On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 10 SST Law and Social Justice will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

Law and Social Justice Class 8 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 10

CBSE Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. Markets almost everywhere tend to be exploitative of people, whether as consumers, producers or as workers.

2. The government makes certain laws and these laws try to ensure that the unfair practices are kept at a minimum in the markets.

3. Private companies, contractors, etc. in order to gain maximization of profits, might deny workers their rights and not pay them wages.

4. As per the law on minimum wages, which is meant to protect workers, there are also laws that protect the interests of producers and consumers in the market.

5. These laws help ensure that the relations between the three parties – the worker; consumers and producer are governed in a manner that is not exploitative.

6. Enforcement of law becomes even more important when the law seeks to protect the weak from the strong.

7. To ensure that every worker gets fair wages, government has to regularly inspect worksites and punish those who violate the law.

8. Through making, enforcing and upholding the laws, the government can control the activities of individuals or private companies so as to ensure social justice.

9. The Right against Exploitation says that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.

10. Constitution also lays down that “A child below the age of 14 years shall not be employed to work in any factory or mines or engaged in any other hazardous employment”.

11. One reason why foreign companies come to India is for cheap labour. For lower pay, the companies can get longer hours of work. This can help in saving costs and earning higher profits.

12. Being lawmaker and enforcer, the government is supposed to ensure that safety laws are implemented.

13. Safety laws and non-enforcement of weak safety laws are seen in India.

14. Bhopal Gas Tragedy was the world’s worst industrial tragedy which took place in Bhopal where Union Carbide (UC) an American company had a factory in the city which was pesticides producer, there at midnight on 2nd December 1984 methyl – isocyanite (MIC) started leaking killing a huge number of people. The installation of an MIC production unit in 1978 was a safety violation, the position of the government was that the state needs continuous investment of the Bhopal plant which provide job.

15. Therefore, government inspectors continued to approve the procedure in the plant.

16. People safety was being disregarded both by the government and by private companies.

17. In 1984, there were very few laws protecting the environment in India.

18. The environment was treated as a ‘free’ entity and any industry could pollute the air and water without any restrictions.

19. Bhopal tragedy causing disaster has brought the environment issues to the forefront.

20. Following the Bhopal gas tragedy the government under pressure introduced new laws on the environment. The polluter was to be held accountable for the damage done to the environment.

21. The court gave several judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to Life.

22. In Subash Kumar Vs State of Bihar (1991), the Supreme Court held that the Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution and it includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for full enjoyment of life.

23. The government is responsible for setting up laws and procedures that can check pollution, clean rivers and induce heavy fines for those who pollute.

24. Laws are necessary in many situations, whether this be the market, office or factory for the purpose of protecting people from unfair practices.

25. The government has to make ‘appropriate laws’ and also has to enforce the laws.

26. Laws weak in nature and poorly enforced can cause serious harm.

27. The government has the leading role in this respect, people can exert pressure so that both private companies and the government act in the interests of society.

Law and Social Justice Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Consumer: An individual who buys goods for personal use and not for resale.

Producer: A person or organisation that produces goods for sale in the market. At times, the producer keeps a part of the produce for his own use, like a farmer.

Investment: Money spent to purchase new machinery or buildings or training so as to be able to increase/ modernise production in the future.

Worker’s union: An association of workers.