.D.))
- Study of the structure-of burials and things found from these burials.
- Artefacts are generally classified into useful and luxurious things.
How did the Harappans’ obtain the red colour of carnelian? (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
Harappans obtained red colour of carnelian by firing the yellowish raw material and beads at various stages of production.
Who was Cunningham? Mention any one account used by him to locate the early settlements of Harappa civilisation. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (O.D.))
Who was Cunningham? Mention any one source he collected to understand the Harappa culture. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (O.D.))
Alexander Cunningham was the first Director-General of Archaeological Survey of India. He used accounts of Chinese pilgrims who visited India between the 4th and 7th centuries C.E. to locate early settlements.
Mention any two difficulties faced by historians in deciphering the f. Indus script. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
- The harappan script is undeciphered till today due to which we are unable to get information about this civilisation.
- Materials like cloth, leather, wood and reeds decomposed due to the passage of time.
Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Discuss the terms, places and times of Harappan culture.
The Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as the Harappan culture. According to archaeologists, the term ‘Culture’ is used for a group of objects which are distinctive in style and are generally found together within a particular geographical area and time period. In the case of Harappan culture, these distinctive objects include beads, seals, stone blades, weights, baked bricks, etc. They were found from the areas of Jammu, Afghanistan, Gujarat and Baluchistan (Pakistan).
Term and Times. This civilisation was named after the place called Harappa as the first site of this culture was discovered over there. This civilisation is dated between C. 2600 and 1900 B.C.E. There exist earlier and later cultures, generally called early Harappan and late Harappan culture. This civilisation is sometimes called as the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures.
What were the main subsistence methods of the Harappan.people?
1. The Harappan people got food from a wide range of plants and animal products. Fish was their main food.
2. Their food included grains like wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame. From many Harappan sites, charred grains and seeds have also been found.
3. The people also ate rice and millet. The grains of millet have been found from many sites in Gujarat. Rice was perhaps not used much because the grains of rice are relatively found rare.
4. Bones of deer and gharial have also been found. From this, one can imagine that the people of Harappan civilisation also ate flesh and meat. But it is not known whether the people of Harappan culture themselves hunted or they got meat from other hunting communities. They also ate a few birds.
5. They also got food from many animals like sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. All these animals were domesticated by them.
Explain, while describing the spread and centres of Harappan culture, why is it known as Harappan culture?
Harappan culture spread in a great deal and in a larger area. It was spread in 12,99,600 sQuestion km. area. Punjab, Sind, Rajasthan, Gujarat, some parts of Baluchistan and bordering areas of western Uttar Pradesh were included in it. In this way, it was spread from Jammu in the North, up to banks of river Narmada in the South, from Makran Seashore of Baluchistan in the West and till Meerut in the North-East. Its main centres were Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Kot Diji, Chanhudaro, Azamgarh, etc.
None of the cultures of that age had spread to such a large extent. This culture has been given the name of Harappan culture because Harappa was the first site where this unquestioned culture was discovered. Now this place is situated in Pakistan.
Discuss the main ‘characteristics of the planned urban centres of the Harappan civilisation.
“The most unquestioned feature of Mohenjodaro was the planned urban centre.” Support the statement with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (D))
Describe briefly the most distinctive feature of urban centres of Harappa. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
How did architectural features of Mohenjodaro indicate planning? Support with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (D))
The urban planning was of high quality in the Harappan civilisation. All towns were developed under a plan. The streets and roads of the towns were quite wide. All the roads intersected at right angles. The people who lived in houses made of bricks. The people belonging to the ruling class had their homes on the citadel of the town. The common people lived on the land below the citadel.
The houses had a provision of doors and windows. Each house had a courtyard, bathroom, kitchen and a staircase to take the residents on the roof. A few houses had two or three storeys. Many people had big houses. Mohenjodaro had a Great Bath with a length of 11.88 meters, the width of 7.01 metres and depth of 2.43 metre. The largest building in this town was the citadel which was 45.71 metres long and 15.23 metres wide. Six citadels have been found in Harappa.
There was a very good provision of drains for the outlet of wastewater in the towns of the Harappan civilisation. All the drains were made of concrete that was covered with such bricks which could be easily removed to be cleaned. The water of the residential drains fell in the street drain. There was a big drain outside the city where the wastewater of the whole town was accumulated.
Discuss the development made into the field of craft and industry during the Harappan period.
The people of the Harappan civilisation were familiar with the use and production of bronze. The metal craftsmen prepared bronze by mixing tin with copper. The community of bronze craftsmen occupied an important place among the sculptors of Harappan society. They made many kinds of instruments and weapons besides statues and utensils. For example, many things have been excavated like an axe and dagger.
The things that have been found after excavations indicate that there were other important crafts as well in the towns of Harappa. The people of Harappa used spinners to prepare wool and coarse thread. They knitted both woollen and cotton clothes. The vast buildings made of brick bear testimony to the fact that architecture was one of the most important crafts of the masons.
The people of Harappa also built boats. They were also proficient in making public currency (seals made of mud) and sculpture. Some people made gold, silver and diamond or gem ornaments. The craftsmen of Harappa were also very efficient in the making of beads. They were aware of the art of making utensils of mud, copper and bronze. The mud-utensils made by them were quite smooth and shining.
Describe the economy (economic life) of the Harappan people.
The economic life of the people of Indus Valley (Harappa) was based on many trades and professions. They earned their livelihood through these professions. The description of these professions is as under :
1. Agriculture: The main profession of the Indus Valley people was agriculture. They cultivated land to grow wheat, barley, rice and cotton. They used wooden ploughs for agriculture. They had a good system of irrigation for their fields.
2. Cattle-Rearing: The second main profession of the Indus Valley people was cattle-rearing. They mainly reared cow, ox, elephant, goats, sheep and dogs.
3. Trade: Trade was the main profession of the Indus Valley people. The towns traded among themselves. They also had trade relations with Afghanistan and Iran.
4. Industry: Most of the people were engaged in small business. The craftsmen were quite efficient in making utensils of mud, copper and brass. They also made beautiful ornaments of gold and silver.
Give few features of the religion of Harappan culture which are still prevalent.
The following characteristics of the religion of Harappan civilisation are still prevalent:
- Lord Shiva was worshipped by most of the people during the Harappan civilisation. He is still worshipped by millions of people.
- The people of the Indus Valley worshipped Mother Goddess. Even today, the Mother Goddess is worshipped all over India with utter devotion and dedication.
- Even today many people find the abode of Gods and Goddesses in peepal and other such trees.
- The people of the Harappan times worshipped an ox and many such animals. These days all such animals are considered as the carriers of different Gods and Goddesses.
- The worship of lingam is still prevalent in the Hindu religion.
- The people of the Harappan civilisation considered water as pious and sacred. They took bath in the Great Bath on all special religious occasions. This glory and piety of the water still find a prominent place in all the religions.
Describe the religious beliefs of Harappan people.
Describe briefly how seals of Harappan period help in reconstructing their religious beliefs. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
1. Religious customs: Archaeologists found certain objects which may have had a religious significance. These include terracotta figurines of women, heavily jewelled, some with elaborate headdresses. People believe that Harappan people might consider it as the goddess of the fertility of the land.
2. Male Gods of Indus Valley: One seal found in excavation depicts a male God. Three horns are shown on his head. It has been shown seated cross-legged in a ‘Yogic’ posture, sometimes surrounded by animals. One buffalo and two dears are also shown nearby this picture. This may be the depiction of Pashupati (Lord Shiva). Many seals with pictures of ‘Linga’ and ‘Yogi’ have been found over there. Maybe people started to worship them at this age.
3. Worshipping Trees and Animals: One seal found here, depicts one God between the branches of ‘Peepal’ tree which shows that people of Indus region worshipped trees as well. One bull has also been shown on one of the seals.
Write the main features of the social life of the Harappan people.
Describe the opinion of some of the archaeologists about the Harappan society. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
According to archaeologists, the following were the features of Harappan society :
1. Dietary practice: The Harappans ate wheat, rice, vegetables and drank milk. Fresh fish and eggs were a part of their diet.
2. Clothing: People of Harappan culture used to wear both cotton and woollen clothes. Males wore ‘Dhoti’ and ‘Shawl’. Females generally wore colourful clothes with designs of flowers. Males and females both liked to wear jewellery.
3. Means of Entertainment: People liked playing indoor games to entertain themselves. Children were provided with different types of toys.
What could be the possible reasons for the decline of Harappan civilisation?
The following were the reasons for the decline of the Harappan civilisation:
1. Floods: Some scholars believe that many towns of the Harappan civilisation were destroyed because of the floods in the Indus River. With the passage of time, they were buried beneath the sands of time.
2. Earthquakes: It is also believed that many earthQuestionuakes might have jolted various cities. They might have dashed many towns to the ground.
3. Droughts and Epidemics: Some scholars think that the sites of Harappan civilisation might have been hit by acute droughts or deadly epidemics. These might have resulted in the destruction of various towns.
4. Aggressions by the Aryans: Many historians believe that the people of Harappan civilisation had to face many aggressions by the Aryans. The people of Harappa were defeated in many of these wars. It led to the decline of Harappan civilisation.
Explain trade relations of Harappa with western Asia.
To what extent had the Harappans established trade relations with the world? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2013(D))
Explain how did Harappans maintain contact with distant lands. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (O.D.))
Archaeologists found Harappan trade relations with Western Asia through the following archaeological evidence:
- Copper was probably brought from Oman. Chemical analysis has shown that both the Omani copper and Harappan artefacts have traces of nickel.
- A distinctive type of Harappan vessel with a thick layer of black clay has been found at one of the sites of Oman.
- There is a mention of Meluhha in Mesopotamian texts, which was probably the Harappan region. They mentioned the products from Meluhha like copper, gold, carnelian, lapis lazuli and varieties of wood.
- Harappan weights, seals, etc., have been found from the sites of Mesopotamia.
- Depictions of ships and boats on Harappan seals clearly show trade relations between Harappa and Western Asia.
Relate any four factors of Indus Valley civilisation or Harappan culture which are still visible in the Indian society.
Discuss the contribution of the Harappan Culture to Indian society.
The following four factors of the Indus Valley Civilisation can still be seen in Indian society :
1. Town Planning: The towns of the Indus Valley were developed with proper planning. All the towns had wide roads and streets. This feature can be seen in the cities of present times.
2. Residence: The houses of the Indus Valley had doors and windows like the present-day houses. Each house had a courtyard, bathroom and a staircase to go on the roof or the first storey of the house.
3. Ornaments and Cosmetics: Like the modern women, the women of the Indus Valley Civilisation were also fond of beauty and cosmetics They used lip-sticks and powder. They wore omamerits of different kinds. They liked to wear bangles, earrings and necklaces.
4. Religious Equality: The religion of the people of the Indus V&lley Civilisation resembled modern religions. They worshipped Lord Shiva, the Mother Goddess and other1 such Gods and Goddesses. Even today, such worship is prevalent among the Hindus.
Explain the main characteristics of the burials of the Harappan civilisation.
Describe briefly what has been found in burials at the Harappan sites. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
The burials that have been found at the Harappan sites indicate that the dead were generally laid in the pits. Sometimes these burial pits were made in different ways. For example, in some burials, the hollowed-out Spaces were lined with bricks.
In some graves, pottery and ornaments have been found. It indicated the belief that these could be used in
the afterlife. Jewellery has been found in the burials of both men and women. In the mid-1980s, various excavations were made at the cemetery in Harappa. The digging led to the finding of an ornament consisting of three shell rings, a jasper bead and hundreds of micro-beads. This ornament was found near the skull of a male. Some of the dead were buried with copper mirrors. But generally, most of the people did not believe, in burying precious things with the dead. In fact, the burials were like the big pyramids of Egypt.
How did the Harappan civilisation decline?
Describe any five pieces of evidence which reflect the decline and abandonment of mature Harappan sites by 1800 BCE. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (D))
Mention any three pieces of evidence that reflected the disappearance of Harappan civilisation by 1800 BCE. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (O.D.))
What evidences have been put forward to explain the collapse of the Harappan Civilisation? (C.B,S.E. 2017 (D))
Many pieces of evidence have been found that the Harappan civilisation developed in the region of Cholistan in 1800 BCE. Later on, these sites were abandoned., In its places, there was an expansion of population at new settlements in Gujarat, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
There is evidence that some of the Harappan sites remained occupied even after 1900 BCE. But at most of the
Harappan sites, there was a transformation of material culture such as :
- Weights, seals and special beads had disappeared.
- Writing, long-distance trade and craft specialisation had also disappeared.
- Generally, far fewer materials were used to make far fewer things.
- There was a deterioration in the techniques of house construction.
- The construction of large public structures had come to an end. All the settlements had adopted a rural way of life. All these cultures were called as “Late Harappan” or “Successor Cultures”.
What was the feature of the weight system of Harappan civilisation?
A precise system of weights prevailed for regulating the exchanges. These weights were generally made of a stone called chert. They were generally cubical with no markings. The lower denominations of weights were binary (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc., up to 12,800). Higher denominations followed the decimal system. The smaller weights were used for weighing the jewellery and beads. Metal scale pans have also been found at the sites of Harappan civilisation.
Give a brief description of the Great Bath of Mohenjodaro.
The Great Bath was the finest structure found in the citadel of Mohenjodaro. It was a large rectangular tank made in a courtyard. It was surrounded by a corridor on all four sides. Two flights of steps were there on the north and south leading into the tank. It was made watertight by setting bricks on edge of tank and by using a mortar of gypsum. Rooms on three sides were made in one of which was a large well. Water from the tank flowed into a huge drain.
Across a lane to the north, there was a smaller building with eight bathrooms. Out of these eight, four were on
each side of a corridor, with drains from each bathroom connecting to a drain that ran along the corridor. Several scholars suggest that the Great Bath was used for some kind of a special ritual bath.
Describe the ways in which the Harappans procured material for craft production. (C.B.S.E 2008 (D))
Explain the strategies for procuring material by the Harappans for craft production. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (O.D.))
Prove with the help of examples that the Harappans had established their contacts with western Asia for purchase/exchange of artefacts. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (D))
Recent archaeological finds suggest that Harappan civilisation had contacts with distant lands. The main reason of these contacts was the exchange of goods. Following examples could be given regarding Harappan contacts with distant lands :
1. Copper was brought from Oman, on the southeastern tip of the Arabian peninsula. Chemical analyses suggest that Omani copper and Harappan artefacts both have traces of nickel. A distinctive type of vessel, coated with the thick layer of black clay, has been found at Omani sites. Yet we don’t know what was carried in these vessels but thick coatings prevented the percolation of liQuestionuids. Maybe Harappan people exchanged the contacts of these vessels for Omani copper.
2. Mesopotamian texts mentioned contacts with a region of Dilmun (maybe Bahrain) from where copper was procured. Here one thing is interesting that copper products excavated from sites of Mesopotamia have traces of nickel.
“An understanding of the function of an artefact is often shaped I by its resemblance with present-day things.” Support your answer with suitable evidence. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
It is correct that an understanding of the function of an artefact is often shaped by its resemblance to present-day things. It is so because still, we are unable to decipher the script of that time with which we could easily understand the function of an artefact. Moreover, the present-day resemblance with things can easily lead us to the function of an ancient artefact. Archaeologists try to identify the function of an artefact by investigating the context in which it was found.
How have historians provided new Insight into the subsistence strategies of the Harappan culture? (C.B.S.E. 2015 (D))
Archaeologists have been able to reconstruct dietary practice from finds of charred grains and seeds. These are studied by archaeo-botanists, who are specialists in ancient plant remains. Grains found at Harappan sites include wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame. Millets are found from sites in Gujarat. Finds of rice are relatively rare. Animal bones found at Harappan sites include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. Studies done by archaeo-zoologists indicate that these animals were domesticated. Bones of wild species such as boar, deer and gharial are also found. Bones of fish and fowl are also found.
Explain the distinctive features of the residential buildings of the Mohenjodaro. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (D))
The Lower Town of Mohenjodaro had an expansion of residential buildings. All these buildings had a courtyard with rooms on all its sides. In the hot and dry weather, this courtyard was perhaps the centre of activities like cooking and weaving. While constructing residential buildings, the people had full concern for their privacy. These buildings did not have any windows in the walls along with the ground level. Besides this, the main entrance does not give a direct view of the interior of the courtyard.
Every house had its own bathroom paved with bricks. Its drain was connected to the street drain through the wall. Some houses also had staircases to reach a second storey or the roof. Many houses had wells. These wells were in a room which was easily approached from outside which was mostly used by passers-by. However, they were described as the bouQuestionuet of flowers (gold sta) who were united by the loyalty of the emperor. Many scholars believe that there were about 700 such wells in Mohenjodaro.
Describe the opinions of the archaeologists over the central authority of the Harappan Civilisation.
1. Some archaeologists are of the view that there were no rulers in Harappan society. All enjoyed equal status.
2. Some other archaeologists feel that there was no single ruler but there were several rulers. According to them, Mohenjodaro and Harappa had different rulers.
3. Some other scholars argue that there was a single state which is evident from the similarity of artefacts, the planned settlement, the standardised ratio of brick size and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw material.
Explain the exclusive features ‘ of the craft production in Chanhudaro. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (D))
Chanhudaro was exclusively devoted to craft production including bead-making, shell-cutting, metal-working, seal-making and weight making.
A variety of materials were used for making beads¬like stones, for example, carnelian, jasper, crystal quartz
and steatite; metals like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience terracotta or burnt clay. Some beads were made of two or more stones, cemented together, some stones had caps made of gold. It had a variety of shapes-disc, cylindrical, spherical, barrel¬shaped or segmented. Some were decorated by incising or with paintings or designs. Even the techniQuestionues of bead-making differed with the material. Steatite, a soft stone was easily worked as beads could be moulded out, formed into a paste with its powder. It could be made into various shapes.
Archaeologists’ experiments have revealed that the red colour of carnelian was obtained by firing the yellowish raw material and beads at various stages of production. Nodules were chipped into rough shapes and then finely flaked into the final form. Grinding, polishing and drilling completed the process. Specialised drills have been found at Chanhudaro.
Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Harappan people had contacts with distinct lands. Give examples.
Recent archaeological finds suggest that Harappan civilisation had contacts with distant lands. The main reason of this contact was an exchange of goods. Following examples could be given regarding Harappan contacts with distant lands :
1. Copper was brought from Oman; on the southeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. Chemical analysis suggests that both Omani copper and Harappan artefacts have traces of nickel. A distinctive type of vessel, coated with a thick layer of black clay has been found at Omani sites. Yet we do not know what was carried in these vessels but thick coatings prevented the percolation of liQuestionuids. The Harappan people may have exchanged the contents of these vessels for Omani copper.
2. Mesopotamian texts mentioned contacts with a region of Dilmun (maybe Bahrain) from where copper was procured. Here one thing is interesting that copper products excavated from sites of Mesopotamia have traces of Nickel.
3. Other archaeological evidence indicating towards distant contacts include seals, weights, beads, etc., of Harappan culture. Here one thing is important that texts of Mesopotamia mentioned the regions named Dilmun (probably Baharain), Magan and Meluhha (probably Harappan regions). These texts mention the products from Meluhha like lapis lazuli, carnelian, gold, copper and varieties of wood. Probably sea contacts were there with Oman, Bahrain or Mesopotamia because Mesopotamian texts refer Meluhha as a land of sea. Apart from this, depictions of ships and boats on seals have also been found.
While analysing discovery of Harappan civilisation, clarify the statement that Cunningham was unable to understand the importance of Harappa, regarding the beginning of Indian history due to his confusion.
People gradually forgot all about them when Harappan cities fell into ruins. Thousands of years later, when people began living over the region, they were hardly aware of the importance of the strange artefacts that surfaced occasionally, exposed by soil erosion or washed by floods or digging for treasure or turned up while ploughing.
Confusion of Cunningham. Cunningham was the first Director-General of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). He
started the archaeological excavations in the mid 19th century. Archaeologists of that time preferred to use the written word as a guide to investigations. Cunningham was mainly interested in the archaeology of early historic and later periods. He used accounts of Chinese pilgrims who visited India between the 4th and 7th centuries CE to locate early settlements. Cunningham also collected, documented and translated inscriptions found during his surveys. He tried to recover artefacts, during excavation, that he thought had some cultural value.
But a site like Harappa was completely different from the nature of research of Cunningham because it was neither a part of the itinerary of the Chinese pilgrims and nor it was a historical city. So, although Harappan artefacts were found fairly and some of them reached Cunningham he did not realise its importance.
For example, once one British gave a Harappan seal to Cunningham. He noted the object but unsuccessfully tried to place that seal in that time frame with which he was familiar. It was so because, like many others, he too believed that Indian history began with the first cities in the Ganga valley. Just because of his specific focus, he missed the importance of Harappa. Harappan age was much earlier than the age of Indian history imagined by him.
Briefly describe the stage of classification of discoveries in reconstructing the past.
Describe how did the archaeologists “.classify their finds. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
The earliest stage of reconstruction of the past is the discovery of archaeological artefacts. After this, archaeologists classify their findings.
Classifying Finds: The general theory of classification is in terms of materials like clay, stone, bone, metal, ivory, etc. Second and more complex classification is based on the utility of artefacts. For example, archaeologists have to decide whether an artefact is a tool or any ornament. This artefact could also be useful in both forms. Understanding the Function of an Artefact :
- The function of any artefact could be understood by its resemblance with present-day things like querns, beads, pots, stone blades, etc.
- Archaeologists try to understand the function of any artefact in that context in which it is found. For example, what was found in a house, a grave or in a kiln.
Indirect Evidence: Many times archaeologists have to take help of indirect evidence. For example, pieces of cotton have been found at some Harappan sites, even then we have to take help of indirect evidence, like pictures or statues, to know about the clothing. Assumptions have been made, regarding clothing by using indirect evidence.
Developing Frames of References: Many times archaeologists have to develop frames of reference. For example, the first Harappan seal could not be understood till archaeologists had a context in which it was found and in terms of a comparison with finds in Mesopotamia.
Discuss in detail about the town planning of Indus Valley Civilisation.
The quality of the Indus Valley Civilisation which impressed the archaeologists the most was its urban planning. The towns that have been excavated bear testimony to the fact that they were well- planned. All the cities had a provision for streets and markets. There were many kinds of houses which were made of bricks. Along with the residencies, there were buildings which were used for public purposes. The greatest merit of these towns was that they were developed keeping in mind the rules concerning the health and sanitation. The description of this unquestioned and remarkable town planning is as follows :
1. Well-planned Roads and Streets: All the roads and streets of the Indus Valley were developed under a plan. All the roads were straight and intersected each other at right angles. All modern settlements were established on this pattern. All the roads either led from the north to the south side or from the east to the west side. It was done keeping in mind the direction of the winds. Whenever the wind blew, it took with it the rubbish scattered on the roads.
2. Width of the Roads and Streets: All the roads of the Indus Valley were quite wide. It is said that one road was 36 feet wide whereas another road was just 18 feet wide. There were also a few narrow roads. There was a road which was even wider than 36 feet. The streets were 4 to 7 feet in width.
3. Corners of the Towns: The corners of the towns where the roads turned, had a round shape. It was done for the comfort of the animals and bullock- carts. Special round bricks were used to make the corner of the house round. One thing needs a special mention here. The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation used many kinds of bricks in the construction of their houses. These bricks were flat, round and of big size.
4. Planned Houses: The houses of the Indus Valley Civilisation were built with planning. Each house had a bathroom, narrow staircase and a courtyard. There were rooms on all the sides of the courtyard. The size of the small houses was 30 × 27 feet. There was a gap of one foot between the two houses. It was probably done to escape from mutual disputes. The walls were very wide. No part of the house had any projection towards the roads or streets. The scholars estimate that perhaps the houses were built after the approval of their maps. The main purpose of this planning was to keep the cities beautiful.
5. Construction, Doors and Windows: The people of the Indus Valley had houses made of pucca bricks. These bricks were fixed with mud and mortar. They also used lime for this purpose. In the construction of walls, they used the mud to fix bricks because, in this way, the bricks could be reused if there rose the need for doing so. All the doors and windows of the houses opened towards the roads and streets. They were so fixed to enable the inflow of the fresh air in the house. They were 3 to 4 feet wide and six feet in height. In fact, the size of the doors depended on the size of the house. Some doors have been found which were 18 feet wide. It is certain that in such houses the vehicles could go inside the house. Some doors had bolts of iron.
6. Roofs of the Houses: The roofs of the houses were built with strips of wood. A carpet was laid on all these wooden strips. This carpet was made of grass or small twigs and was plastered with mud. There were drains to enable the outlet of rainwater. A brick was fixed at the end of this drains. It was done to throw the water away from the houses.
7. Drains: There was a well-planned system of drainage in the Indus Valley Civilisation. Every house had drained. The gutters of the houses fell directly in the street drains. These drains were one foot deep and nine inches wide. Some drains were even bigger and were made of solid bricks, mud and lime. The bricks were also used to cover these drains. At the time of cleaning the drains, these bricks could be easily removed. The water of these drains further fell into a bigger drain which carried the whole water out of the city.
8. Vast Buildings: Many vast buildings have been found in the Indus Valley Civilisation which are praiseworthy. Their description is as follows:
(i) Vast Warehouse: A massive warehouse has been found in the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is 168 feet in length and 144 feet in width. Its excavation has still not been completed. The foundation of this building is very wide. The historians estimate that perhaps this building was used to store food grains.
(ii) Temple: A massive building has been found in the excavation. It is rectangular and has twenty pillars. All these pillars are also rectangular. Sir John Marshall has compared this building to a Buddha Temple.
(iii) The Great Bath: A Great Bath has also been found in the excavation. It is 180 feet in length and 108 feet in width. In its middle, there is a tank made of solid bricks. This tank is 3914 feet long, 2314 feet wide and eight feet deep. It also has stairs. There are eight bathrooms on its south-west side. They had a provision of hot water. There is also a well nearby. It shows that the tank was filled with the water of this well.
When needed, this water was flushed out through a big drain. The historians believe that the tank was used for bathing on religious ceremonies. Its walls are wide and strong. About this well, Majumdar has written, “The truth is that the people of the Indus Valley had a well-planned urban system.” The houses were of many kinds and were made of solid bricks.
There was a provision of a well, bathroom and furniture in the houses. Besides this, the system of drainage was the symbol of their excellent town planning. Their homes, roads and streets – all indicate that no ancient civilisation has reached near the well-planned townships of the Indus Valley.
Thus, we see that the Great Bath had an unquestioned structure. It also had many distinctive buildings. It seems as if it was meant for some kind of a special bath ritual. That is why some scholars consider the Great Bath as a ritual structure.
Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions HOTS
Which two things indicate that there was a break between early Harappan and Harappan civilisation?
- Evidence of a large-scale burning at some places or sites.
- The abandonment of certain settlements.
How was the Lower Town of Mohenjodaro distinct from the citadel?
- The citadel was in the western part of Mohenjodaro whereas the Lower Town was in its eastern part.
- The Lower Town was quite vast as compared to the citadel.
- The citadel was built on mud-brick platforms. On the other hand, many buildings in the Lower Town were built on platforms which served as foundations. Mud was used to erect these platforms.
How are the burials found from the sites of Harappan culture different from the pyramids of Egypt?
The pyramids of Egypt were the royal burials. They were the places where huge qualities of wealth were buried. On the other hand, the burials of Harappa are concerned with the common people. Here the dead have been laid in pits. They did not bury precious things with the dead.
Where were Nageshwar and Balakot situated? Why and for which craft were they famous?
Nageshwar and Balakot both were situated near the sea coast. They were specialised centres for making shell objects. It was so because shells were easily available as they were situated near the sea.
Which products of Meluhha are mentioned in the Mesopotamian texts ?, What is meant by Meluhha here?
Mesopotamian texts mention many products of Meluhha like lapis lazuli, carnelian, gold, copper and varieties of wood. Here Meluhha may mean the Harappan region.
What were the problems in the excavation work of John Marshall? Who solved this problem?
John Marshall tried to excavate along with regular horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound ignoring the stratigraphy of the site. That is why valuable information on the context of these finds was irretrievably lost. This problem was solved by R.E.M. Wheeler who became the Director-General of ASI in 1944.
In your opinion, why is the script of Harappan culture considered mysterious or enigmatic? State the main features of this script.
Write a brief note on the Harappan script.
Why do archaeologist and historians find Harappan script enigmatic? Explain the reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (D))
The Harappan script is called enigmatic because it has not been possible to decipher it so far. So its mystery has still not been solved.
- It was not alphabetical. It had too many signs or motifs. Each sign stood for a vowel as a consonant. All the signs were a symbol of something.
- The signs of this script were between 375 and 400.
- This script was written from right to left. It is clear from the fact that it had a wider spacing on the right and cramping on the left. It seemed as if the writer began writing from the right and then ran out of space in the left.
- This script has been found on a variety of ..objects. It may also have been written on some perishable material. All these things show that there was widespread literacy in the Harappan civilisation.
Would you agree that the drainage system of the Harappan cities indicates town-planning? Give reasons for your answer.
Describe briefly the drainage system of the Harappan cities. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
“The drainage system in Harappan. Civilisation indicates town planning.” Support the statement with examples. (C.B.S.E, 2014 (O.D.))
We completely agree with the fact that all the Harappan cities had a carefully planned drainage system. In other words, the drainage system was an integral part of the town-planning. This system was essential to keep the city neat and clean. From this point of view, the drainage system of the Harappan cities was perfect. The domestic wastewater passed through gutters to flow into the street drains.
It seems as if the streets along with the drains were laid out first. Then the residences were made alongside these roads. One wall of the house always touched the side of a street so that the wastewater may easily flow into the drains of the street.
The main drain was made of mud and bricks. It was covered with such bricks which could be removed for the purpose of sanitation. The gutters Sf the houses first fell into a sump or cess-pit. The solid in the water was accumulated here and the water flowed into the main drain. In this way, the dirty water flushed out of the city. According to Mackay, “It is certainly the most complete ancient system as yet discovered.” In the end, we can say that every house of the Harappan society was connected to the street drains which were made of bricks set in mortar. They were covered with limestone or lose bricks which could be easily removed for cleaning. In fact, the drainage system is considered a wonder of archaeology.
How archaeologists identify centres of craft production?
Describe briefly how the centres of craft production are identified. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
Describe the basis on which Archaeologists identified the centres of craft production in the Harappan Culture. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Archaeologists generally look for certain things to identify centres of craft production and these are raw materials like stone nodules, copper ore, whole shells, tools, unfinished material, rejects and waste material. Actually, waste indicates craftwork. For example, if a shell or stone is used to make any object then pieces of shell or stone will be discarded as waste at the place of production.
Many times smaller objects were made by using larger waste pieces, but minuscule bits were generally left in the
work area. These traces suggest that craft production was also undertaken in large cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
What were the main aspects of agriculture and agricultural technology of Harappan culture?
Archaeologists have found charred grains from sites of Harappa, which indicate towards their agriculture. But no information is available regarding their actual agricultural practices.
Other Evidence of Agriculture
1. Seals containing animal motifs indicate that people were aware of bulls. On this basis, archaeologists believe that bulls used to till the land.
2. Terracotta models of plough have been found at Baluchistan (Pakistan) and Banawali (Haryana). It indicates the use of plough in agriculture.
3. Evidence of a ploughed field at Kalibangan (Rajasthan) have been found. The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to each other. It suggests that two different crops were grown together.
Tools: Archaeologists have tried to identify the tools used in agriculture except for the plough. Harappans used stone blades set in wooden handles or metal tools to cut the crop.
Irrigation: Most of the Harappan sites were located in a semi-arid land. Here, was irrigation was probably necessary for agriculture. At Harappan site of Shortughai in Afghanistan, traces of canals have also been found. No such evidence has been found in Punjab and Sindh. May be ancient canals over here silted up long ago. Besides, water reservoirs may have been used to store water for irrigation in Dholavira (Gujarat).
What reasons are given regarding the existence of authority and ruler class in Harappan culture? Explain.
Describe the different arguments given by the archaeologists over the central authority of Harappa.
(C.B.S.E. 2014 (D))
“Archaeologists have no proper response for the central authority of the Harappans.” Substantiate.
(C.B.S.E. 2016 (O.D.))
“There are indications of decisions being taken and implemented in Harappan society.” In light of this statement, explain whether there may have been rulers to rule over the Harappan society. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Ancient Authority: There are indications of complex decisions being taken and their implementation in Harappan society. Evidence of this could be seen from the Harappan artefacts like pottery, seals, weights and bricks. Important thing is that probably there was no clear centre of bricks production but still bricks with the same ratio were used from Jammu till Gujarat.
Except this, labour was also organised for making of bricks, construction of massive walls and platforms. It is not possible to perform such functions without any authority. That is why we can say that there might have been an authority regulating all these activities.
Centre of Authority and Rule: No specific information is available regarding the centre of authority or ruler class in the Harappan civilisation.
1. A large building found at Mohenjodaro was given the name of a palace by archaeologists but no spectacular finds were associated with it.
2. In the same way a stone statue was labelled as a “priest-king”. It was so because archaeologists had information about the Mesopotamian history and their priest-kings. They also found parallels in Sindh region and statue was labelled as a priest-king. This king probably was associated with ritual practices. But ritual practices of Harappans have not been well understood yet. There is no means of knowing whether those who performed ritual practices also held political power.
3. Some archaeologists are of the view that there were no rulers in Harappan society. In fact, all enjoyed
equal status. Some other archaeologists feel that there was no single ruler but there were several rulers. According to them, Mohenjodaro and Harappa had different rulers. Some other scholars argue that there was a single state which is evident from the similarity of artefacts, the planned settlement, the standardised ratio of brick size and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw material.
In the end, we can say that the last theory looks more suitable as it is not possible that the whole of the community could have made and implemented such complex decisions.
How Harappan civilisation came up to limelight? Which archaeologists contributed in this work. Mention specifically the contribution of Sir John Marshall.
Describe the contribution of Sir 1 John Marshall, Director-General of the A.S.I. to Indian archaeology. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (O.D.))
Describe the contribution of John I * Marshall in the Indian archaeology. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D.))
Describe the major changes marked I by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in Harappan archaeology. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (Comp.))
Archaeologist Dayaram Sahni found some seals of Harappa in the early decades of 20th century. These seals were definitely much older than early historic levels. Now their significance began to be realised. Another archaeologist Rakhal Das Banerji found the same seals at Mohenjodaro as were found at Harappa. It led to the assumption that both archaeological sites were parts of a single archaeological culture.
Based on these findings, in 1924, the then Director-General of ASI John Marshall declared in front of the world about the discovery of new civilisation in Indus Valley. S.N. Roy wrote in the “Story of Indian Archaeology” that, “Marshall left India three thousand years older than he had found her”. Similar seals were also found in the excavation of archaeological sites of Mesopotamia. In this, not only new civilisation came in limelight but we also came to know that this civilisation was contemporary to Mesopotamia.
Sir John Marshall’s term as the Director-General of ASI was actually a term of major change in the Indian
archaeology. He was the first professional archaeologist who worked in India. He brought with himself his experience of Greece and Crete. Like Cunningham, he was also interested in spectacular findings, but he was equally interested in looking for patterns of daily life.
Marshall tended to excavate along with regular horizontal units, measured unit firmly throughout the mound, ignoring the stratigraphy of the site and this was the biggest drawback in his excavation process. It means all the artefacts, found from the same unit, were grouped together. As a result, valuable information about the context of these finds was irretrievably lost.
Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions Source-Based
How Artefacts are Identified?
Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta. This is an excerpt from one of the earliest reports on excavations at Mohenjodaro, the best-known Harappan site :
Saddle querns are found in considerable numbers and they seem to have been the only means in use for grinding cereals. As a rule, they were roughly made of hard, gritty, igneous rock or sandstone and mostly show signs of hard usage. As their bases are usually convex, they must have been set in the earth or in mud to prevent their rocking. Two main types have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro, and others with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the nether stone. querns of the former type were probably used solely for grain; the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries. In fact, stones of this latter type are dubbed “curry stones” by our workmen and our cook asked for the loan of one from the museum for use in the kitchen.
(i) What are grinding equipment or saddle querns?
The saddle querns have been found in large numbers at Mohenjodaro. They were used to grind cereals.
(ii) How is the surface of these grinding equipment? What does it indicate?
They had a rough surface made of hard rock or sandstone. They mostly show signs of hard usage. They were set in the earth or in the mud so that they may not rock or waver.
(iii) What are its two kinds?
Saddle querns were of two kinds such as :
(a) Those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro. They were used to grind grains and cereals.
(b) Those with which a second stone was used as a pounder. They were used to grind herbs and spices.
(iv) Which aspect of the Harappan culture do these grinding equipment highlight?
They tell us about the processing of food in the Harappan culture. The people knew the art of grinding and cooking. They also knew about the herbs and spices.
The Most Ancient System Yet Discovered (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
About the drains, Mackay noted: “It is certainly the most complete ancient system as yet discovered.” Every house was connected to the street drains. The main channels were made of bricks set in mortar and were covered with loose bricks that could be removed for cleaning. In some cases, limestone was used for the covers. House drains first emptied into a sump or cesspit into which solid matter settled while wastewater flowed out into the street drains. Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals with sumps for cleaning. It is a wonder of archaeology that “little heaps of material, mostly sand, have frequently been found lying alongside drainage channels, which shows that the debris was not always carted away when the drain was cleared.”
From Ernest Mackay, Early Indus Civilisation, 1948. Drainage systems were not unquestioned to the larger cities but were found in smaller settlements as well. At Lothal for example, while houses were built of mud bricks, drains were made of burnt bricks.
(i) The drains of which place are being described in this passage?
These drains are of Harappan culture. They have been found in the Lower Town.
(ii) What was the drawback in the sanitation system?
The drawback of sanitation is that the debris was not always removed when the drain was cleared.
(iii) What was the most interesting aspect of these houses? Give two reasons to support your answer.
The most interesting aspect of these houses was a loneliness which is evident from the following points:
(a) The walls that stood on the surface of the earth, did not have windows.
(b) The internal part and courtyard of the house were not visible from the main gate.
(iv) Except the drains, enumerate any four characteristics of these houses.
(a) Almost every house had a courtyard.
(b) Each house had a bathroom whose floor was made of bricks.
(c) A few houses had stair-case to go on the roof or the second storey.
(d) Many houses had wells which were often used by raahgirs (travellers).
Evidence of an “Invasion”
Deadman Lane is a narrow alley, varying from 3 to 6 feet in width… At the point where the lane turns westward, part of a skull and the bones of the thorax and upper arm of an adult was discovered, all in very friable condition, at a depth of 4 ft 2 inches. The body lay on its back diagonally across the lane. Fifteen inches to the west were a few fragments of a tiny skull. It is to these remains that the lane owes its name.
FROM JOHN MARSHALL, Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilisation, 1931. Sixteen skeletons of people with the ornaments that they were wearing when they died, were found from the same part of Mohenjodaro in 1925.
Much later, in 1947, R.E.M. Wheeler, then Director-General of the ASI, tried to correlate this archaeological evidence with that of the Rigveda, the earliest known text in the subcontinent.
He wrote: The Rigveda mentions pure, meaning rampant, fort or stronghold. Indra, the Aryan war-god is called puramdara, the fort-destroyer.
Where are-or were-these citadels? It has in the past been supposed that they were mythical. The recent excavation of Harappa may be thought to have changed the picture. Here we have a highly evolved civilisation of essentially non-Aryan type, now known to have employed massive fortifications What destroyed this firmly settled civilisation? Climatic, economic or political deterioration may have weakened it, but its ultimate extinction is more likely to have been completed by deliberate and large- scale destruction. It may be no more chance that at a late period of Mohenjodaro men, women and children, appear to have been massacred there. On circumstantial evidence, Indra stands accused.
FROM R.E.M. WHEELER, “Harappa 1946” Ancient India, 1947. In the 1960s, the evidence of a massacre in Mohenjodaro was Questioned by an archaeo¬logist named George Dales. He demonstrated that the skeletons found at the site did not belong to the same period.
Whereas a couple of them definitely seem to indicate a slaughter, … the bulk of the bones were found in contexts suggesting burials of the sloppiest and most irreverent nature. There is no destruction level covering the latest period of the city, no sign of extensive burning, no bodies of warriors clad in armour and surrounded by the weapons of war. The citadel, the only fortified part of the city, yielded no evidence of the final defence.
FROM G.F. DALES, “The Mythical Massacre of Mohenjodaro.” The expedition, 1964. As you can see, a careful re-examination of the data can sometimes lead to a reversal of earlier interpretations.
(i) On what basis has it been called the Deadman’s Lane?
There was a narrow street. It was three to six feet wide. It was called the Deadman’s Lane because the following things were discovered in it:
(a) Part of a skull.
(b) The bones of the thorax.
(c) Upper arm of an adult.
(ii) What reasons have been given by R.E.M. Wheeler for the destruction of the Harappan culture?
(a) The climatic changes or the social and economic deterioration might have weakened the Harappan civilisation.
(b) There might have been deliberate and .large-scale destruction.
(c) There might be a large-scale massacre of men, women and children.
(iii) Who did he consider responsible for the large-scale destruction in Mohenjodaro and why?
R.E.M. Wheeler considered Indra, the Aryan war-god, responsible for the large-scale destruction in Mohenjodaro because, according to Rigveda, Indra was puramdara, that is, the fort-destroyer.
(iv) What arguments were advanced by George Dales in 1960 against Wheeler’s theory of large-scale destructions?
According to George Dales :
(a) The skeleton found at the site did not belong to that period.
(b) There is no evidence of large-scale destruction.
(c) There are no signs of extensive burning.
(d) No one has found bodies of warriors clad in armour and surrounded by weapons.
(e) The fort does not provide any evidence of the final defence.