On this page, you will find NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 8 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 7 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 8 SST Human-Environment Interactions: The Tropical and the Subtropical Region will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

Human-Environment Interactions: The Tropical and the Subtropical Region Class 7 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 8

CBSE Class 7 Geography Chapter 8 Notes Understanding The Lesson

1. All the people living in different parts of the world also look different. Their food habits, wearing and habitation pattern is also different.

2. The river Amazon flows through tropical region which lies very close to the equator; between 10°N and 10°S. So, it is referred to as the equatorial region.

3. Numerous tributaries join the Amazon River to form the Amazon Basin. The river basin drains portions of Brazil, parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia and a small part of Venezuela.

4. The Amazon Basin stretches directly on the equator and is characterized by hot and wet climate through­out the year. Both day and nights are almost equally hot and humid. It rains almost every day. The day temperature is high and in night the temperature goes down. In the day and night humidity remains high.

5. Due to the heavy rainfall, forests are thick and dense leaves create a ‘roof on the upper side of the forests which do not allow the sunlight to reach the ground. Orchids, bromeliads grow as plant parasites.

6. The rainforest is rich in fauna. Birds such as toucans, humming birds etc., are found in the region. Ani­mals like monkeys, sloth and ant-eating tapirs are found here.

7. Various species of reptiles and snakes also thrive in these forests. Crocodiles, snakes, pythons abound, Anaconda and boa constrictor are some of the species. Apart from this, the basin is home to thousands of species of insects, several species of fishes including the flesh eating Piranha fish is also found in the river.

8. People of the Rainforests are mostly depending on the hunting and fishing. They also clear some forest area and grow the crops. They mainly grow tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato. Cash crops like coffee, maize and coca are also grown. The staple food is manioc, also known as cassava that grows under the ground like the potato. They also eat queen ants and egg sacs.

9. The Rainforest are sources of huge wood. Wood is used to make the houses in the region. Some families live in the houses like beehives. Other large houses are called ‘Maloca’ with a steeply slanting roof.

10. The tributaries of rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra together form the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin in the Indian subcontinent. The basin lies in the sub-tropical region that is situated between 10°N to 30°N lati­tudes. The tributaries of the River Ganga like the Ghaghra, the Son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi and the tributaries of Brahmaputra drain it.

11. The plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, the mountains and the foothills of the Himalayas and the Sundarban delta are the main features of Ganga and Brahmaputra basin.

12. The area is dominated by monsoon climate. The monsoon brings rains from mid-June to mid-September. The summers are hot and the winters cool.

13. In the mountain area of Ganga-Brahmaputra basin lives less number of people; whereas, in the plain area’s density of population is very high.

14. In the plain areas of Ganga and the Brahmaputra basin the main crop is paddy. Since cultivation of paddy requires sufficient water, it is grown in the areas where the amount of rainfall is high. Apart from paddy, wheat, maize, sorghum, gram and millets are the other crops that are grown. Cash crops like sugar cane and jute are also grown. Banana plantations are seen in some areas of the plain.

15. In parts of Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, coniferous trees like pine, deodar and fir can be seen because the climate is cool and the slopes are steep.

16. In the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basin, there is a variety of wildlife. Elephants, tigers, deers and mon­keys are common. The one-horned rhinoceros is found in the Brahmaputra plain. In the delta area, Bengal tiger, crocodiles and alligators are found. The most popular varieties of the fish are the rohu, catla and hilsa. Fish and rice is the staple diet of the people living in the area.

17. In the fresh waters of River Ganga and River Brahmaputra, a variety of dolphins locally called Susu (also called blind dolphin) is found. The presence of Susu is an indication of the health of the river. The untreated industrial and urban wastes with high amount of chemicals are killing this species.

18. Many cities are located along the various rivers. The rivers are being polluted increasingly by the population of cities and industries.

19. In the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basin all the four ways of transportation are well developed. The roadways, railways, waterways and airways are used for transportation by the people.

20. Tourism is another important activity of the basin. The Taj Mahal on the banks of River Yamuna in Agra, Allahabad on the confluence of the Rivers Ganga and Yamuna, Buddhist stupas in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Lucknow with its Imambara, Assam with Kaziranga and Manas with wildlife sanctuaries and Arunachal Pradesh with a distinct tribal culture are some of the places worth a visit.

Notes of Geography Class 7 Chapter 8 Important Terms

Tributaries: Small rivers that join the main river.

Manioc: This is the staple food of the people of the Amazon basin.

Maloca: A type of house around the Amazon basin.

Piranha: A fish that eats flesh.

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