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Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 7
CBSE Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the centre of things.
2. In the social environment, people or communities may have the experience of being excluded.
3. Their marginalisation can be because they speak a different language, follow different customs or belong to a different religions group from a majority community.
4. They may feel marginalised because they are poor, considered to be ‘low’ social status and viewed as being less humans than others.
5. The sense of difference and exclusion leads to communities not having access to resources and opportunities and in their inability to assert their rights.
6. Marginalisation is seldom experienced in one sphere.
7. Economic, social, cultural and political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised.
8. Adivasis: The term literally means ‘original inhabitants’. They are communities who lived and often continue to live, in close association with forests.
9. Around 8% of India’s populations is Adivasi.
10. Most important mining and industrial centres in India are located in Adivasi areas.
11. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
12. Adivasi societies are most distinctive because there is often very little hierarchy among them.
13. Adivasis practise a range of tribal religions that are different from Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity.
14. Adivasis have always been influenced by different surrounding religions like Shakta, Buddhist, Vaishnav, Bhakti and Christianity.
15. Adivasi religions themselves have simultaneously influenced dominant religions of the empires around them.
16. During the 19th century, substantial numbers of Adivasis converted to Christianity, which has emerged as a very important religion in modern Adivasi history.
17. Adivasis have their own languages which have often deeply influenced the formation of main stream languages.
18. Adivasis are invariably portrayed in very stereotypical ways.
19. Common people have wrong beliefs that Adivasis are exotic, primitive and backward.
20. Adivasis are often blamed for their own lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.
21. Forests were absolutely crucial to the development of all empires and settled civilisations in India.
22. The continuation of life depended heavily on forests, that help recharge many of India’s rivers and, as is becoming cleaner now, crucial to the availability and quality of our air and water. Forests covered the major part our country till the 19th century and the Adivasis had a deep knowledge of, access to, as well as control over most of these vast tracts at least till the middle of the 19th century.
23. This meant that they were not ruled by large States and empires.
24. Often empires heavily depended on Adivasis for the crucial access to forest resources.
25. In the Pre-colonial world, Adivasis were traditionally ranged hunter-gatherers and nomads and lived by shifting agriculture and also cultivating in one place.
26. Forest lands have been cleared for timber and to get land for agriculture and industry.
27. Adivasis have also lived in areas that are rich in minerals and natural resources. These are taken over for mining and other large industrial projects.
28. Huge tracts of their lands have also gone under the waters of hundreds of dams that have been built in independent India.
29. India has 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries covering 1,09,652 sq. km.
30. Losing lands and access to the forest means that tribals lose their main sources of livelihood and food.
31. Adivasis have migrated to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries or at building or construction sites.
32. 45% of tribal groups in rural areas and 35% in urban areas live below the poverty line.
33. Many tribal children are malnourished. Literacy rates among tribals are also very low.
34. The Adivasis when displaced from their lands, they lose much more than source of income and that is they lose their traditions and customs – a way of living and being.
35. There is an existence of an interconnectedness between economic and social dimensions of tribal life. Destruction in one sphere naturally impacts the other.
36. The term minority is most commonly used to refer to communities that are numerically small in relation to the rest of the population.
37. Size can be a disadvantage and lead to the marginalisation of the relatively smaller communities. Thus, safeguards are needed to protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority.
38. According to 2001 census, Muslims are 13.4% of India’s population and are considered to be a marginalised community in India because in comparison to other communities, the Muslims have been deprived of the benefits of social and economic development over the years.
39. Recognising that Muslims of India were lagging behind in terms of various development indicators, the government set up a high level committee in 2005. Chaired by Justice Rajinder Sachar, the committee examined the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community.
40. The social marginalisation of Muslims in some instances has led to them migration from places where they have lived, this process leading to the ghettoisation of the community.
41. Sometimes, prejudice leads to hatred and violence.
42. Marginalisation is a complex phenomenon requiring a variety of strategies, measures and safeguards to redress this situation.
43. There are different reasons for each of the communities that are being marginalised.
44. Marginalisation is linked to experiencing disadvantage, prejudice and powerlessness.
45. Marginalisation results in having a low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources.
46. Marginalised communities always want to maintain their cultural distinctiveness while having access to rights, development and other opportunities.
Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Hierarchy: A graded system or arrangement of persons or things. Usually persons at the bottom of the hierarchy are those who have the least power.
Ghettoisation: A ghetto is an area or locality that is populated largely be members of a particular community.
- Ghettoisation refers to the process that leads to such a situation. This may occur due to various social, cultural and economic reasons.
- Often a ‘Ghettoised’ community has few options of moving out, which may lead to them becoming alienated from the rest of the society.
Mainstream: This refers to the main current of a river or stream. Mainstream also refers to people or communities that are considered to be at the centre of a society, i.e. often the powerful or dominant group.
Displaced: This refers to people who are forced or compelled to move from their homes for big development projects including dams, mining, etc.
Militarised: An area where the presence of the armed forces is considerable.
Malnourished: A person who does not get adequate nutrition or food.