On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 9 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes History Chapter 9 SST Vital Villages, Thriving Towns will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 7 Notes Social Science History Chapter 9

CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 9 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. The use of iron began in the subcontinent around 3000 years ago.

2. Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence of growing use of iron tools such as axes and iron ploughshare.

3. The irrigation arrangements such as canals, wells, tanks and artificial lakes increased production.

4. In the southern and northern parts of the subcontinent, in most of the villages 3 kinds of people lived; in Tamil region, large landowners (called vellalar), ordinary ploughmen (called uzhavar) and landless labourers including slaves (called kadaisiyar and adimai).

5. In the northern part of the country largest landowner (called grama bhojaka), independent farmers (called grihapatis), landless people (called dasa karmakara), lived.

6. In most villages there were also some crafts persons such as the blacksmith, potter, carpenter and weaver.

7. Sangam literature was composed around 2300 years ago in Tamil.

8. Jatakas were stories that were probably composed by ordinary people and then written down and preserved by Buddhist monks.

9. In many cities of Mahajanapadas archaeologist have found rows of pots or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other. These are known as ring wells. In some cases these ring wells might have been used as toilets, as drains and garbage dumps.

10. Sailors and travellers who visited different places are another source of finding about the early cities. A Greek unknown sailor described all the ports he visited.

11. Archaeologists have found several thousands of coins which were in use for about 500 years. These were punch-marked coins on the metal like silver or copper.

12. About Mathura: More than 2500 years ago, Mathura was an important settlement. It was important because it was located at the crossroads of two major routes of travel and trade. Around 2000 years ago Mathura became the second capital of the Kush anas. Mathura was also a religious centre for Buddhism, Jainism as well as Hinduism.

13. Mathura was one of the centres of goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, basket makers, garland makers, perfumers etc.

14. The evidence of extremely fine pottery known as the Northern Black Polished Ware has been found. It is usually black in colour and has a fine sheen. In the manufacturing of cloths, famous centres were Varanasi in the north and Madurai in the south..

15. Formation of Associations: Many crafts persons and merchants now formed associations known as ‘shrenis’.

16. Rules for spinning and weaving have been listed in the Arthashastra.

17. In Arikamedu, Pondicherry, between 2200 and 1900 years ago, was coastal settlement where ships unloaded goods from distant lands. A massive brick structure which may have been a warehouse, pottery such as amphorae and Arretine Ware was found. An another type of pottery which was made locally through Roman designs was used. Roman lamps, glassware and gems have also been found at the Arikamedu site.

Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 7 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Iron: Iron is a metal used for making various types of tools for agriculture and machines in modern time.

Irrigation: Watering in the crop fields for more production of grains.

Village: Small settlement of people where the people engage in agricultural activities for their livelihood.

Port: These are the places where ships loaded and unloaded the goods.

Ring well: Rows of clay or ceramic made pots arranged one on the top of other is called ring-well.

City: A big settlement of families where people enjoy more modem facilities in comparison to town and villages.

Shreni: A group of traders was called ‘Shreni’.

Sangam: It is a Tamil literature composed in assemblies of poets.