On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 SST Industries will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

Industries Class 8 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 5

CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. The change of raw materials into products of more value for the people is done by secondary activities or manufacturing for example, conversion of a tree into pulp and pulp that has changed into paper and paper changed into notebooks.

2. The finished product has more value and utility than the raw material that it is made from because at each stage value is added to them during the manufacturing process.

3. Industry is referred to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provisions of services.

4. Industries are classified on the basis of:

  • Raw material: Depending on the types of raw material used by the industry the industries may be agro-based, mineral-based, forest-based and marine-based.
  • Agro-based: Industries that use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials.
  • Minerals based: Industries that are primary and use mineral ores as their raw materials. The product of these industries feed other industries.
  • Marine based: Industries which use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials.
  • Forest-based: Industries that utilise forest produce as raw materials.

5. Size: It refers to the amount of capital involved invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.

  • Based on size, industries can be classified as small scale and large scale industries.

6. Ownership: Industries can be classified into:

  • Private-sector industries: owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
  • Public sector industries: These are owned and operated by the government.
  • Joint sector industries: These are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
  • Cooperative sector industries: These are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.

7. The factors that affect the location of the industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market.

8. Industrialisation often leads to the development and growth of towns and cities.

9. An industrial system contains of inputs, processes and outputs.

10. Industrial region is a location where a number of industries locate close to each other and share benefits of their closeness.

11. Information technology is an emerging industry and the major hubs of this industry are the Silicon Valley of central California and Bengaluru, India.

12. Iron and Steel industry also comprises various inputs, processes and outputs. It is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries. The process of conversion of Iron ore into steel involves many stages.

13. Steel is often known as the backbone of modern industry as almost everything used today is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals.

14. The location of the iron and steel industry was where the raw materials, power supply and running water were easily available. This was the scenario before 1800 A.D. but the later ideal location for the industry was near coal fields and close to canals and railways. After 1950, iron and steel industry began to be lo­cated on large areas of flat land near sea ports. This is because the steel works had become very large and iron ore had to be imported from overseas.

15. India has developed the iron and steel industry taking the advantage of raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market. All steel-producing centres are situated in a region that spreads over four states.

16. The important steel-producing centre in India and World are:


  • Before Independence i.e. 1947 there was only one iron and steel plant in the country TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited) that was privately owned, but the government took the initiative of setting up several iron and steel plants.
  • TISCO was started in 1907 at Sakchi later renamed as Jamshedpur. Geographically, Jamshedpur is the most conveniently situated iron and steel centre in the country.
  • The development of the iron and steel industry had opened the doors to rapid industrial develop­ment in India.

17. Pittsburgh: An important steel city of the USA. The industry there enjoys the locational advantages. Pittsburgh is also one of the world’s best routes for shipping iron ore cheaply—the famous Great Lakes waterway. The Pittsburgh area has many factories other than steel mills.

18. Weaving clothes from yam is an ancient art.

19. Textile industries are divided on the basis of raw material used in them.

20. The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. Till the industrial revolution in the 18th century, cotton cloth was made using hand-spinning techniques (wheels) and looms.

21. India has a glorious tradition of producing excellent quality cotton textiles.

22. The first successful mechanized textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

23. The first mill was established in 1859 in Gujarat (Ahmedabad). Ahmedabad had soon become the second-largest textile city of India after Mumbai.

24. Ahmedabad is situated very close to cotton growing area assuring easy availability of raw material.

25. Osaka is an important textile centre of Japan also known as the ‘Manchester of Japan’.

26. The information technology (I.T.) industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information.

27. The factors guiding the location of these industries are mainly resource availability, cost and infrastructure. The major hubs of IT industry are the Silicon Valley, California, and India.

  • Bengaluru is located on the Deccan Plateau from where it gets it name ‘Silicon Plateau’.
  • Silicon Valley, is a part of Santa Clara Valley, located next to the Rocky Mountains of North America.

28. There are also emerging information technology hubs in metropolitan centres of India such as Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad and Chennai.

29. Bengaluru has always had a unique advantage as a city with the highest availability of middle and top management talent.

Industries Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Industry: Refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

Industrial Disaster: In industries, accident/ disasters mainly occur due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material and destruction caused by all this is termed as Industrial Disaster.

Smelting: It is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point.

Textile: It is derived from the Latin word texere which means to weave.